Dictionary Of Hindu Religion | Locations
By the 4th century BC, Tamilnaadu was under the rule of three dynasties - the Chole occupied the coastal area East of Thanjaavar and inland to the head of the Kaaveree Delta at Tiruchee. Periodically they were a strong military power. One of their Princes, Elaaraa conquered the island of Shree Lankaa in the 2nd century BC. The center, Madurai, Tirunalvelee and a part of Southern Keral were under Paandyaa; while the Cheraa controlled much of what is known Keral on the West Coast of the peninsula. These three kingdoms are mentioned in Ashokan edicts of c 257 BC. Although not much is known, other than that the Paandyaa had good relations with the Mauryan Emperor.
Later Paandyaa returned in power after the decline of the Chole and ruled from 1175-1300. Telagoo speaking area was under the rule of the Aandhra from about 230 BC and reigned for 450 years. An ivory carving from them is found in Pompeii, Italy.
To the South of the Aandhra, the Pallav of Kaanchee came to the power in the power in the 4th century AD. They also ruled there for 400 years. They are thought to have come from the Nand, may have had connections with Paarthian. Mamallpuram (Mahaabalipuram) became an important port in the 7th century, when the Rath (chariots) were carved, followed in the 8th century by the building of the Mamallpuram shore Temple during the reign of Nrasinhvarman II in 8th century AD.
The Chaalukya, 543-755 AD ruled Dakkan (region between Narmadaa and Kaaveree including present day Mahaaraashtra, Karnaatak and Western Aandhra Pradesh) from their capital Badaamee. Chole returned to power with the decline of the Pallav in 850 AD and ruled until 1173 AD. Within a century they defeated, during the reign of Raajraajaa I, they defeated the Paandyaa and the Cheraa (from Keral) who controlled whole Taaminaadu, Shree Lankaa, the region of Aandhra, Southern Karnaatak and the islands of Laakshaa Dweep and the Maaldeevs. Hoysal extended their Empire from Krishnaa to Kaaveree rivers (1022-1342 AD), but failed to resist Muslim power from North in the mid-14th century and the entire Empire collapsed.
Arrival of Muslims
Advent of Europeans
There are two main religious sects there - Shaivites and Vaishnavites. The Vaishnav mystic and saint Raamaanuj is believed to live there between 1017 and 1137 AD. Fleeing from Shaivite Chole in Tamilnaadu he founded the Shree Vaishnav sect. Madhwa, a Kannad Braahman, founded the Madhwa sect in the 13th century. The Telagoo Braahman Nimbaark (13th century), and Vallabhaachaarya (1479-1531 AD) carried the message to Vaaraanasee.
Their Dosai has a long history, as detailed recipes have been found in medieval rock inscriptions. Haidaraabaad, AP, food, because of Muslim effect, is non-vegetarian also.
The first ice arrived in Kalkattaa,
Bangaal in 1833 from New England, USA. Then Frederic Tudor of Boston discovered that it would
remain frozen if covered in sawdust. So Tudor started cutting ice blocks in New England winter
and transporting them all around the world. The "Ice House" in Madraas was built in
early 1840s and survived for about 30 years until refrigeration was invented. Later it was named
Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/06
Updated on 11/17/11