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Footwear of a holy person. Raam gave His Paadukaa to Bharat when Bharat came to request Him to come back to Ayodhyaa and take care the kingdom.

Water to wash one's feet.

Cooked food. When this word comes in reference with Bhagavaan and Braahman, it refers not only to cooked food, but to rich fried food and sweets items, for example - Pooree, Pooaa, Halavaa, various kinds of sweets etc.

Showing people what is not there. It is mostly used for the people who are not Saadhu or Sanyaasee but show that they are Saadhu or Sanyaasee, such as Raavan was not a Saadhu but came to Seetaa Jee in disguise of a Saadhu and behaved like a Saadhu. Who behaves like this, he is called Paakhandee.

Paakhandee    see    Paakhand


Betel leaf. It is called Taambool also. It has many uses. (1) It is used in worship.  (2) It is used to eat after food and at other times also. It is layered with Katechu paste and lime paste, and a few pieces of betel nut (Supaaree) and peppermint, sweet rose leaves, small cardamom etc are kept over it and is chewed. Some Indians take it as mouth freshener after food, while others become addict and eat it as many times as they wish - sometimes they can eat more than 10-15 Paan everyday. Paan is a favorite in China too,


(1) Princess of Paanchaal Desh.  (2) Another name of Draupadee.

Paanchjanya Shankh (conch shell)
Panchjan was a Daitya who lived in the sea in the form of a conch shell near Prabhaas Kshetra. When Krishn killed the Daitya, He brought his body, Paanchjanya conch shell, with Him. He offered it to His Guru Saandeepan Muni but he refused to take it saying, "It is yours, you keep it." And since then it was His.

Paap        see also       Punya
(1) Vice,   (2) Sin.  There are six main sins - Kaam (lust), Krodh (anger), Lobh (greed), Moh (aatachment), Mad (pride), Maatsarya (intoxicating or jealous).

Paaraayan means recitation something. Normally any religious recitation is done sitting on an Aasan, never on bare ground.

Paarad    see    Ras Mani

Ending or concluding the fast, whether it is at the end of one day or more days, or many months.

Paaras Mani
It is a type of stone which if touches the iron, turns it into gold.


Antonym of "Laukik" which is related to this world, or materialistic. Paar-Laukik means "Relating to next world".


Son of Prithaa, means son of Kuntee. Although all sons of Kuntee are called Paarth, but mostly it is used for Arjun.

Chariot driver of Paarth, means Krishn.

Daughter of Himvant and Mainaa and consort of Shiv. She is called Paarvatee and Girijaa because she is the daughter of a Parvat. She has many names - Aparnaa, Girijaa, Himnandinee,  Kaameshwaree (the 8th Nityaa of Chandramaa's Kalaa Devee), Shail Baalaa, Shail Kumaaree, Shivaa, Shivaanee, Umaa etc.

(1) The means to tie something - it may be a rope or Mantra or Astra or anything. (2) Some Devtaa also have their own Paash by which they can tie their enemies, such as Varun's Varun Paash. Yam's Paarshad (messengers) take living beings tied with Yam Paash at the time of their death.  Naag Paash by which a person is tied with Naag (serpents) and dies with their bites. (3) Trap.

Paashupat (Astra)
Lord Shiv is called Pashupati or Pashupatinaath. They literary mean "The Lord of the Creatures", or "The Lord of all Living Beings". It is the name of the Shiv Astra also. Arjun did Tap to get this Astra and had to fight with Shiv himself before getting it. This is called Kiraataarjun.

Paatak    see also   Sootak

The nether world inhabited by sinners.


(1) Pot. Bowl. (2) Candidate - such as "Who is good Paatra for Daan?" means "Who is the good candidate for Daan?" or "To whom one can donate something?"

Fire.  Agni.

The first day of the fortnight of lunar calendar - also called Pratipadaa.


Padm Puraan     see also      Puraan
One of the main 18 principal Puraan.

Another name of Lakshmee.

A compound word, Padm + Aasan, means a posture which is like Padm (Kamal, lotus).

Who sits on lotus flower - another name of Lakshmee.

Another name of Lakshmee.

(1) A bunch of lotuses.  (2) Lotus plant.  (3) Name of the queen of a Raajpoot king, named Raaval Ratan Singh of Chittaud Garh, during the times of Alaauddeen Khilajee, in 12th and 13th centuries AD.

From whose navel a lotus has emerged - Vishnu.


Paishaach      see also     Vivaah
One of the 8 kinds of marriages, where the lover gets the woman's consent and her body when she is either sleep or intoxicated.

Pakavaan or Pakvaann       see        Paak

Bird. The living being which have wings or feathers and can fly, such as birds, ostrich etc. Some insects can also fly but they do not fall in this category. To see a list of some Pakshee see Birds and Insects

The King of the birds, means Garud Jee.

Pal    see also    Measurement of Weight
(1) Unit of time measuring 24 seconds. (2) An old unit of measuring weight - according to Padm Puraan, approximately 46.4 grams.

(1) Leaf.  (2) Foliage.  (3) A kind of tree whose flowers are deep red and when they are blossomed it seems that there is a fire in the forest.

Pallav     see also     Panch Pallav
(1) Blossom.  (2) Buds.  (3) Shoots.  (4) Foliage.  (5) Leaf.


Panch Bhoot    see    Panch Tattwa

Panch Bhoot Ligam

Panch Dhaanya
Panch means five, Dhaanya means cereal. Wheat, sesame seed, Urad. Moong, and Rice - they are called five cereals. Their flour is considered very good.

Panch Dhaatu
Panch means five and Dhaatu means metal. Normally five metals are gold, silver, copper, tin and lead. When it comes to set a gem (see Ratn)in Panch Dhaatu, it does not mean an alloy of these metals. It means setting in the 5 elements, gem for earth, herb (Bhasm) for water, metal for fire, symbol for air, and cosmic number for Aakaash. This makes a Panch Dhaatu Kavach.

Panch Gavya     see also      Brahm Koorch
A drink made up of five products of cow products plus Kush water - its urine, dung, milk, yogurt, Ghee and Kush water, mixed together is called Panch Gavya. Panchgavya has appeared in Chhaandogya Upanishad also. Its vegetarian version is milk, yogurt, Ghee, Gangaa water and honey. It is called Panchaamrit.

Panch Kanyaa

Panch Kedaar   see also   Panch Kedaar Temples under Kedaareshwar

Panch Kosh   see    Kosh

Panch Kritya
Five types of Upaasanaa (worship) - Ijyaa, Abhigaman, Upaadaan, self study, and Yog. They include worshipping idols, Sandhyaa-Tarpan, Havan-Poojan, Dhyaan, Jap and reading Soorya's life.

Panch Mahaa-Bhoot    see    Panch Tattwa

Panch Mahaa-Yagya
There are five types of Yagya which should be performed daily, who doesn't do them, he is called Braahman killer. These Panch Yagya are Dev Yagya, Bhoot (Braahman) Yagya, Pitra Yagya, Manushya (A-Tithi) Yagya, and Brahm Yagya. All Dwij should do these Panch Mahaa-Yagya methodically. Doing Bali-vaishwadev is called Bhoot Yagya, doing Tarpan is called Pitra Yagya, studying and teaching Ved is called Brahm Yagya, doing Havan is called Dev Yagya and felicitating an incoming A-Tithi is called Manushya Yagya or A-Tithi Yagya.

Panch Neeraajan
Panch means five and Neeraajan means doing Aaratee. So Panch-Neeraajan means doing Aaratee with five things - lamp, cloth, leaf, flower and fruit.

Panch Pallav
Panch means five and Pallav means leaves. When Kalash are established for Yagya or for any other sacred purpose, some leaves have to be put on them. Five kinds of leaves are in fashion now-a-days - mango, Peepal, Banyan, Pluksh (Paakad) and Goolar (Udumbar). Agni Puraan, p 611, says that Panch Patra includes the leaves of Palaash, Goolar, Peepal, Vat (banyan), and Bel.

Panch Patra     see      Panch Pallav

Panch Raatra

Panch Ratn
Panch means five, and Ratn means gems. According to Kaatyaayan - (1) Heeraa (diamond), (2) Motee (pearl), (3) Vaidoorya Mani (Lahasuniyaa), (4) Pushp-raag (Pukharaaj or yellow sapphire) and (5) Neelam (Indraneel, sapphire) - these are considered the best five gems.
(Padm Puraan, p 632)

Panch Tanmaatraa
Panch means five and Tanmaatraa means the subjects of the five Gyaan Indriyaan - Shabd (sound), Sparsh (touch), Roop (seeing), Ras (taste), and Gandh (smell) - these five subjects of five Gyaan Indriyaan are called five Tanmaatraa. Among them the Sparsh (Touch) is spread all over the body; while Gandh (Smell), especially in human beings, is more than a primal urge compared to other animals.

Panch Tattwa
(1) Five elements - (1) Earth (solids), (2) Water (fluids), (3) Air (gases), (4) Fire (energy), and (5) Space (void); which appear from Panch Tanmaatraa - sound, touch, seeing, taste, and smell. Among them he Earth being the heaviest Tattwa tends to store Karm built over the longest period of time, as well as at a more solidified level as compared to the other elements.
(2) The following Panch Tattwa or Panch Makaar (or 5 Ms) are used in reference to Devee worship - wine, meat, fish, parched food, and woman.

Panchaagni    see also   Agni

Panchaaksharee Mantra

Panchaamrit    see also    Charanaamrit
Panch means five, and Amrit means nectar. Panchaamrit means five nectars. The following five materials are supposed to be nectars of this world - milk, yogurt, honey, Gangaa Water, and Ghee. So by mixing these in a specific proportions this Panchaamrit is made. It is used to bathe Bhagavaan's idol. Later this is distributed to the people. It is regarded as an auspicious and compulsory thing to take. Whoever people go to temple, they do not come back without taking Panchaamrit. This type of Panchaamrit is available only when some special worship is performed, for example Satya Naaraayan Poojaa etc, but at other times it is available only in the form of water mixed with Tulasee leaf and sometimes some sugar or honey to sweeten it. When it has been used to bathe Bhagavaan's idol, it becomes Charanaamrit, because it has touched Bhagavaan's feet. It can be only water also by which Bhagavaan's idol has been give a bath.

Who has five faces - means Shiv.

Panchaang     see also     Panchaang
Panch=Five, and Ang=parts. A Panchaang book tells five parts of the day - (1) Tithi (1-14 + Amaavasyaa or Poornimaa); (2) Vaar (day - Sunday, Monday etc); (3) Nakshatra (Constellation); (4) Yog (combination), and (5) Karan or Muhoort That is why it is called Panchaang. All Pandit (Braahman who worship themselves and for others) keep this book with them for knowing these details about days.

Panchaayatan Poojaa

Panchak means five. Panchak occurs when the Moon’s longitude is between 296 degrees and 360 degrees in sidereal calculation. Out of the total of the 27 star constellations, Panchak mostly occurs in the last 5 stars, thus generally occurring on the 5 days every month. There is another phenomenon of pPanchak Baan which is based on the longitude of the Sun and is of 5 types. There is Bheeshm Panchak, Yam Panchak, Vishnu Panchak, etc.

(1) The 5th.   (2) The fifth note of North Indian music. There are seven notes in North Indian music - Shadaj, Rishabh, Gandhaar, Madhyam, Pancham, Dhaivat, and Nishaad.

The 5th day of the fortnight of the Lunar calendar.


Bhaagvat Puraan, 10/u15, says that He was a Raakshas who lived in the form of a conch in the sea. When Krishn was looking for His Guru Saandeepan Muni's lost son, He went to the sea and asked him if he knew about him. He told Him that maybe Panchjan Raakshas had taken him because he lived in the sea. Krishn immediately went into the sea killed him, but could not find His Guru's son. He brought his body (conch) and gave it to His Guru, but he told Him to keep it for Himself, as what he would do of it.

Panch means five and Nad means Nadee(river), so the name of a place where Panch (five) Nad (rivers) flow, means Panjaab - these five rivers are Shutudree (Satalaj), Vipaashaa (Vyaas), Iraavatee (Raavee), Chandrabhaagaa (Chinaab), and Vitastaa (Jhelam or Behut).

Panchopachaar Poojaa


Panchsoonaa Sin
The place to cook food (oven or cooking range etc), the place to grind flour, the place to crush or grind spices, the place to keep water, and the action of sweeping - these places are the possible places for Hinsaa (killing small Jeev) for a Grihasth (householder), therefore these come under Panchsoonaa Dosh (sin) for him.

Name of a book of moral stories compiled by Vishnu Sharmaa (c 370-450 AD). It has been translated into Persian, Arabic, Greek and Hebrew during 600-900 AD. And from these languages to most European languages. Hitopadesh, a smaller book by Naaraayan is based on Panchtantra.

(1) Panch menas fve and Vatee means Vat tree. So Panchvatee is where five types of Vat (ficus) trees are there - Bilva, Peepal, Banyan, Ashok, and Dhaatri.
(2) Where Raam, Lakshman and Seetaa lived to pass heir exile period and Raavan abducted Seetaa from there.

(1) Learned person. (2) Indian priest.

Panjikaa      see     Panchaang

A compound word - Pank + Aj, means which is born from mud, means lotus.


Par      see also     A-Par
(1) Aatmaa (soul) is of two types Par Aatmaa and A-Par Aatmaa. Par Aatmaa is Param Brahm and is Nir-Gun; and A-Par Aatmaa or A-Par Brahm is said to be "with Ahankaar", that is Jeev Aatmaa. 
(2) Higher, or better.
(3) Brahmaa's Age. His half age, 50 Brahmaa years, is called Paraardh (a compound word - Par+Ardh)

Paraa Prakriti  and A-Paraa Prakriti       see     Prakriti
Superior energy.

Paraa Vidyaa
Knowledge about soul, or Aatmaa, or Brahm.


Paraardh    see    Measurement of Time on Prithvi

Paraashar Smriti

(1) Ultimate.  (2) Highest.

A combined word - Param+Arth. Paramaarth is selfless Karm. Mostly people do every Karm with some kind of objective, that is why it is very difficult to do Paramaarth in which there is no objective. (1) The highest profit.  (2) To do good to others.  (3) Not to wish for worldly things, but to aspire for Brahm.

Param means the ultimate, and Aatmaa means soul; so Paramaatmaa means the Ultimate soul, means Bhagavaan, God, Hari.

Parameshwar     see     Paramaatmaa

Another name of Brahm Lok, Vishnu Lok, and Jan Lok, where Brahmaa, Vishnu and Sanakaadi Muni live.

Traditions - the chain of some specific processes and behaviors beginning from very early period.

Parantap       see      Arjun
Another name of Arjun. 

Supreme Soul

It is a compound word - Par means beyond and Lok means world, so Paralok means the other world.

Param - (1) Highest.  (2) Absolute.  (3) Most excellent.

Param Dhaam
The dwelling place of Bhagavaan, this place is called Moksh also. There is a Divine city in the middle of this Param Dhaam which is called Ayodhyaa which is surrounded by boundary wall and high gates. There are pictures made from gems and gold. Chand etc guards and Kumud etc Dikpaal guard it constantly. On its eastern gate are Chand and Prachand; on its southern gate are Bhadra and Subhadra; on its western gate are Jaya and Vijaya; and on its northern gate are Dhaataa and Vidhaataa. Kumud, Kumudaaksh, Pundareek, Vaaman, Shankukarn, Sarvnidra, Sumukh, Supratishthit - these are the Dikpaal of that city.
[Padm Puraan, 5/36]

Param Gati
Final Moksh (beatitude).

Param Pad
Param means highest, and Pad means state or position; so Param Pad means highest state or position.

Param Tattwa
Absolute reality.

(1) The ultimate Truth.  (2) The highest Truth.  (3) The noblest act of helping others.

This is a compound word - Param means Highest and Aatmaa means Soul, so Paramaatmaa means the Highest or Supreme Soul.

Supreme God

Parashuraam Kshetra


Parigraha     see also      A-Parigraha
To collect.

Parikarm is related to mathematics and is used in Jyotish (astrology). It includes addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, square and square root, cube and cube root.

(1) Dependents.  (2) Family.

Wandering monk. With no fixed abode.

(1) Another name of Indra.  (2) Rains.

Parn Kutee
Cottage made out of leaves.

(1) Knot, as in bamboo.  (2) Joint.  (3) Auspicious occasion or festival. (2) Parts of a book, such as some Puraan are divided in Parv or MBH is divided in Parv.


(1) West direction.  (2) Behind.

Pashu    see also    List of Animals    Sounds of Animals

(1) Flag.  (2) Banner.

Patanjali Yog Sootra    see   Yog Sootra

(1) Husband, for example Ramaapati, means Husband of Ramaa, menas Vishnu.  (2) Lord.  (3) Owner.

Patnee (Wife)

Devoted wife, or loyal wife.


Patra      see also      Panch Pallav
(1) Letter. (2) Very thin plate of any size and shape - such as "Taamra Patra" means "Copper plate", or "some markings are found on a Taamra Patra" means "some markings are found on a thin plate or sheet of copper." Now this sheet may be round, square, rectangular, or even an uneven shape. (3) Leaf - for example, "Bhagavaan is pleased by offering even Patra."

Patraa      see      Panchaang

Name of Bheem's conch.

Self effort.

Pavamaan Sookt

Wind.  Air.


Ped      see     Trees.


A sacred tree in India. In many places it is worshipped.

A garment of yellow color, which normally is worn by Vishnu or Krishn.


(1) Fruits such as mango, banana etc.  (2) Result - as "Karm Phal" means "the result of your action".

Phal means fruits, and Aahaar means food. Phalaahaar means eating fruits. But Shaastra permit a kind of special grain to eat under Phalaahaar, that is buckwheat. It is not counted under grains. People make several dishes out of its flour. Some people eat dried Singhaadaa (a fruit found in ponds - it is very common in UP, India) flour, preparing its flat bread and Halavaa (sweet dish). So it is not necessary to eat only fruits in Phalaahaar, since that special grain is also permitted, but of course its literal meaning is to eat only fruits, yogurt, milk, sugar, salt, and normally roots - potato and yucca, including pumpkin (not green and other kinds of vegetables)

Phalit Jyotish

Pushp.  Kusum.  Flower.

Bow of Shiv, also called Ajagav. That is why he is called PInaakee or Pinaak Dhaaree.

(1) Lump.  (2) Globe.  (3) Ball of cooked rice, (or uncooked barley flour), honey, and butter offered to Pitar or the spirit of ancestors.

Pind Daan
Offering ball of cooked rice, (or uncooked barley flour), honey, and butter to Pitar or the spirit of ancestors.



Grandfather (father's father).


Pitri Amaavasyaa     see      Amaavasyaa

Pitri Paksh

Polar Star    see    Dhruv Taaraa

Pongal     see     Makar Sankraanti   or   Sankraanti


Poojaa, Maanas

Poorak     see also    Praanaayaam
One of Praanaayaam's four processes - inhaling the breath; others are Rechak, Kumbhak and Shoonyak.

Poorn Aahuti     see       Aahuti

Poornimaa    see    Poornmaasee

The full-Moon day and night

Poort    see also   Isht
Digging ponds and wells, building temples, and inns, planting gardens and trees etc are called Poort or Ishtaa Poort Karm.

(1) One of the four directions - East.  (2) Prior, earlier.  (3) In front.

Poorv-Meemaansaa        see also         Darshan
A system of philosophy founded by Jaimini. Poorv-Meemaansaa school is based entirely on the study of Rig Vaidik ritual and sacred texts. For its followers, salvation was equated with the precise performance of the Som sacrifice, since everything prescribed in the Ved must be taken literally as eternal truth. But this system attracted fewer and fewer people over time.

This is in context with Tithi (days). When one Tithi is united with its previous Tithi at sunrise it is called Poorv-Viddhaa Tithi. Some Tithi are good when they are Poorv-Viddhaa; while others are not good. The 7th, Poornimaa, Amaavasyaa, the day of annual Shraaddh of father days must be adopted when they are Poorv Viddhaa. Who desire for Dharm, Arth, Kaam they should not keep fast on 2nd, 6th, 8th and 11th Tithi when they Poorv-Viddhaa.

Ancestors, or Pitar.

A Vaidik Divinity who nourishes the people, saves them from harm and keeps their paths accessible to them.

The length between the thumb and the first finger when fully stretched out.

(1) Related to Prakriti (nature).  (2) An old language used in India.

The first thing to eat to break the fast, kept for one or more days. Normally people break the fast with some Prasaad, or Havishya food which is also sweet in nature. It might be fruit or dry fruits also.

(1) Proof.   (2) Measuremnt

(1) Genuine.

Praan     see also     Vaayu
The air we breath is called Praan - breath of life. When this air is gone, the man dies. The life force. In Yogic tradition, Praan is said to be tenfold depending on its nature and function. Of the ten Praan (inhalation) and Apaan (exhalation) are the most important. According to Bhagavad Geetaa, a Yogee should balance and control the movement of Praan and Apaan in order to have control over the modifications of the mind and thus attain Samaadhi. According to Bhaagvat 3/6 ten Praan are - Praan, Apaan, Udaan, Samaan, Vyaan, Naag, Koorm, Krikal, Devatatt, and Dhananjaya.

Praan Pratishthaa
Consecration. It is the process, completed with the help of Mantra, to invoke life in a statue or idol before worshipping it. This process fills life in the statue or idol. Without invoking life, statue is only a statue, not god.

As there are five Praan, there are five Mantra for them, they are - "Praanaaya Swaahaa, Apaanaaya Swaahaa, Samaanaaya Swaahaa, Vyaanaaya Swaahaa, Udaanaaya Swaahaa". When one eats five morsels pronouncing these five Mantra, it is called Praanaagnihotra. It is a compound word - Praan+Agni-Hotra.

Praanaayaam      see also     Ashtaang Yog ;   Vaayu

Praarabdh      see also     Karm
Literally that which has been commenced. Fruits of previous lives' Karm. There are three types of Karm - Sanchit (collected ones) 

(1) The first thing to eat after a fast, for example "People do Praashan with some sweet thing" - it means that when they break their fast, first they eat some sweet thing. Although many things are prescribed for Praashan, sometimes some special thing is also prescribed to break special fast.
(2) Eating or tasting. Ann Praashan is a major Sanskaar of a child when he eats or tastes the Ann (cereal) for the first time.

Praati Shaakhya


Prabodh Kaal    see    Brahm Muhoort

(1) God.  (2) Master

Act of circumambulating a sacred object - it can be a temple, hill, an idol, a tree. The letter "Pra" stands for the removal of all kinds of sins; "da" stands for the fulfillment of desires; "kshi" stands for freedom from future births; and "naa" stands for the granting of deliverance through Gyaan.

(1) The elements of the material manifestation.  (2) Mool Prakriti, means original nature. It is the first thing which appeared directly from Brahm. All other things have appeared from it.


(1) Wisdom.  The power of discriminating the essential, spiritual wisdom.
(2) Another name of Saraswatee.

Prahar is a part of the day. Eight Prahar make one day and night - four Prahar in the day and four Prahar in the night. So one Prahar may be taken as equal to three hours. It is also called Yaam.



Deluge or the Great deluge. The dissolution of the Universe. At this time it is believed that everything gets destroyed and is absorbed by the Param Paramaatmaa (God). Then after some time creation is started again afresh. According to Hindoo and Jain, Pralaya is the recurring event in the never-ending cycle of creation and dissolution of the Universe. It is claimed that every cycle takes the same time to complete.

Useless efforts of Indriyaan and heart are called Pramaad.

Pramaan (Measurement, or Proof)

Another name of Shiv - meaning destroyer.

Pranaam     see also   Saashtaang Pranaam
Greeting. In Indian culture Pranaam is done normally by joining hands, bending a little in respect of the person and saying a word for greeting, such as "Namaskaar", "Namstey", "Pranaam", "Jaya Shree Raam", "Jaya Shree Krishn" etc. If the person is a close relative, or a saint, the younger people touch his or her feet instead of joining hands.

Pranav Mantra
Aum or Om word is known as Pranav, Beej or Mool Mantra. Pranav consists of three letters - Akaar, Ukaar and Makaar and thus it is said to be the form of three Ved. This is the dwelling place of Brahm. Akaar represents Vishnu, Ukaar represents Lakshmee Jee and Makaar is their servant "Jeev" which is the 25th element also.
[10 Indriyaan, 5 Bhoot, 5 Tanmaatraa, mind, Ahankaar, Mahat Tattwa, and Prakriti - these are the 24 Tattwa; and their witness Consciousness is the 25th Tattwa.]



Prasiddh Mantra
Prasiddh Mantra are those which do not need any Guru's initiation to do Jaap of them, such as "Aum Namah Shivaaya", "Aum Namo Naaraayanaaya", "Aum Namo Bhagavatey Vaasudevaaya",

(1) Giving birth to a child.  (2) Prasooti Kaal - Delivery time of a woman.

Prasth     see also     Weight Measurement
It is a weight measurement, for example, 1 Prasth gold. One Prasth is equal to 4 Kudava; and 1 Kudava is equal to about 12 double handfuls.

Prasthaan-Trayee    see    Ved;   Vedaant
A collective name of Upanishad, Bhagvad Geetaa and Vedaant Sootra.

(1) First.  (2) Foremost.  (3) Primeval.

Pratilom     see also    Vivaah
(1) Reverse, such as Pratilom Vivaah. Pratilom Vivaah means when a lower Varn boy marries a higher Varn girl, it is called Pratilom Vivaah. 
(2) Contrary.

The first day of the fortnight of the Lunar calendar - also called Padavaa.

Pratisarg     see also    Sarg
Destruction or Pralaya.


Pratyaahaar       see also       Ashtaang Yog
To control one's Indriyaan  (senses).


Religious discourse or exposition.

Pravar    see    Gotra

Pravritti and Nivritti  
Efforts made to enjoy worldly comforts and  pleasures, or to make living, or acts done in pursuance of the religion is called Pravritti, so Pravritti means to take action outside. Ni means no, and Vritti means living. So Nivritti means not doing anything for living; or non-indulging in something, or washing away one's hands from something. When one has nothing to do with any of his actions (Pravritti - outside) that is called Nivritti. In this state a man has to take action inside, not outside. Abstention from external actions (Nivritti) is considered superior state to Pravritti.
Thus expansion is Pravritti and contraction is Nivritti.

Sitting down at a particular spot abstaining from food and drink to die. Restraining from food and drink.

Prayaag     see also    Sangam
Prayaag is called the place where two rives meet. Thus there may be many Prayaag. But if somebody says "Prayaag", normally it is understood as Allaahaabaad (UP) where Gangaa and Yamunaa rivers meet. There are other Prayaag also famous as Prayaag but they are less known than Allaahaabaad. These Prayaag come on the way to - (1) Dev Prayaag (Sangam of Bhaageerathee and Alaknandaa, on the way to Badree Naath) (2) then comes Rudra Prayaag, (3) Son Prayaag (Sangam of Mandaakinee and Son Gangaa Rivers on the way to Kedaar Naath), (4) Karn Prayaag,  (5) Nand Prayaag, and (6) Vishnu Prayaag.

Prayog   see also  Use of Tantra and Prayog under Tantra
(1) Use.  (2) Experiment. 
(3) This word is used for the activities using Tantra also. Prayog is different from Anushthaan. Anushthaan is a macro thing, but its usually a multipurpose thing. Like if you actually succeed in Anushthaan of even one Mahaavidyaa, then you automatically have Dharm, Arth, Kaam, and Moksh, plus all Shatkarm of that Devee. Prayog are like more to the pointed thing. They are meant to fulfill a specific deficiency you can say. Mostly, doing a series of two or three Prayog is actually smarter and faster way of solving problems.

(1) A body given to a person after his death according to his Karm.  (2) Those who die, first become Pret. They remain so for one year till the Sa-pindeekaran Shraddhaa is performed for them. Then they unite with Pitar (ancestors). The gifts made in this Shraddhaa, as well as in the monthly ones, have the virtue of rescuing the Pret, or bringing him an accession of merit. The gifts made in annual Shraddhaa also have the same effects.

Pretaatmaa   see    Aatmaa

Preya     see also     Shreya
According to Kath Upanishad Preya is "what is pleasant" for a man, it may or may not be useful or good for him


Prithvi Sookt
The first hymn of the 12th Kaand of Atharv Ved (12-1) consisting of 63 Mantra. It is an outstanding Sookt (hymn) dedicated to the praise of one's own land of birth from the point of view of the contents and poetic beauty. It is also called Bhoomi Sookt also.

Prokshan normally means sprinkling water over the head. It may be used while doing Viniyog of any Stotra, such as "drop a spoon water with Til and raw rice in it, on a plate, and 'prokshan' all at yours after the completions of Mantra".

Puchchhal Taaraa
(1) Dhoomketu.  (2) Comet.

Priest or official worshipper.

Yellow Sapphire. Pushp-raag. One of the nine gems or precious stones. Some of the others are (1) Heeraa - Diamond; (2) Pannaa - Emerald; (3) Laal - Ruby, Chunnee, (4) Motee - Pearl; (5) Moongaa - Coral; (6) Neelam - Sapphire, Indraneel, Neelmani; (7) Vaidoorya Mani (Lahasuniyaa); (8) Pukharaaj - Yellow Sapphire - all are called Mani or Ratn. Yellow sapphire is found in yellow, golden, and orange colors, as well as in a colorless variety known as white sapphire. The best gem is said to be of lemon-yellow color. The color in yellow sapphire is due to the presence of iron and titanium. The best yellow sapphires, famous for their luster, smoothness, brilliance, and transparence, come from Mogok, situated in the upper region of Burma. Sri Lanka produces sapphires in yellow, light green, and color-less varieties in sufficient quantities. These sapphires are of some-what inferior quality to the Burmese Pukharaaj. Good quality sapphires in shades of yellow, green, pink, red, blue, violet, and white (colorless) are found in abundance in Brazil.


Lotus flower of white color.

Punsavan Sanskaar    see also     Sanskaar
1 of the 16 Sanskaar for Hindu to influence the sex of the fetus so that a male child is born. It is performed in the 3rd or 4th month of the pregnancy wherein some Mantra are chanted and a medicine is administered to the pregnant woman. The ritual has practically died.

Punya    see also    Paap
(1) Good actions. All those actions which are done to do good to others are called Punya.
(2) Dhaarmik Actions - Actions according to Shaastra. They also come in this category as they are done to please Bhagavaan or Devtaa or Pitar etc.  (3) Virtue.  (4) Merit

City or town.


Another name of Shiv.

Another name of Indra. it means the destroyer of strongholds.

Purashcharan     see also    Mantra Jaap

In charge of religious activities of a house. Family priest.

God.  Bhagavaan.  Brahm.

Purush Sookt


The noblest man - God. Normally it is used for Vishnu and His incarnations - Krishn and Raam (Maryaadaa Purushottam).

Purushottam Maas    see    Adhik Maas

(1) Means lotus flower in Vaidik Sanskrit.  (2) and Pond in modern Sanskrit.  (3) A sacred lake in Ajmer, Raajasthaan, India.  (4) Name of Raajaa Nal's brother with whom he played dice game and lost everything.

Pushpak Vimaan
This was a airplane given by Brahmaa Jee to Kuber. But when Raavan had got the Var to be like immortal, he defeated Kuber and took his Pushpak Vimaan. Raam used the same Pushpak Vimaan to come back to Ayodhyaa after killing Raavan. It's specialties were that it could be smaller or larger according to one's needs. It used to fly with the speed of mind, and it moved by thoughts only. It had all the amenities in it. After coming back to Ayodhyaa Raam returned it. Then whenever He wanted he called it.

Pushp-raag    see    Pukharaaj



Putrikaa Dharm    see also    Vivaah  or  Putra
In Putrikaa Dharm, the first son born to the daughter belongs to the father of the daughter. It normally happens when the girl has no brother, but can happen otherwise also.


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Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/06
Updated on 02/26/14