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A No, not, without. A, in Hindi language is a prefix for denoting the absence of something,  such as -
A-Baadh - Where there is no obstacle, unobstructed.
A-Chal - Immovable
A-Char - Non-moving
A-Chyut - Who never deviates from virtue, means Krishn.
A-Dharm - Where there is no Dharm; or which is not Dharm. (see below for details)
A-Dharmee - Who doesn't follow Dharm
A-Dwaitvaad - Dwait means two, Brahm and soul (both are different). A-Dwait means that
    Brahm and soul are the same, not separate and not different. Doctrine of Non-duality. (see also Darshan)
A-Gochar - (1) Imperceptible. (2) Invisible.
A-Ghor - Ghor means fierce, so A-Ghor means calm.
A-Gyaan - Ignorance. One Brahmaa's creation is also called as A-Gyaan,
    in which he created the five forms of A-Gyaan (Ignorance) - Tam (A-Vidyaa), Moh (attachment),
    Mahaa-Moh (Raag or intense love), Taamistra (jealousy), and Andh-Taamistra (intense jealousy).
A-Gyaanee - Who is ignorant.
A-Gyaat - Unknown.
A-Halyaa - Means untillable field. Indra has been called in Sanskrit literature as "Ahalyaayai Jaarah"
    meaning "who can change a barren field into a fertile period; but some interpolators in Mahaabhaarat
    translated it as "Ahalyaa's lover" and made up a story around it. Read the story here.
A-Hinsaa - Non-violence. When one does not give any kind of pain to anybody - physical or mental, is not
    cruel, does not injure, he follows A-Hinsaa. Among Vaishnav Hindu, it is best described as Compassion
    towards all life. One of the reasons to adopt vegetarianism among Hindu is to practice non-cruelty to
A-Janmaa - Who is never-born, or who is immortal, eternal.
A-Kaal - At an odd time.
A-Kaam - One who has no material desires.
A-Karm - That action which should not be done.
A-Kalank - Kalank means black spot, so A-Kalank means who is pure and clean.
A-Krodh - Krodh means anger, so A-Krodh means not being angry, or being polite.
A-Kshar - Kshar means unconscious, so A-Kshar means who is not unconscious - means Conscious.
A-Kshat - Kshat means broken, so A-Kshat means unbroken or whole.
A-Kshaya - (1) Immortal. (2) Eternal - which does not get decayed. For example: Daan done
    on some specific days is A-Kshaya Daan. (Antonym: Kshaya)
A-Mogh - Definitely useful
A-Naath - Naath means Lord or who takes care, so A-Naath means who doesn't have anybody to take care
    of, or an orphan.
A-Nitya - Which is not always. Transient, mortal.
A-Paar - Paar means the other line across something. When something is without across, it means that its
     another boundary is not seen, that is called A-Paar. Boundless. With no boundaries.
A-Paatra - (1) Worthless vessel. (2) Undeserving person
A-Par - A-Dharm. Unrivaled. Another. Posterior. Inferior
A-Paraa - Lower.
A-Paraa Prakriti - see  Prakriti
A-Paraajit - Undefeated.
A-Paraajitaa - (1) Undefeated. (2) A creeper. 
A-Parigraha - Parigraha means to collect, so A-Parigraha means not to collect even for emergency.
A-Parnaa - (1) Parn means leaves, so A-Parnaa means without leaves. (2) Another name of Paarvatee
   (daughter of Himvaan and Mainaa) She was given this name by Tulasee Daas and Kali Daas because she
   meditated even without eating leaves for a long time. (3) A woman who is not in debt.
A-Saadhya - which is not practical or in accessible
A-Sang - Sang means being together, A-Sang means not being together with pleasures
    of the world.
A-Santosh - Santosh means contentment, so A-Santosh means discontentment.
A-Satya - Satya means truth, so A-Satya means which is not truth, means a lie.
A-Shauch - Shauch means cleanliness, so A-Shauch means Un-cleanliness,
    see Agni Puraan, 14Bhaagvat Puraan, 11/18Sootak and Paatak
A-Steya - Steya means to steal or to rob, and A-Steya means not to steal or rob.
A-Sthir - Sthir means stable and A-sthir means unstable.
A-Sur - Sur means Devtaa, thus A-Sur means who is not Devtaa. See also " Asur".
A-Vidyaa - Ignorance, means where Vidyaa (knowledge) is not there. Lack of knowledge. False knowledge.
    False perception. According to Shankaraachaarya, A-Vidyaa is the illusory perception, that the world is
    real, it being a mere appearance. It can be removed only by knowledge - knowing the reality.
A-Vimukt - see also A-Vimukt Kshetra below. This seat lies between the eyebrows and nose.
A-Vyakt - Vyakt means which can be known through senses, so A-Vyakt means which
    cannot be known by senses, rather through guess only, that also a little only.
    Un-manifested. Unstated. Bhagavaan. God.
A-Vinaashee - Vinaashee means destructible or mortal, so A-Vinashee means which cannot be destructed or
    is immortal - means Bhagavaan
A-Vyaya - (1) Unspent - which is not spent. (2) Imperishable.
A-Yaachit - which is not asked
A-Yaagya - For whom the religious rites cannot be performed. They are incompetent to employ a Braahman
     (such as Baagadee or Chamaar - shoemakers or cobblers). A superior Braahman will not perform Yagya
     in their houses.
A-Yonijaa - used for feminine non-womb birth, such as Draupadee, Seetaa. They were all A-Yonijaa.

A-Dharm is of five types - Vi-Dharm, Par-Dharm, Aabhaas, Upmaa, and Chhal. A Dhaarmik (religious) Purush should not do all of the above. Whatever action is done with Dharm and wisdom, but still hinders his own Dharm is called Vi-Dharm. When somebody else tells the Dharm for somebody else is called Par-Dharm. Paakhand is called Updharm or Upmaa. Misinterpretation of Shaastra is called Chhal (deception). When a human being accepts an action of another Aashram with his own will that is called "Aabhaag".

A-Paraa Prakriti    see     Prakriti

A-Vimukt Kshetra
A means not, and Vimukt means free; means which is not free. Vaaraanasee is one A-Vimukt Kshetra, so says Shiv Jee, because he has never "freed" it, he always lives there. There are 8 such places which are called A-Vimukt places and they are very secret - (1) Harishchandra, (2) Aamraatkeshwar, (3) Japyeshwar, (4) Shree Parvat, (5) Mahaalaya, (6) Bhrigu, (7) Chandeshwar, and (8) Kedaar Teerth. Shiv says that "My A-Vimukt Kshetra, means Kaashee, is the most secret one."

A-Yaachit Vrat - in which one eats food whatever he gets, he does not ask for it.


Rule of behavior or conduct. Aachaar Shaastra means Ethics.

Aachaarya      see also     Guru    Upaadhyaaya
Who teaches Ved along with its secret (Yagya, Vidyaa and Upanishad) and Kalp, he is called Aachaarya.
(Bhavishya Puraan, p 15)


(1) Base.  (2) Support.

Aadhaar Shakti
Shakti of support. Everything in the Universe has a support, or energy, by which it is upheld. Such as Vishnu's Tortoise Avataar was Aadhaar Shakti to keep Mandaraachal Parvat stable; Shesh Naag is the Aadhaar Shaki to keep Earth stable.

(1) Beginning.  (2) The first one.

Aadi Kaavya
Raamaayan written by Aadi Kavi Vaalmeeki. Since Vaalmeeki was Aadi Kavi, means first poet, his work Raamaayan is also the first Aadi Kaavya or first poetry.

Aadi Kavi
The first poet - that is Vaalmeeki.

This was the first couple of man and woman. This Sanskrit word "Aadimanu" became Aadam by the time it reached the Arab world, and became Adam when it reached Europe. Shataroopaa changed to "Sauvaa" in Praakrit language, and it changed to Hauvaa in Arab world, and changed to Eve in Europe.
[Aangiras, p 61]


Aaditya Hridayam

Aaditya Kavach
Kavach means armor or protection o shield. When a Kavach is recited, it is a prayer to a specified Lord to protect oneself against all internal and external enemies. Aadiyya Kavach was used by Rishi Yaagyavalkya to convince Soorya Dev to teach him Ved. It may be read every Sunday whose Soorya is is not at a good position or his present position poses some problems.

Aagam    see also    Nigam

(1) Consecrated to fire.

Aagneya Kon
Name of a direction. There are 10 directions - 4 are main - Poorv (East), Dakshin (South) Pashchim (West), and Uttar (North); and 4 are in between them - Agni or Aagneya (south-east), Nairritya (south-west), Vaayavya (north-west), and Eeshaan (north-east); and 2 more - one above in sky and one below on earth.

Aahuti is a kind of offering - something which is poured in sacrificial fire. It may be anything - some dry material (Saamagree - a mixture of sesame seeds, rice and some sweet smelling material), Ghee, part of the body (Raavan gave Aahuti of his heads), fruit,  or anything. The last Aahuti is called Poorn Aahuti. Poorn means the complete, it means "now our all Aahuti are completed and this is the last one." Sometimes this word is used for sacrificing some thing also, such as "Gandhi gave the Aahuti of his life to bring the independence to India".

(1) Invocation.  (2) Invitation.

Aahvaaneeya Agni
This is one of the three sacred Fires which is lit for a specific spiritual purpose. According to Devee Bhaagvat, he is one of the three sons of Agni Dev and Swaahaa (Devee's one form) - Gaarhapatya Agni (the fire worshipped in the home), Dakshinaagni (the fire placed in the south) and Aahvaaneeya Agni (the sacred fire lit for a specific spiritual purpose).

Dandee Swaamee.

Divine voice. Voice from the sky or Heavens.

Laziness. Sloth.  Not to do one's duties, or delaying doing one's duties is called Aalasya.

One of the three fruits of Tri-Phalaa used in Aayur Ved for long life and many diseases. It is a holy fruit also like Bel. Aamla is a very nutritious fruit and great >religious significance has been attached to it. Aamalaa fruit is very dear to Lord Vishnu and its >use on the auspicious day of Ekaadashee brings unmatched virtue. A person who regularly eats Aamalaa enjoys a long life. The >following tale adequately describes the religious importance of Aamalaa -- Once a Chaandaal went into the forest for hunting. He hunted many deer >and birds. Feeling hungry, he saw an Aamalaa tree and climbed up that tree. This way he satiated his hunger by eating sweet Aamalaa fruits. Unfortumately while he was climbing down the tree, he fell down and died. When the attendants of Yam Raaj arrived to take back his soul, they could not do so even after >repeated attempts. The attendants of Yam Raaj became very surprised and went to the sages for clarification. The sages revealed to the attendants that they could not go near the Chaandaal's dead body, because he had eaten Aamalaa just before his death.


Aanand > Preeti > Praharsh

Aanand Kund
This is the name for an eight-petalled lotus in the heart, not one of the six or seven Chakra, where the Isht Devtaa is thought of. It is immediately beneath the Anaahat Chakra, facing upwards to the Anaahat Chakra which faces downwards. The eight petals of this lotus are eight Siddhi. The eight Naayikaa are the eight Shakti and the eight Bhairav are emanations of Shiv. By Soorya, Som and Hutaashan (Fire) are meant Idaa, Pinglaa and Sushumnaa Naadee. In the early stage of Saadhanaa the Devtaa is invoked here. On attainment of Siddhi, the lotus is merged in the Sahasraar.


Aaranyak   see also  Ved
The set of the books, ancillary to Ved Sanhitaa. These deal with the symbolism of Yagya. Aaranyak have lost their usefulness over time. (Yagya are not possible in Kali Yug). There are 6 Aaranyak - (1) Aitareya Aaranyak, (2) Kathak Aaranyak, (3) Maitreyaneeya Aranyak, (4) Shankhaayan Aaranyak, (5) Taittireeya Aaranyak, (6) Taalvakar Aaranyak.



Intense love. Intense attachment. Caring for somebody or something all the time. Krishn in Geetaa has delivered the message of doing Karm (actions) without Aasakti (with detachment), then only one can attain salvation.

(1) Anything for seating purposes. It may be a kind of mat made from cloth, Kush grass, silk, or Jute etc to sit upon. Normally its size is only this much so that a person can sit comfortably on it - maybe 2.5 feet long and 2.5 feet wide. For rich people or kings etc, it may be a throne and can be made of gold, silver, marble, wood gem studded, etc. It can be low or high, whatever.
(2) Certain positions (Mudraa) in prescribed ways, normally used in practicing Yog. (read Aasan in Yog.


The 4th month of Hindoo Lunar Calendar


Resting place.

The 7th of the 12 months of Hindoo lunar calendar - (1) Chaitra, (2) Vaishaakh, (3) Jyeshth, (4) Aashaadh, (5) Shraavan, (6) Bhaadrapad, (7) Aashwin, (8) Kaarttik, (9) Maargsheersh or Agahan, (10) Paush, (11) Maagh and (12) Phaalgun.

Aastik   see also   Naastik
Theist. Who believes in God.

Belief in Bhagavaan.

Aasuree Swabhaav (7/21, 16/4)
Raakshasee (devilish) nature.



(1) Tormentor. (2) Killer or murderer.
(3) Aatataayee are of six types - (1) he that sets fire to one's house, (2) he that mixes poison in one's food, (3) he that advances with weapon in his hand with hostile intent, (4) he that robs one's wealth, (5) he that invades one's fields, and (6) he that steals one's wife.
(Bhaagvat Puraan, 1/7)


Aatm Gun
There are 8 Aatm Gun - (1) Dayaa, (2) Kshamaa, (3) Ansooyaa, (4) Anaayaas, (5) Maangalya, (6) Akaarpanya, (7) A-Sprahaa, and (8) Shauch.

Aatm Gyaan
Knowledge of the soul.

Aatm Shatakam
A six-stanzas poem written by Aadi Shankarachaarya at the age of eight, when his Guru asked him "Who are you?" It is called Nirvaan Shatakam too.


Who commit suicide by putting noose in their neck because of insult, anger, love, or fear, thry are called Aatmghaatee. Such people live in Narak for 100,000 years.
[Agni Puraan, p 330]

(1) Entire.  (2) Excessive.

Invoking or inviting Devtaa or Bhagavaan to one's place before starting actual their worship or Yagya etc.

Sound. There are special words in English for most animals' and birds' sounds, such as "An ass brays." or "A bird chirps." See Aavaaz for sounds of many other animals and birds.

(1) To control. For example: Praanaayaam is a compound word by joining Praan and Aayaam. Praan means the air inside the body and Aayaam means to control; so Praanaayaam means to control air which is inside our body.
(2) Dimension. Praan + Aayaam = Praan's dimension. We have only three dimensions - length, breadth and width. Praan is another dimension which connects us to that Parameshwar.

Weapons.  Or whatever is held in one's hand, usually used for God or gods, for example Vishnu has four Aayudh in His four hands - Shankh (conch shell), Chakra (Divine Discus), Gadaa (mace), and Padm (lotus flower).

Aayur Ved

Lacking. Being short of.

Any religious activity done with a bad intention or to harm somebody.

Abhijit      see also    Jyotish 
A Nakshatra - the eighth Muhoort of the day, a Muhoort being equal to 1 hour and 48 minutes, i.e. the 30th part of a whole day and night. The Vaishnav asterism - the Sravava.


(1) Applause. Praise. (2) Felicitation. (3) Greet.


Abhivaadan     see also     Namaskaar
Abhivaadan includes Namaskaar and a a sacred Mantra or phrase at the same time, such as, "Jaya Shree Raam", "Jaya Shree Krishn", "Raam, Raam", "Jaya Raam Jee Kee" etc.

A prefix meaning above and over.
Adhi-Bhautik - Miseries inflicted by other living beings, or by weapons related to this world.
Adhi-Bhoot - The perishable body of living beings. Five Bhoot or Mahaa-Bhoot - Earth, Water, Fire, Space
    and Fire.
Adhi-Daivik - Natural disasters created by planets, Devtaa of higher planets, fire.
Adhi-Daiv - Presiding Devtaa of Indriyaan. Eleven Devtaa of 11 Indriyaan.
Adhyaatmik - Related to one's mind body and soul.

Incarnation of God in human form.

Adhik Maas

(1) Authority.  (2) Claim.  (3) Control.


There are four people to perform a Yagya - Hotaa, Adhwaryu, Udgaataa, and Brahmaa. Among them Adhwaryu is he who recites Yajur Ved Sanhitaa. And when a Yagya is completed like this, it is called Chaaturhotra.

(1) Related to God. (2) Concerning the soul of a person which represents the higher nature of God, as contrasted with the body of the person which represents the lower nature of God. (3) 11 Indriyaan, 5 Karm Indriyaan, 5 Gyaan Indriyaan, and one mind).

Adhyaatm Gyaan
Spiritual knowledge. Knowledge related to God and soul. Knowledge needed to achieve identification with the supreme soul or Brahm.

Adhyaatm Raamaayan

Adhyaatm Vaad

A-Dwait Vaad
Believers of this line of philosophy, believe in only one form of Eeshwar.


A type of rice. It is called Shaali rice also. It is considered sacred and is used in most worship.

Agam and Nigam      see also      Nigam
(1) Agam is a corrupted word of A-Gamya which means which cannot be digested mentally. Normally it is used for God.  (2) Agam is that form of Tantra in which Shiv is the Guru and the Devee is the Shishya (disciple); while in the Nigam the converse is the case. See also Tantra

Agar Battee
A thick paste of sweet smelling materials formed in soft sticks. These sticks are used to burn while worshipping Bhagavaan. A similar kind of material is smeared on a wooden stick and dried and is burned for its fragrance. It is called Agar Battee (incense stick) also. This can be inserted into a hole to keep it straight, but the Dhoop has to be fixed on a flat place like a plate. Agar Battee takes less time to ignite, in comparison of Dhoop Battee.




Agni Kon
There are 10 directions - 4 are main - Poorv (East), Dakshin (South) Pashchim (West), and Uttar (North); and 4 are in between them - Agni or Aagneya (south-east), Nairritya (south-west), Vaayavya (north-west), and Eeshaan (north-east); and 2 more - one above in sky and one below on earth.

Agni Pareekshaa
This term is usually used in the reference of Raam and Seetaa. When Seetaa was abducted by Raavan, and Raam had killed Raavan, Raam took Her Agni Pareekshaa (Fire Test). In this test, She had to enter fire to prove Herself pure, clean and clear of anything bad. So she did. Lakshman prepared a pyre, Seetaa entered it, and Agni Dev (Fire god) brought Her out saying "Your Seetaa is clean and pure, please accept it." Sometimes this word is used for very difficult test also.

Agni Puraan        see also       Puraan   
One of the 18 Puraan.


Agnishtom Yagya       see       Yagya

A pot to burn fire.

A means not; Gyaat means know; Vaas means live. So Agyaatvaas means "living as unknown".  Incognito. Paandav lived in Agyaatvaas for 1 year after their exile of 12 years. This year they passed Matsya Desh's King Viraat's palace. Throughout the year nobody in his palace could recognize Paandav and their wife Draupadee.

Ego. The feeling of "I".


Oh, How lucky I am.

One day (including night). The period between one Sunrise to next Sunrise.

Name of the mythical elephant who came out of the Saagar Manthan and is with Indra.

Derived from Itaraa, the mother of Aitareya (known as Maheedaas also), who was the author of Aitareya Braahman (contains historical material), Aitareya Upanishad, and Aitareya Aaranyak.

(1) Greatness.  (2) Lordship.  (3) Prosperity.  This term comes from Eeshwar, a Divine quality of Eeshwar, of which there are six (see  Bhagavaan)

(1) Who is without birth, means Bhagavaan.  (2) He-goat.

Shiv's bow, also called Pinaak.


One of the names of Vishnu.

(1) Letter of the alphabet. Most languages have consonants and vowels on their alphabet. Consonants are the seeds (Beej) and the vowels are their Shakti which enable the utterance of the consonants (the Beej), which by themselves cannot be uttered.   (2) According to Geetaa A-Kshar is Brahm who is immutable.

Unbroken rice, or barley for Poojaa or ritual purposes.


Akshaya Vat
A banyan tree which is eternal. It is believed that when the Universe submerges under the water only this tree stands in those waters, and Bahagavaan Vishnu rests on this tree only. This tree is in Prayaag.

Alankaar   see also   SamaasVakrokti Alankaar
(1) Jewelry,  or Bhooshan,  Gahanaa
(2) Anything which increases the beauty
(3) Game of words, used in literature, to increase the beauty of the language.

Amaa is the 16th digit (Kalaa) of the Moon. The 16th digit of the Moon, which remains in the circle of the 1,000-petalled lotus or the circle of the Sun, is called the nectar-dropping Amaa; because, if the wine did not exist in the form of the nectar in the Amaa digit, then that 16th digit would not have existed.


Amaavasyaa, Maunee       see       Amaavasyaa

Amaavasyaa, Pitar        see      Amaavasyaa

Amaavasyaa, Shani        see      Amaavasyaa

Amaavasyaa, Somvatee      see      Amaavasyaa

Immortal.  Eternal.  Which cannot die.  According to Vishnu Puraan, 2/5 "When a living being lives up to Pralaya, that is called immortality. Immortality is when a living being does not reborn or die." There are nine people known as Amar or immortal - (1) Hanumaan - Seetaa blessed him with this, (2) Ashwatthaamaa - was born with, (3) Vibheeshan - Raam blessed him with this, (4) Jaambvaan, (5) Maarkandeya Muni - Shiv Jee or Brahmaa Jee blessed him with this, (6) Parashuraam, (7) Kripaachaarya - was born with this, (8) Kaagbhushundi - Raam blessed him with this, (9) Naarad Jee

Amar Shail
Amar means immortal; and Shail means mountain. Amar Shail means "the mountain which is never destroyed" and that is Sumeru mountain.

Amaraavatee is the capital of Swarg Lok. Three Devtaa (Brahmaa, Vishnu and Shiv) and four Lokpaal  have their separate living places. Brahmaa lives in .... Vishnu lives in Ksheer Saagar and Shiv Jee lives on Kailaash Parvat. [According to Bhaagvat, 5/8] To the east of Meru Parvat is Indra's Devadhaanee Puree, to the south is Yam Raaj's Sanyamanee Puree, to the west is Varun's Nimlochanee Puree, and to the north is Chandramaa's Vibhaavaree Puree.

The four Lokpaal - Indra's capital, his living place, is Amaraavatee in Swarg Lok; Varun's place is Vibhaavaree Nagaree; Yam's city is Sanyamanee Puree on Meru Parvat;  Kuber's Nagaree is Alakaa Puree. 

Lotus flower. Synonyms: Aravind, Kamal, Neeraj, Paarijaat, Padm, etc.

(1) Unerring. (2) Infallible.

Nectar. Ambrosia.

Amrit Food       see also       Vighas Food
The remaining food after offering to Devtaa and Pitar is called Amrit food.

An is a prefix for "no", thus
An-aadi - which has no beginning.
An-aagat - Which has not come yet, means future.
An-Sooyaa - An-Sooyaa is the opposite of Asooyaa. Not feeling jealous with anybody's progress.

Is a sound of Aum heard during the state of meditation.

Free of disease, or healthy.

Nish-Paap - sinless. An means not or without, and Agh means sin, so Anagh means without sins or sinless.

(1) A compound word, An+Ant = which has no end or border, borderless, limitless, infinite.
(2) Immeasurable.   (3) Another name of Shesh Naag.   (4) A type of ornament, a bangle type, worn by Indians, both males and females, on their arms above the elbow. It is an open ended bangle. At times it is of two or three rounds instead of conventional single round bangle. Since it is an open-ended bangle that is why it is termed as Anant (which has no end or border). In North India there is a festival named Anant Chaturdashee (see below) when even married men wear an Anant woven of thread on their right arm.

Anant Chaturdashee
14th day of Bhaadrapad Shukla. Vishnu is worshipped on this day. This day of Anant Chaturdashee is for the well being of the children in the family.

There are four types of taking birth in this world,  which are created according to one's Karm (actions) - (1) Udbhij - which are born by bursting out the Earth, such as trees and mountains etc, (2) Swedaj - which are born by sweat, such as bedbug etc, (3) Andaj - which are born from eggs, such as chickens, birds etc, and (4)  Jaraayuj - which are born Naal attached to them, such as human being calves etc

Andhak    see also    Andhak
(1) A Daitya. (2) A branch of Yaadav family.

Ang      see also      Vedaang,    
(1) Part. (2) Portion. (3) A portion of the body. (4) A name of country - see  Ang Desh.

Maharshi Bhrigu's descendents who composed the greatest number of Rig Ved hymns. This word comes from Agni. Bhrigu was called so because he was the originator of the worship of Agni Dev. His descendents are called Bhaargav or Aangiras.
(Aangiras, p 31)

The words Atharvan and Angiras are both connected with Fire and are descendants of Bhrigu who was the originator of Agni worship. The Paarasee priests are called Atharvan.

Who lives naked and eats only fruits.

(1) Control.   (2) Ankush is a hook used to drive an elephant. The first finger is bent at the second joint in the shape of a hook, the fist being closed.

Anna   see also   Food
The word Anna has been used in the Upanishad not only to indicate physical food but also to signify any thing that is consumed - it stands for matter in general. It is the lowest manifestation of Aatmaa (in the process of creation). Since it nourishes both body and mind, purity is essential. Since our tradition considers the eating as a religious act, several rules are given for its cooking and eating. For example, one should not take food before prayers; one should not eat during eclipses; no eating is permitted in temples, public places and moving vehicles. There should be moderation in eating - half the stomach with food, quarter with water only, and the another quarter should be left empty for breathing.
(1) Cereals, such as wheat, rice, barley, millet, corn, pulses and beans.
(2) Cooked food.

Annapraashan    see also    Sanskaar
Fist feeding of solid food to a child. This is an important and chief rite in Hindu families.

Goddess Durgaa who provides food to mankind.

Who learns Ved along with their six parts from a Guru, he is called Anoochaan.
[Naarad Puraan, 1/23]

(1) Part. (2) Portion.

Anushthaan   see    Purashcharan   see also    Jaap

Antaraaya    see also    Klesh
Antaraaya are of nine types - (1) Vyaadhi - Disease, (2) Styaan, (3) Sanshaya - Doubt, (4) Pramaad - speaking illogically, (5) Aalasya - Laziness, (6) A-Virakti - Attachment, (7) Bhraanti - Seeing a thing differently, (8) A-Labhi, (9) Not being stable in one's aim.


Antyeshti Kriyaa
Funeral rites. Funeral rites are the rites performed when a person dies and his gross body (Sthool Shareer) is burnt or cremated
or buried. This being in fact the "Antya ishti" (Antyeshti), the last sacrifice offered in the fire. Funeral rites are considered A-Mangal or inauspicious. These rites should be distinguished from from Shraaddh which is supposed to be Mangal or auspicious. Some people ask if Antyeshti Kriyaa is a yagya? Yes, in true sense. Antya means terminal and Ishti means sacrifice, thus it refers to the funeral rites of a departed. It is believed that until this is performed, the soul cannot travel to the next world and it remains on earth wandering restlessly as a ghost (Pishaach). The rationale behind cremation enables the departed soul to abandon attachment to its previous body and move swiftly to its next chapter of life. Funeral ceremonies should therefore be performed as soon as possible, still is said that it should be done after 6 hours.

Anulom and Vilom
The ordinary order, eg 1, 2, 3, 4... is called Anulom; but if these numbers are written as 10, 9, 8, 7.. they will be called Vilom or the reversed order.

Anulom Vivaah     see also    Vivaah
When a man marries to a lower Varn woman. This is called Anulom Vivaah. When it is vice versa, man from lower Varn and woman from higher Varn, it is called Vilom Vivaah

17th of the 28 Nakshatra (constellations).


Doing of some Vrat, or Yagya, or some religious work relate to one god or deity or Devee.
Anushthaan is a macro thing, but its usually a multipurpose thing. Like if you actually succeed in Anushthaan of even one Mahaavidyaa, then you automatically have Dhan, Arth, Kaam, and Moksh, plus all Shatkarm of that Devee.

Anushtup  see also   Chhand
A meter consisting of four, quarter-verses of 8 letters each.

Knowledge of Desh (country or place), Dishaa (direction) and Kaal (Time).

Apa     see      Jal

A plant (achyranthus aspera)

Apaan Vaayu   see   Vaayu

Aparaa Ekaadashee

(1) Offense. (2) Crime. Crimes towards Vishnu


Anti-clockwise ambulation, offering oblation to deceased ancestors.

Pooaa. An Indian sweet normally made at home. A paste of sugar and wheat flour is made in water or milk and fried in Ghee or oil in the shape of a ball.

April Fool

Beautiful and voluptuous Dev-Yoni women of Indra's Heaven, wives of Gandharv. Came out at the time of Saagar Manthan.


Pieces of special wood which are used to start fire for Yagya. The two pieces are rubbed each  each other to start fire.

(1) Forest.  (2) Wilderness.

Arbud     see also      Numbers
10 Crores, or 100 million.

Ardh Naareshwar
The human concept of Shiv as half male and half female, signifying that Bhagavaan can be regarded as father or as mother.

(1) Water oblation. Offering water to a deity.
(2) According to [ Bhavishya Puraan, 1/19] Ashtaang Arghya is called when there are eight things to offer - water, milk, Kush grass front part, Ghee, yogurt, honey, red Kaner flower and red sandal. This Arghya is very dear to Soorya Bhagavaan.

(1) Unhurt. (2) Perfect. (3) Misfortune. (4) Ill-luck. (5) Any type of mixture made of herbs.

(1) Pure. (2) White. (3) 3rd of the 5 Paandav brothers. He was named so because he was fair complexioned. see Arjun.

(1) Meaning.
(2) Purpose.
(3) Wealth. One's life's has four purposes - Dharm, Arth, Kaam  and Moksh. Doing Dharm, earning wealth [to do Dharm], fulfilling desires, and attaining Moksh.
(4) Arth denotes two aspects, economic activities (Vritti) and inhabited land (Prithvi). It is not concerned with the non-economic activities of men, like meditation and quest for truth. That is why Arth Shaastra (economics) deals with both economic activities, whether of the core society or of the frontier society, and land and Prithvi.

The Sun rises from behind this mountain and sets behind Astaachal.

(1) Wife of Sage Vashishth. (2) Morning star.

(1) King.   see   Ashok.
(2) A kind of tree. It is believed that it removes sorrows. It is mentioned in Tulasee's Maanas that Seetaa sat under the tree of Ashok while she lived in Raavan's Lankaa in Ashok Vaatikaa.

Asht Lakshmee     see      Lakshmee

Asht Siddhi Nava Nidhi

Ashtaang Arghya   see    Arghya

Ashtaang Yog     see     Yog 

Paanini's book of Sanskrit grammar. It is divided into eight chapters that is why this name.

Ashwalaayan Grihya Sootra   see also  Sootra

Ashwamedh Yagya     see     Yagya

Ashwatth   see also   Trees
A sacred tree - commonly known as Peepal tree.

Ashwinee   see    Jyotish     see also    Ashwinee Kumaar
The 1st of the 28 Nakshatra (constellations of the Moon).

Asooyaa   see also   An-Sooyaa
(1) Seeking fault in others. (2) To feel jealousy seeing others' progress.

The Sun rises from behind Arunaachal mountain and sets behind this mountain.

Astra    see also   Shastra

Astrology in Ved

(Aangiras, p 58) Its variants - Asoorya, Asooryaa, and Aasur, have occurred in Rig Ved 88 times. It has been derived from "Asu" was used as an adjective for "mighty". Although it has been mostly used for gods, but it has been used for non-gods also. After the Rig Ved period, it started being used as noun for demons and hostile beings, so Aarya coined the word "Sur" for gods, while continuing to use Dev also for gods. In retaliation Iraanian began using Dev for Devil.

(1) Past.  (2) Beyond (such as Gunaateet=Beyond Gun).

The words Atharvan and Angiras are both connected with Fire and are descendants of Bhrigu who was the originator of Agni worship. The Paarasee priests are called Atharvan.


This word has been used in Mahaabhaarat many times. Atirathee is a chariot warrior who can fight with 60,000 men at one time. [MBH, 1/135]

In English language guest, but it does not represent the true meaning of Atithi. Atithi is a compound word - A-Tithi. A means "no", and Tithi means "date", thus A-Tithi means whose date of coming is not known before. Since known people come after informing and they are not unknown also, so they are not counted as A-Tithi. Whose name and Gotra are not known before and who comes from some other village, such person is also called A-Tithi by definition. In normal meaning A-Tithi can be regarded as guest.


Aum  or Om

Avaantar Kalp      see      Kalp

Time period. Term of time.

One who has given up worldly involvement. Avadhoot is a term from the religious literature of India referring to a somewhat eccentric type of mystic or saint who has risen above bodily-consciousness, duality, and worldly concerns and acts without consideration for standard social etiquette. Such personalities are considered to be free from the consciousness of the ego, and to "roam free like a child" over the face of the earth. An Avadhoot does not identify with his body or mind. Such a person is said to be pure consciousness in human form. A man who is above both caste and stage of life (Aashram) and ever contemplating the Supreme only, he is called Avadhoot. Before renouncing the world, the Avadhoot must take care to see that no one suffers by such renunciation.

Avani means earth, and Eesh means Lord, thus Avaneesh means Lord of the earth, means Bhagavaan.

Avasarpinee and Utsarpinee


Avataar    see also   Avataar-Interpretation;   Types of Avataar;    Body

This word has been used in Bhavishya Puraan repetitively. According to Bhavishya Puraan, 1/18, it is made by cotton thread and is used by Bhojak Braahman to tie at waist. It is most ly used by Soorya's Bhakt and worshippers. Its 200 finger length is the best, 120 finger length is medium, and 108 finger length is minimum.

Ayan     see also    Ayanaansh,    Jyotish
(1) Entrance.  (2) Going in.  (3) Solstice.   (4) Yaatraa or Journey;   (5) Ghar or residence, where a person lives (Naaraayan = Nar + Ayan)
(5) Path or direction - The Sun has two paths or two directions to tread - each of 6-month period. Thus there are two Ayan in one year - Uttar Ayan (Uttaraayan, or northern path) and Dakshin Ayan (Dakshinaayan, or southern path). This division is based on Sun's transition into another sign (Sankraanti) from northern side to southern side of Prithvi and southern side to northern side of Prithvi. Uttaraayan is when Sun enters Makar (Capricorn) sign and crosses Capricorn line towards north (6 monts period); and Dakshinaayan is when Sun enters Kark (Cancer) sign and crosses Cancer line going towards south (agai 6 months period). Makar Sankraanti falls on 13th or 14th January and Kark Sankraanti falls on 13th or 14th July.


(1) 1,000.    (2) Some say it is 10,000 - see the Shlok


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Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/06
Updated on 03/01/14