Dictionary Of Hindu Religion | Locations
Aaryaavart - Old name of the region of the south of the Himaalaya, and north of the Vindhya Mountains where Aarya lived and ruled.
Afgaanistaan - (Aangiras, p 47-48) The word Afgaan has been derived from from the Sanskrit word "Aashwakaayan". During Rig Vaidik age Afgaanistaan was the part of Sapt-Sindhu (seven seas) country and was Hindu. Rig Ved mentions Pakht people participating in Daash Raaj war. These Pakht were the ancestors of Pathaan of modern times. They still remember their old name and call themselves Pakhtoon.
During Maurya rule, the entire Afgaanistaan was within the empire of Maurya kings. In the 2nd century AD, Ptolemy; in the 5th century AD, Faahiyaan; and in the 7th century AD Huen Tsaang, have described Afgaanistaan a part of India. Durin this people the people of Afgaanistaan were Buddhists and they had either a Hindu or a Buddhist king. Recent excavations have substantial evidence to confirm that Afgaanistaan was a part of India. Khotaan city was named after the name of Kustan, the son of king Ashok. Historians believe that famous Changez Khaan of 13th century AD was a Buddhist.
Ajamer - [Bhavishya Puraan, 3/18] Vayahaani (Chapahaani or Chauhaan) inhabited this city built by Brahmaa Jee. "Aj" means Brahmaa; "m" means Lakshmee. Lakshmee Jee built this city for Brahmaa Jee that is why it was called Ajamer.
Alakaa Puree - A mythical place. Capital of Kuber. See also Dev Sthaan.
Allahabad see Ilaahaabaad
Amaraavatee Puree (see also Devadhaanee Puree) - A mythical place. Indra's living place in Swarg Lok.
Amarkantak - A place of pilgrimage (Teerth). Peak of the immortals, situated in the Vindhya mountains.
Amarnaath - The sacred cave in Kashmeer containing the Shiv Ling. This cave is situated at the height of 13,000 feet above sea level and is cut off in winter. The night of the Poornimaa (full Moon) of Shraavan Maas is considered the most auspicious day to have Darshan of it. This Ling is made of ice.
Ang Desh - An ancient kingdom mentioned in Mahaabhaarat. Karn was its king. Bhaagalpur in present day eastern Bihar. Its capital was Champaa.
Avantee Desh or Maalavaa - An ancient kingdom in the region of Madhya Pradesh with Ujjayinee as its capital. Present Ujjain. See Magadh Desh for its relative location.
Avantikaa see Ujjayinee city
Avantee Pur - An ancient kingdom in MP, being Ujjayinee as its capital. Vikramaaditya ruled from here. It is one of the seven holy cities - (1) Ayodhyaa (UP), (2) Mathuraa (UP), (3) Haridwaar (UP), (4) Kaashee or Vaaraanasee or Banaaras (UP), (5) Kaanchee (Tamilnaadu), (6) Avantee or Ujjain (MP), (7) Dwaarakaa (Gujaraat). Present Ujjain in MP. This name often appears in stories as a main city of activities, like "There lived a king in Avantee Pur.." or "He went to Avantee Pur.." etc.
Avimukt Kshetra - Present Kaashee, or Vaaraanasee, or Banaaras. It is one of the seven Holy Cities also - Ayodhyaa, Dwaarakaa, Haridwaar, Kaancheepuram, Mathuraa, Ujjain, and Vaaraanasee. See also Kshetra
Ayodhyaa Nagaree - It is one of the seven holy cities - (1) Ayodhyaa (UP), (2) Mathuraa (UP), (3) Haridwaar (UP), (4) Kaashee or Vaaraanasee or Banaaras (UP), (5) Kaancheepuram (Tamilnaadu), (6) Avantee or Ujjain (MP), (7) Dwaarakaa (Gujaraat). Founded in 2000 BC. It was the capital of Soorya Vanshee kings of Kosal Desh. It is situated on the banks of Sarayoo River in UP. Bhageerath founded the Kosal Desh. Dasharath, Raam, etc kings rukled from here. Nagnjit was also the King of Kosal Desh. His daughter Naagnjitee was married to Krishn. It is one of the seven Holy Cities also - (1) Ayodhyaa, (2) Dwaarakaa, (3) Haridwaar, (4) Kaancheepuram, (5) Mathuraa, (6) Ujjain, and (7) Vaaraanasee.
Baalaajee see Tirupati (Temple)
Baaranaavat - It is near Hastinaapur. This was the place where Duryodhan built Laakshaa Grih to burn Paandav. [Aangiras says, p 332, that it is near Vaaraanasee.]
Banaaras see Kaashee
Barhishmatee Nagaree (present Bithoor) - It has been mentioned at many places. Bhaagvat Puraan, 8/3 says that "When Varaah Bhagavaan was bringing the Prithvi up from Rasaatal, His furs fell at this place. After that the place was called Barhishmatee Nagaree. The same fur were converted into evergreen Kush and Kaas. When Manu got this Nagaree to live, he worshipped Shree Hari on the Aasan of this Kush and Kaas. The great king Sahstraarjun was also the king of this place.
Bhaarat Varsh - The actual name of the country known through the world as India. It spreads 2,000 miles from north to south, and 1,800 miles West to East. To its North there is Himaalaya mountain range extending 1,500 miles; to its south it is surrounded by Arabian Sea, Bay of Bangaal which are the parts of Indian Ocean. This name is based on the name of the King Bharat (son of Dushyant and Shakuntalaa) who ruled India during the years 2550-2500 BC.
Bhogvatee Nagaree - Naag live in Bhogvate Nagaree which is in Paataal Lok.
Bhuj - Bhuj is situated towards the West side of Bhaarat Varsh. It was inhabited by Bhujvarmaa, the son of Shreepati.
Bhuvaneshwar - In Udeesaa, its present capital. There is a temple of Shiv there. In that temple, Shiv Ling is flat not protruded.
Bodh Gayaa see Buddha Gayaa
- On the banks of Saraswatee river. It is
mainly the Northern part of Gangaa River which is spread from Bijnor to Prayaag and up
to Naimish Aranya in north.
Brij - Brij Bhoomi (area) covers Mathuraa, Gokul, Vrindaa Van etc places where Krishn played His Leelaa (in UP).
Buddha Gayaa - Name of the place where Gautam Buddh attained enlightenment, also called Bodhgayaa.
- Calcutta was founded by East India Company after the 350 year old Kaalee
Ghaat Temple in a small village that the British decided would be the site of
the new city. Kaalee was the patron deity of the Indian Huglee cult. Members of
this fraternity were assassinators and surrenders who worshipping Kaalee in a
rather Aghory way. Generally they disguised themselves as merchants or wealthy
travelers and robbed people and killed them as sacrifice by strangling
them. They came into the view in 13th century. They were finally suppressed
by British. Some 412 were killed and
Ceylon see Shree Lankaa
Champaa - The ancient name of Vietnaam. This country was ruled by Hindu kings from 300 AD to 1500 AD.
Champaa Puree - Present Bhaagalpur, in Bihaar.
China - Mentioned in Mahaabhaarat also. When Krishn came to Hastinaapur for peace proposal, Dhritraashtra wanted to give Him many costly gifts from various places. China is mentioned there as one of the places.
- A location about 35 miles west to Jagadalpur,
in MP, India, which abounds in temples and attracts thousands of pilgrims every year. Ram,
Lakshman and Seetaa stayed here for some time, 11 years, while in exile for 14 years. Tulasee
Daas Jee had Raam's Darshan here only with the help of Hanumaan Jee -
Chitrarath Garden - A mythical garden. Kuber's Garden in his capital Alakaa Puree.
Chole Desh - Once a powerful kingdom in southern India ruled by Chole clan - their region comprised f parts of what later became Taamil Naadu. The Chole kings were devotee of Shiv and they had built many Shiv temples throughout their kingdom. It is said that Chole kings spoke Telagoo language. For a long time the Eastern coast of Bhaarat was called Cholemandal or Coromandal Coast (corrupted from the first one). Raajraaj (reign 985-1014 AD) and his son Raajendra (reign 1014-1044 AD) were great conquerors and extended their kingdoms beyond the shores of India.
Dandak Van - Dandak is the name, and Van means forest. This place was inhabited by Dand, that is why its name is Dandak Van. According to Padm Puraan, p 119-120, Ikshwaaku's youngest son was very qualitative so he named him Dand and gave him the kingdom of Madhumatt between the two peaks of Vindhya Mountain. One spring, he met Shukraachaarya's daughter Arajaa and got attracted to her. He had her forcefully. Arajaa told everything to her father. Shukraachaarya cursed him that his everything would be destroyed and Indra would rain only dust for 7 days and 7 nights. Thus Dand's kingdom got destroyed within 1 year. Since then that place was called Dandak Van or Dandak Aranya. Raam lived here while He was in exile. It was extended between the rivers Godaavaree and Narmadaa in the southern MP and the northern Mahaaraashtra.
Dev Sthaan - Cities and places of Devtaa
Dev Nadee or Devsari - Another name of Gangaa.
Dev Prayaag see Rudra Prayaag
Devadhaanee Puree - A mythical city. This is Indra's city and is located to the east of Meru Parvat.
Devagarh - A place famous for sculpture on the walls of its temples made during Guptaa Period (350-550 AD).
Dhanushkoti - The tip of the land beyond Raameshwaram, closest to Shree Lankaa, so called because it is shaped like a bow.
- There are four Divine cities - the
abode of four Digpaal excluding Brahmaa Jee's abode - (1) Chandramaa's Vibhaavaree
Puree, located to the north of Meru Parvat. (2) Yam Raaj's Sanyamanee Puree located
to the south of Meru Parvat. (3) Indra's Devadhaanee Puree located to the east of Meru
Parvat. (4) Varun's Nimlochanee Puree located to the west of Meru Parvat. (5) Brahmaa's
Shreedhaan Puree is on Meru Parvat, in which his palace's name is Vairaaj, and in that
palace is his court named Kaantimatee.
Dwaarvatee see Dwaarakaa Puree
Dwait Van - Dwait is the name and Van means forest. Paandav lived here while they were in 12 years exile.
Ekchakraa Nagaree - Here Paandav and Kuntee passed some time after they escaped from Baaranaavat - the Laakshaa Grih incident. Vidur asked them to live in hiding for some time to see everybody's reaction in Hastinaapur. Here Bheem killed the Raakshas named Bakaasur.
Four Dhaam - Badree Naath, Kedaar Naath, Dwaarakaa and Raameshwaram - these are known as four Dhaam or Chaar Dhaam.
Gaandhaar Desh - According to Agni Puraan, p 19, Bharat, Raam's brother, divided the area around Sindhu River in two Pradesh - Gaandhaar and Madra Desh and gave them to his two sons - Taksh and Pushkar. Dhritraashtra's wife Gaandhaaree came from this place. It is the Northwest region of Saptsindhu, later it became a part of Afagaanistaan. At that time Subal was the king there, and Shakuni was the prince.
Gangaa Saagar - Mentioned in Raamaayan, 2/12. A place of pilgrimage where Gangaa River merges in the Bay of Bangaal. A holy dip there on Makar Sankraanti is considered by many of immense religious value.
Gangotree - The place in Himaalaya mountains where Gangaa River emerges - source of Gangaa
Gaud Desh - Mentioned in Padm Puraan, Paataal Khand, in the reference of Raam's Ashwamedh Yagya. It was situated on the banks of Kaaveree River.
Gayaa - Gayaa is the city which Vishnu is said to have blessed with power to absolve all temporal sins in the same way as Vaaraanasee. This city is situated in present Bihaar state and is famous for doing Shraaddh, oblations to forefathers especially during Aashwin Krishn Paksh Pitri Paksh). Balaraam Jee also did Shraadh here while he was on his Teerth Yaatraa at the time of Mahaabhaarat war.
Giri Raaj see Govardhan Parvat
Giribraj or Girivraj
- Jaraasandh was the king of Magadh Desh.
It seems that Giribraj was his capital, because Krishn, Arjun and Bheem went there only
to fight with him at the time of Raajsooya Yagya of Yudhishthir.
Gokarn - A holy site on Maalaabaar coast where pilgrims go to worship Shiv Jee. It is related to Parashuraam Jee. See also Prashuraam Kshetra
Gokul - Gokul is a village after crossing Yamunaa River from Mathuraa. Krishn was born in Mathuraa, Kans' prison, and was taken by His father Vasudev to Nand and Yashodaa's house in Gokul. It is located in UP.
Griddhkoot see Raajgrih
Gurjar Desh - The present Gujaraat state.
Haridwaar - It is one of the seven holy cities - (1) Ayodhyaa (UP), (2) Mathuraa (UP), (3) Haridwaar (Uttaaraanchal), (4) Kaashee or Vaaraanasee or Banaaras (UP), (5) Kaanchee (Tamilnaadu), (6) Avantee or Ujjain (MP), and (7) Dwaarakaa (Gujaraat). The sacred River Gangaa descends here from Himaalaya through Rishikesh, a small town just a few miles up the stream. Its old name is Maayaavatee. Many people go there to perform Shraaddh. Every year, every six year a bigger one, and every 12 yhears the biggest fair called Kumbh Melaa is held here, in Prayaag (Ilaahaabaad), Ujjain and Naasik on the day of Makar Sankraanti which falls on 13th or 14th January every year. From here, people go to Badaree Naath, Kedaar Naath, Gangotree, Yamunotree etc holy places.
Hastinaapur - It was inhabited by Hastee named king. Hastee was in the line of Dushyant ->Bharat ->Bhumanyu ->Suhotra ->Hastee. Its name is after the elephant. In fact Hasti means horse as well as elephant, but its elephant version is more popular. It was the capital of king Prateep, Shaantanu, Dhritraashta, Duryodhan etc. Excavations in 1950 unearthed the traces of Hastinaapur. The materials found there is of about 1000 BC, while from the later levels some iron weapons have also been unearthed.
Ilaahaabaad - Popularly written as Allahabad. Ilaahaabaad is not only famous for Sangam (Gangaa, Yamunaa and Saraswatee Rivers meet here) and but also for Kumbh Melaa, every 12 years. it has a history also of its own.
Indraavatee - Present Indore in MP. Inhabited by Agni Vanshee Indrapaal. (Bhavishya Puraan, 3/18)
Indraprasth - Old name of Delhi. Its original name was Khaandavprasth. This place was given to Paandav by Dhritraashtra after Hastinaapur was divided between Kaurav and Paandav. Thus it was founded by Paandav. They developed it later and named it as Indraprasth after Indra as he helped them to develop it.
Ishtikaa - Present Etah in eastern UP.
- In Odeesaa. One of the four Dhaam in India - Badaree Naath, Raameshwaram, Jagannaath Puree and Dwaarakaa. Jagannaath Mandir is the
temple of Bhagavaan Krishn, His sister Subhadraaa and brother Balaraam Jee. Its Rath
Yaatraa is very famous in which three Rath (chariots) of Balaraam, Krishn and Subhadraa
are out on the road. People mostly visit it in the month of Aashaadh (June-July) when close
to 200,000 pilgrims come here to witness Rath Yaatraa which takes place on Shukla Dwiteeyaa.
Lord Jagannaath leaves here on an enormous canopied chariot, 45 feet high, 35 feet square with
16 wheels of 7 feet diameter pulled by thousands of devotees. This commemorates the journey
of Shree Krishn from Vrindaavan to Mathuraa. More than 6,000 priests and guides serve here.
It is believed that Shree Krishn visited Puree along with Balaraam and Subhadraa, so all the
three idols are there.
Jaipur see Jayapur
- Mentioned in many scriptures wherever the
his story of Earth is given. The ancient name for the then known portions of Asia. It
included - Bhaarat (Afgaanistaan, Paakistaan, Nepaal, India), Brahmaa (Burmaa, Myanmaar),
Malaya Desh (Malaysia), Yava, Suvarn Dweep, Vaarun (Jaavaa, Sumaatraa, Borneo in Indonesia),
Kaamboj (Combodia, Laos), Champaa (Vietnaam), Shyaam (Siam, Thailand), Lanka (Sree Lankaa),
Tibbat, parts of Chinaa and Mongoliyaa.
Janasthaan - Mentioned in Raamaayan and Maanas. Name of Panchavatee region. In Raam's times this place was under Raavan's control. Shoorpanakhaa lived there.
Jantar-Mantar - The astronomer Prince Jaya Singh, the founder of Jayapur city, built five astronomical observatories, one each at Dehlee, Mathuraa, Ujjayine, Jayapur and Vaaraanasee in c 1100 AD. They are popularly known as Jantar-Mantar.
Jayapur - A major city in Raajsthaan, known as red city also. The astronomer Prince Jaya Singh inhabited it.
Jepore see Jayapur - This spelling was used for Jaipur in 1908.
Kaal Hastee - A town in Aandhra Pradesh, just North of Tirupati. The temple of Shiv attracts thousands of pilgrims there.
- Name of a country, later called Cambodia.
Cambodia word is derived from Sanskrit word Kambuj. Part of Cambodia was called Funnan in
the 2nd century AD. This kingdom was established by a Hindu king named Kaundinya
with his descendents ruled it for a 100 years. In the 4th century AD another descendent of
Kaundinya took over the country and established Hindu culture throughout the country. Hindu
ruled this country till the end of the 13th century AD, and where Ved were recited regularly.
The last Hindu king of Kaambuj was Jayavarmaa, the 7th, who extended his empire to include
what later became northern Myanmaar, Vietnaam, Laos, Thailand, and northern Malaysia. In
the 13th century AD, Kaambuj was taken by a Buddhist monarch. From then it was ruled by
Buddhist. There is a famous Vishnu temple of Angkor Vat which reflects the height of achievement
of Hindu architecture. Its many ideas have been incorporated in Taaj Mahal.
Kaamod Pur - Near Haridwaar, built by Vishwakarmaa. [Mentioned in Padm Puraan, 2/15]
Kaamyak Van - Kaamyak Van was near Hastinaapur. It was the first place where Paandav stayed after the journey of three days and three nights. Here only they met Kirmeeraa, the brother of Bakaasur, and Bheem killed him. Here only Vidur came to see them.
Kaanchee Nagaree - [Mentioned in Padm Puraan, 4/4] It is one of the seven holy cities - (1) Ayodhyaa (UP), (2) Mathuraa (UP), (3) Haridwaar (Uttaraakhand), (4) Kaashee or Vaaraanasee or Banaaras (UP), (5) Kaanchee (Tamil Naadu), (6) Avantee or Ujjain (MP), and (7) Dwaarakaa (Gujaraat).
Kaanyakubj Desh (see also Kannauj) - Present Kannauj in UP. Raashtrapaal had two sons - Vijaya and Prajaya. Prajaya left his home and did Tap for Shaaradaa Devee on the banks of Gangaa for 12 years. Shaaradaa Devee appeared before him in the form of a girl (Kanyaa) playing a flute and riding a horse. She asked him - "O prince, Why are you worshipping Shiv? You will soon get the fruit of your Tap by me." Prajaya said - "Devee, I salute you. Please give me a new city. Hearing this Devee gave him a beautiful horse and she went away towards south playing her flute. Prajaya followed her on that horse closing his eyes towards west. He arrived at a place where there was a Pakshiraat, named Markan. He got scared to see that so he opened his eyes. He saw a beautiful city. In its northern side was Gangaa, in its south was Paanduraa, in its west was Eesh Saritaa, and in its east was Markan bird's place. This place was a little odd shaped. Because of being built by a girl (Kanyaa) and being a little odd shaped, it became famous by the name as Kaanyakubj.
Kaikaya Desh - Kaikeyee was from Kaikaya Desh. It later became Panjaab of Paakistaan. See Magadh Desh for its relative location.
- Present Orissa. The
name of this kingdom became immortal in the history of India because of the tragic invasion
of Emperor Ashok in 260 BC and captured it after killing 100,000 soldiers. More than this
number of helpers and civilians died and 150,000 were made prisoners of war. Although Ashok
won this war but it filled his mind with extreme remorse, so after this was he decided to
win people not by war, but by love and goodness. He adopted Buddhism the same year and spread
it to the best of his ability and capacity. Kaling kingdom again prospered.
Kambodia see Kaambuj Country
Kannauj - Name of a city in western UP. This is one of the oldest cities in the world. It is 4,000 or more years old. It was the capital of Kaanyakubj where Jahnu (who drank Gangaa's water), the ancestor of king Kushik (grandfather of Vishwaamitra) ruled. This kingdom came to an end when Vishwaamitra decided to become a Braahman ascetic. It used to be a center for learning for long time. King Harshvardhan, in the beginning of the 7th century AD made his capital. During the same time Chinese traveler Huen Saang also came here.
Kannauj became famous again after a lapse of 100 years, when Yashovarman became
its king and extended his kingdom what later became Bangaal. In the 12th century
AD Jayachand became its ruler. He troubled Hindu rulers, strengthened foreign
invaders and thus its culture decayed completely.
Kanyaa Kumaaree - Is in Southernmost tip of Bhaarat Varsh. Balaraam Jee went there when he was on his pilgrimage at the time of Mahaabhaarat war. It is the place of Durgaa Devee.
Kapil Sthaan - In east - Gangaasaagar.
Kapilvastu - Also spelt as Kapilyavastu. The town where Siddhaarth (later known as Gautam Buddha or Shaakya Muni) was born. At the time of Buddh's birth it was in Bhaarat Varsh but presently it is a part of Lumbini Zone in Nepal. It is situated on the banks of Rohinee River, 130 Kms North of Kaasheepur in southern Nepal. Gautam Buddh, propagated Bauddh Dharm from this place. He was born here in 6th century BC and left for enlightenment. King Shuddhodan, his father, ruled here only. Bhavishya Puraan. 3/5 describes it as Pattan City. It was the first capital of Lichchhivi Vansh kings. Before Kapilvastu, kings from Udayaashwa to Mahaanand (for 170 years) ruled from Paataliputra.
Karnaatak Desh - Bhavishya Puraan, 3/27 mentions this name for the first Sat Yug in Vaivaswat Manvantar (7th and present Manvantar). This shows that Karnaatak Desh was present at time also.
Karoosh Desh - King Paundrak was its king. Krishn killed him.
Kaushaambee - An ancient city situated in the West of Ilaahaabaad, some 40 kms away. According to the MBH, Kausam was founded by one of the descendents of the Paandav who left Hastinaapur when it was destroyed by floods from the Gangaa River. In Buddha's times it was the capital of Vats King Udayan.
Kaushal Desh see Kosal Desh
Kedaar Naath - The name of of the mountain in the Himaalaya where the emple of Kedaar Naath (Shiv) is located.
Khaandav Van - It was in Khaandav Prasth area. Arjun satisfied Agni Dev by burning it and got Gaandeev bow, two inexhaustible quivers and a Divine chariot from him.
Khaandavprasth - This was a barren area near Hastinaapur which was given to Paandav when Dhritraashtra divided his kingdom between Kaurav and Paandav. Later when it was inhabited, it was named Indraprasth. It had Khaandav Van also which was burned to satiate Agni Dev.
Khajuraaho - The sight of 85 temples in the Chhatarpur district in MP. The temples are unique in their sculptures. These temples though of very high quality depict the most intimate postures of sensuous love-making. Though they are called religious but they are of pornographic nature. These were ordered to be built by Chandelaa kings during 950-1050 AD. These temples are dedicated to Shiv, Vishnu and Jain Teerthankar Aadinaath and Paarshwanaath Jee. There are some writings of historical importance carved on various stone slabs which form a part of the temples.
Kishkindhaa - This name appears in both Vaalmeeki Raamaayan and Tulasee's Maanas. Vaanar Raaj Baali and his brother Sugreev lived here. When Seetaa was abducted by Raavan, Raam was directed to this place to take Sugreev's help, so He came here. This area is supposed to be present Hampee area - 12 kms away from the Hospet in Karnaatak State.
It is also believed that Hanumaan was born here on Anjanaadri Hill.
- A temple of Soorya Dev in Konaark,
Udeesaa. It was built in 1250 BC during the reign of Raajaa Nrasinh I. It is in
the shape of a chariot, drawn by seven horses. It is one of the most extraordinary
pieces of architecture. It has 12 wheels (for 12 months) with 30 spokes in it
(for 30 days). It has some scenes of love expressions which are pornographic.
Ksheer Saagar - A mythical ocean. The ocean of milk in which Vishnu rests. This was the ocean which was churned for Amrit.
Kulind Desh - It was in North-East of Magadh Desh. See also Magadh Desh for its relative location.
Kundinpur see also Vidarbh Desh - Capital of Vidarbh Desh.
- Present Maheshwar in MP, near Indore.
Maalavaa see Avantee Desh
Maalyavatee Nagaree - Inhabited by Maalyavaan Daitya. [Bhavishya Puraan, 3/18]
Maanasarovar Lake see Kailaash Maanasarovar
Madhu Van - The old name of Mathuraa Nagaree. First Dhruv was sent here to do Tap. Before that it was under Madhu named Daitya that is why it was called Madhu Van. After that it came under Lavanaasur. Later Shatrughn killed Lavanaasur, coronated his son there as its king. He inhabited it as Mathuraa Nagaree.
Madhu Van - This Madhu Van is mentioned in Tulasee's Maanas. It is not a place as such. It was a forest belonging to Sugreev. Hanumaan and his Vaanar ate lots of fruits here and destroyed it without the permission of Sugreev while coming back from Lankaa after having search Seetaa.
Madra Desh - According to Agni Puraan, p 19, Bharat divided the area around Sindhu River in two Pradesh - Gaandhaar and Madra Desh and gave them to his two sons - Taksh and Pushkar. Paandu's wife Maadree was from here. It was in the North of Magadh Desh, in the general region of Siyaalkot.
Magadh Desh - East to Paanchaal (Panjaab) Desh is called Magadh Desh. [Bhavishya Puraan, 3/5] Later in the same chapter its location is described thus - In its South-East is Kaling Desh (Orissa), in its south was Avantee Desh, in its south-west (Nairritya) is Aanart Desh (Gujarat); in its west is Sindhu Desh, in its north-west (Vaayavya) is Kaikaya Desh, in its north is Madra Desh, in its north-east (Eeshaan) is Kulind Desh. In Mahaabhaarat times, Jaraasandh was its king, and Giribraj was its capital, because Krishn, Arjun and Bheem went there only to fight with him at the time of Raajsooya Yagya of Yudhishthir.
Malaya Desh - The ancient name of the country later called Malayasia.
Malay Dweep - Maaldeev - a group of islands in Arabian Sea.
Mani Mahesh Lake - Mani Mahesh Lake is 27 Km from Bharmaur. Mani Mahesh Lake (4,115 meter above sea level) takes about 3-4 days. Lord Shiv is believed to reside on this snow-covered mountain. The lake and peak are considered sacred and it is said that no one has been able to climb to the summit. People point out rock projections, human-like in appearance, and say that one is of a hermit and other of a shepherd, frozen stiff during their futile effort to reach the top. A fair is held at Bharmaur in August every year. Mani Mahesh Yyaatraa is held from Janmaashtamee to Raadhaa Ashtamee every year. It is believed that on this occasion Shiv and Paarvatee take a bath in the Lake.
Manipur - A kingdom in ancient India which later became Manipur State, same as Manipur. Arjun married Chitraangadaa from Manipur kingdom only.
Maru Desh - [Bhavishya Puraan, 3/3] Arab, Iraan, Iraaq.
Mathuraa - It is one of the seven holy cities - (1) Ayodhyaa (UP), (2) Mathuraa (UP), (3) Haridwaar, (4) Kaashee or Vaaraanasee or Banaaras (UP), (5) Kaanchee (Tamilnaadu), (6) Avantee or Ujjain (MP), (7) Dwaarakaa (Gujaraat). Previously it was Madhu Van, because Madhu named Daitya owned it. Later it was named as Mathuraa. According to Aangiras (p 275) it was originally Madhuraa and one of the 7 sacred cities - the others being Ayodhyaa, Maayaa (Haridwaar), Kaashee (Vaaraanasee), Kaanchee (Kaancheepuram), Avantikaa (Ujjain) and Dwaaraavatee (Dwaarakaa). This city is said to have been conquered by Shatrughn, the younger brother of Shree Raam around 1700 BC. Although its name suggests some connection with the ancestor of Shree Krishn named Madhu. Before Shree Krishn was born, Ugrasen, the King of Mathuraa was forcibly dethroned by his demonic son Kans and was imprisoned. Eventually he was killed by Krishn. Some of the best sculptures were carved in Mathuraa. It has one of the finest archaeological museums of India. Old name of the region around Mathuraa was called Shoorsen.
Mishra Desh - Present day Egypt.
Mithilaa Nagaree - Capital of Videh kingdom (later North Bihaar). Janak Vansh was from Mithilaa. Seetaa was from Mithilaa, its king's daughter, that is why she was called as Mithilesh also. This area is in present Bihaar.
Mountains - There are many mountains.
Mukti Naath - Situated in present Nepaal, it is mentioned in Vishnu Puraan and Gandakee Mahaatmya. See also Mukti Naath Temple.
Naathdwaar - A village in Raajsthaan, now known as Naathdwaaraa, about 25 miles north of Udayapur where there is temple of Krishn. It is said to have been built in 12th century AD.
Naimish Aranya - This area is famous as Muni's dwelling where they do many Yagya, discourses etc. It is also considered a holy place - a Teerth. Most scriptures are said and heard here.
Nandan Van - A mythical garden. Garden of Indra in his capital Swarg. See also Dev Sthaan.
Nandee Graam - Mentioned in Tulasee's Maanas, Raamaayan and Padm Puraan. It is located near Ayodhyaa Nagaree. Bharat lived here after Raam left for forest for exile. He used to administer his kingdom from here only. When Raam returned from exile, He met Bharat here only.
- A small country in the north of
India - before it was the only Hindu kingdom in the world, but recently it has
also become secular country. It has several Hindu pilgrim places, such as
Kailaash Parvat, Maansarovar Lake,
Nimlochanee Puree - Varun's city. Located to the west of Meru Parvat. His garden's name is Ritumaan. See also Dev Sthaan.
Omkaareshwar Teerth - One of the 12 Jyotirling place. Near Ujjain, in MP.
- Name of a kingdom created during
the later Vaidik period (1800-1100 BC). Where in the 20th century, stood the
Barelee, Badaayoon, and Farrukhaabaad districts of Uttar Pradesh. The first ruler
of Paanchaal Desh was Samar and the capital of Paanchaal was Kaampilya, when the
king of Paanchaal annexed the territory of Kaanyakubj kingdom. Later Kaanyakubj
became an important town of Paanchaal Desh. One of the later kings of Paanchaal was
Drupad whose daughter was Krishnaa became famous as Draupadee or Paanchaalee.
Paandya Desh - An ancient Kingdom in southern India with Madurai as its capital
Paataliputra - Present Patanaa in Bihaar. It was the capital of Nand and Maurya Dynasties and was the center of learning for hundreds of years. A few kings, from Udayaashwa to Mahaanand, ruled from here up to 170 years after ruling from Raajgrih (for about 500 years). [Bhavishya Puraan, 3/5]. Paataliputra seems to have been the largest and greatest city in the world during Mauryan rule. It was 8 miles long and 1 and 1/2 mile wide, surrounded by timber wall with 570 towers and a moat 600 cubits (900 feet) wide and 30 feet deep.
Pampaa Pur - It is a well-known place of Raamaayan where Raam and Lakshman took some rest while going to Rishyamook Parvat to see Sugreev.
Panchvatee - A Location in Naasik town on River Godaavaree. Raam lived here while He was in exile. Shoorpanakhaa came here. Khar, Dooshan and Trishiraa were also killed here. Seetaa was abducted from here only.
Pashupati Naath - Temple of Shiv in Kaathmandoo Nepaal. See also Pashupati Naath Temple.
Patanaa see Paataliputra
Pattan City see Kapilvastu
Poorv Kashyap Puree - Pauraanik name of Kashmeer.
Praag Jyotish Pur
10/u10 says - It was the capital of Narakaasur (Narak Asur or Bhaumaasur, or
Bhaum Asur). Krishn went there, killed him, married 16,000 princesses whom he had
imprisoned there. It was the capital of Kaamaroop (later Aasaam) country. This
country was also called Praag Jyotish after the name of its capital. After
Pradaan City - This name appears in Bhavishya Puraan, 3/4, in the reference that how Mlechchh people increased in Kali Yug. Hari arranged a beautiful large garden, in the East of Pradaan City, for Aadam and Havyavatee. There was a Paap tree there. Kali Yug took the form of a snake and fed Havyavatee the bad fruit wrapped in Goolar leaves. This broke the rule set by Hari and cause Havyavatee to bear many sons who were called Mlechchh.
Pratishthaan Pur - Inhabited by Sanvaran in the area of 5 Yojan or 20 Kos. According to V-Raamaayan, 7/32/90, "Raajaa Il started ruling the kingdom by inhabiting a city named Pratishthaan Pur".
Prayaag - Commonly known as Allahabad (Ilaahaabaad) in UP. It is the most mentioned place in Hindu scriptures. In fact Prayaag means where two rivers meet. Thus with this definition any place can be called Prayaag where two rivers meet. But in speaking, Prayaag is Ilaahaabaad where Gangaa and Yamunaa meet. In olden times Saraswatee River also met them here, but now it has disappeared from there, so only two rivers remain. While going to Badaree Naath Jee there are five places where two rivers meet, and they all are called Prayaag - (1) Dev Prayaag, (2) Rudra Prayaag, (3) Karn Prayaag, (4) , (5). Some other Teerth places may also be located at the meeting place of two rivers, which can also be called Prayaag.
Punyapur - Present Poonaa, in Mahaaraashtra.
Puree or Jagannaath Puree - Puree is the short name of Jagannaath Puree located in Udeesaa. Also called Purushottam Teerth.
Purushottam Teerth see also Utkal - Present Jagannaath Puree Kshetra in Udeesaa. [Naarad Puraan, 2/12]
Pushkar City and Lake - The most sacred lake near Ajamer, Raajasthaan, India. Here is the only Brahmaa Jee's Temple of India. It is believed that after doing Teerth Yaatraa for four Dhaam (Badaree Naath, Kedaar Naath, Dwaarakaa and Rameshwaram), a visit to this place is necessary. Without visiting this place, that Yaatraa is incomplete.
Raajgeer see Raajgrih
Raajgrih - [Bhavishya Puraan, 3/5] Present Raajgeer in Bihar State, 10 miles away from Naalandaa. It was the capital of Maagadh State kings until Paataliputra (present Patanaa) was formed (it was about 500 years later). Buddha delivered many sermons here. Bimbisaar became his disciple here only. Ratnagiri Hills are near Raajgrih. A ropeway goes there to Shaanti Stoop and Monasteries built by Chinese monks. This place is also known as Griddhrakoot.
Raajyaputra Desh - [Bhavishya Puraan, 3/5]
Raameshwaram - One of the four Dhaam, in Tamilnaadu, in Southern India. The other three are Badaree Naath Jee in Himaalaya, Jagannaath Puree in Udeesaa, and Dwaarakaa Jee in Dwaarakaa. This temple is of Shiv Jee. It is believed that when Raam was going to Lankaa to bring Seetaa back from Raavan, He installed Shiv Ling on the coast of the sea just before building the bridge from the mainland to Lankaa. Later this temple was erected at that place. The present temple was started in 1350 AD, and was completed in some 300 years. It is one of the most beautiful temples. See also Raameshwaram Temple.
Rahah-Kreedaavatee - Maya Daanav built it for Daitya in Kali Yug. [Bhavishya Puraan, 3/32]
- Varun's garden in the city of Nimlochanee Puree,
located to the west of Meru Parvat.
Rivers - There are many rivers mentioned in our religious literature, but some are mentioned repeatedly. Gangaa, Yamunaa, Sarayoo, Gomatee, Son etc.
Rudra Prayaag- Rudra Prayaag is one of the 5 Prayaag (confluence of two rivers) at Alaknandaa and Mandaakinee Rivers, going towards Badaree Naath, in Rudra Prayaag District. Alaknandaa then proceeds towards Dev Prayaag where it joins the Bhaagerathee River to form the River Gangaa. It is situated at the height of 2,936 feet (895 meters). It can be reached from
Haridwar to Rishikesh 24 km
Rishikesh to Dev Prayaag 74 km
Dev Prayaag to Srinagar 34 km (not of Kashmeer)
Srinagar to Rudra Prayag 33 km
Samant Panchak Kshetra - The present Kuru Kshetra. Before Kuru Kshetra it was called Samant Panchak Kshetra. Here Parashuraam Jee filled five ponds with the blood of Kshatriya, when he killed them 21 times. See also Kshetra.
- This city is of Yam Raaj and is
located to the south of Meru Parvat.
Saptsindhu - The region of seven rivers. The seven rivers are - Sindhu, Vitastaa (Jhelam), Asiknee or Chandrabhaagaa (Chinaab), Parushnee or Iraavatee (Raavee), Shutudree (Satalaj), Vipaashaa (Vyaas) and Saraswatee. This was the region to which Aarya migrated from the valley of Hindukush Parvat. It is here the Ved were composed during 3000-1100 BC, and the Vaidik religion and culture prospered. A group left this region in the beginning and settle in Eeraan of today. The basic original religion of Eeraan is Vaidik. Later it came to known as Zoroastrianism and is still followed by Paarasees of India.
Shaal Graam - (1) Vishnu's another form in black stone. (2) Shaal is a name and Graam means village. It is a Teerth place and is often mentioned in context of doing Tap at that place.
Shonitpur - [Bhaagvat Puraan, 10/u13] - Raajaa Bali once ruled here. His daughter Ushaa and Krishn's grandson Aniruddh were married there only.
Shoorsen Pradesh - Old name of the region around Mathuraa.
Shraavastee - A city near Ayodhyaa, or 150 km NE from Lakhnaoo. It was an important city in the times of Buddha.
- Shreenidhaan is the city on Meru
Parvat where Brahmaa Jee lives. His palace is called Vairaaj and his court's name
Shreepati Desh - This country was inhabited by Shreepati, the son of Sindhudweep.
Sindhu Desh - [Bhavishya Puraan, 3/19] Nearby land of Sindhu River. In Shukla's descendents, Mod Sinh's son Sindhu Varmaa ruled from here and thus this area got famous with the name of Sindhu Desh. Jayadrath (Duryodhan's sister's husband) was the king of Sindhu Desh.
Sinhal Dweep - Name given to Shree Lankaa by Vijaya Sinh of Gujaraat (Laad Desh), when he established his kingdom in that island. The word Ceylon is derived from Sinhal.
Somnaath - In Gujaraat. There is beautiful Shiv Temple there. It has been robbed 17 times by Mahamood Gazanavee of Gazanee.
Son Prayaag -
Sooktimatee - The capital of Chedi Desh. Its name is said to be after oyster. According to MBH 7/22 Arjun came here after defeating Magadh's king (Sahadev's son and Jaraasandh's grandson).
Swarn Dweep - Old name of Sumaatraa.
Takshshilaa - Now in Paakistaan. It is said that it was inhabited by Raam's brother's son Taksh (he he had two sons - Taksh and Pushkar). Magadh, in present day Bihaar and Uttar Pradesh, was the kingdom and Paataliputra was its capital. Chaanakya's life was around these two cities - Paataliputra and Takshshilaa. Takshshilaa University was a learning center for more than 500 years.
Tanjaur - Old name of Thanjaavur - in Tamilnaadu State. See Thanjaavar below.
Thanjaavar - An ancient city in Tamil Naadu, famous for its 74 temples, especially for Brihadeeshwar Shiv Temple constructed during 1003-1010 AD, by Chol King Raajraaj the Great. Its tower soars 200 feet high. The dome of the tower rests on a single stone weighing 80 tons. A 4-mile long inclined plane was built in order to take the stone to 200 feet height an inch at a time. Its wall paintings are excellent.
Tirupati (Temple) - This is probably the corrupt for of Shree or Sree, used in Tamil language. So Shree means Lakshmee and Pati means Swaamee or Lord or husband. This temple of Vishnu is located in Tirupati village in Aandhra Pradesh (AP) on top of a beautiful 2,500 feet high mountain called Venkataachal. In this temple Vishnu is addressed as Tirupati, Venkateshwar or Baalaa Jee. Millions of Rupees are received in donation every year. He is believed to be the richest temple of India.
Tiruvannamalaai - A town about 80 miles southwest of Chennai (Madraas) in Tamil Naadu State, famous for its Arunaachal Temple containing Tejo Lingam (the Fire incarnation of Lord Shiv). It is one of the largest temples in the world extending its boundaries over 25 acres and containing a courtyard with a 1,000 pillars.
Totaadri - Mentioned in Bhavishya Puraan, 3/15; MBH
Tripuree - Name of a city which at one time was the capital of Chedi Kingdom.
Udayagiri see also Udaya Giri - A village in Vidishaa, MP, famous for Vishnu temples carved out of a solid rock mountain.
Udayapur - A city in Raajasthaan, known as white city also.
Utkal Kshetra - Present Orissa. [Naarad Puraan, 2/12]
Utpal Aranya - Or Utpal Van. Utpal means lotus flowers and Aranya means forest. [Bhavishya Puraan, 3/24] The place where Vaalmeeki Jee did Jaap of Raam Naam for 1,000 years. Before it was a forest, but because of the effect of Raam Naam Jaap it filled with lotus flowers. Dhaumya Rishi suggested this Van to Paandav also to go there and stay there for some time while Arjun was away to Swarg to obtain Divine weapons. [MBH, G-4-Van/16] It was in Paanchaal Desh at that time.
Vaaraanasee see Kaashee
Vaarun Dweep - The name of the island of Borneo when it was a Hindu kingdom. Vaarun was pronounced Borun by the colonizers who perhaps went from Bang Desh (Bangaal), which then ultimately became Borneo.
Vaikunth - City of Vishnu
Vaishaalee - A town founded by King Vishaal in Bihaar. A novel is there on its name - "Vaishaalee Kee Nagar Vadhoo".
Vats - Area around Mathuraa
- A mythical city. Chandramaa's
city. Located to the North of Meru Parvat.
Vidarbh Desh - Mention of this country is found in Bhaagvat and Mahaabhaarat books. Its king was Bheeshmak. He had Rukmee etc five sons and one daughter Rukminee who was kidnapped by Krishn. Its capital was Kundinpur. Perhaps this region was around Naagpur, Mahaaraashtra.
Videh - Name of the kingdom where King Seeradhwaj Janak, the father of Seetaa, ruled at one time - later northern part of Bihaar and Nepaal.
Vidishaa - Name of the city in MP, located at the Sangam of Betavaa and Bes Rivers, was once capital of Shung Dynasty. In the 5th and 6th centuries it was known as Bes Nagar in Palee language. Ashok once governed it before he became Emperor
Viraat Nagar - Its King was Viraat and Paandav spent their one year of Agyaatvaas (incognito) here in his kingdom after completing their exile of 12 years.
Vishaalaa Puree see Badaree Kshetra
Vishaalaapur see Badaree Kshetra
Vrindaa Van - Near Gokul, where Krishn lived for some time. Here He did Raas Leelaa also with Gopee.
Yava Island - Its reference comes in V-Raamaayan, 4/40. The Yava Island is taken as the present day Jaavaa Island, and the seven kingdoms referred to may be compared to Jaavaa, Sumaatraa, Baali, Indonesia etc. It is believed that around 10 to 8 millennia BC, there used to be a continuous landmass from Burmaa to Central America, which is why Maayaa civilization has flourished there via this route. Later in time due to tectonic activity, the northern India's landmass rose up and southern landmass sunk down. [Chronology of Ancient Bharat, by Prof. K. Srinivasa Raghavan, published by "Sri Aurobindo Study Circle, Triplicane, Chennai, 1896]. It is therefore presumable that the islands of Indian Archipelago are so numerous and so nearly situated. However, this splintering of islands may have happened by the time of Raamaayan, since the Sage-poet of Raamaayan is citing them as Dweep (islands).
Regarding the difference between the names of Yava and Jaavaa, the word ya in Sanskrit becomes ja in vernacular's Tadbhava Pad. Hence Yava became Java, as Sinh Puree "lion-city" became the present day Singapore.
On this point of Yava or Jaavaa island as said in Raamaayan, Shree Kedaarnath Basu notes in his "Hindu Civilization": "The reader may note here that Jaavaa Dweep described as consisting of seven kingdoms was probably the group of islands now called the Indian Archipelago, of which Jaavaa was at that time the most powerful. The chief islands of this group are Sumaatraa [pronounce as, su mitra = good friend], Jaavaa, Baali [the benefactor]; Borneo [or Varun, the Rain-god], and Celebes. More details are with: Vivekananda Kendra, Kanyaakumari, who are publishing "Vivekananda Kendra Patrikaa" an encyclopedic journal on Ancient India.
Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/06
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