Samvat in short. A measurement of year according to the rounds of Jupiter
planet around the Sun. There are many kinds of year are in use on this
Earth, such as Gregorian calendar, Julian calendar. In India there are
Vikram Samvat and Shak
Samvat for Hindu, Hijari year for Muslim. The most commonly used and
known throughout the world is the Gregorian year measured according to
the Sanskrit term for one year. In Hindu tradition there are are 60
Samvatsar (see their names in
Kaal Maan and
Kaal Chakra have been well defined bringing out concepts of Ayan (2 Ayan),
Ritu (6 Ritu - 2 months each), Maas (2 Paksh each), Abdhi Vatsar, Yug (4
Yug) and so on so forth. We also have Samvatsar according to various
approaches like Chandra Maan, Saur Maan, Baarhamanasa. It is the last
one related to Brihaspati/ Guru is according Brihaspati.
of the year according to the Saur Maan is different from Chandra Maan.
If one is 30, the other one is based on Tithi, Nakshatra goes to 360+
and matches with rotation of the Moon and elliptical. Astronomical
concepts as Khagol seems to have influence on Ganit (Arithmetic)
and Jyotish (astrology) as we know.
Samvatsar with names commencing from Prabhav and all these definitions,
calculations along with V-Ghadiyaa, Ghadiya, Horaa, Dinamaan are dealt
in standard Panchaang as information, likewise we have Maas in different
ways and names - Chaitra as well as Mesh ending with Phaalgun. The
commencement of year depend and gets adopted based on the regional
approaches also. The classifications and names have been given and
adopted in every lucid way to avoid any mix up and they can also be
joined with Gregorian or western calendar. Nandan named Samvatsar
commences with Chaitra Shukla Prathamaa whereas solar year started with
Mesh Sankraman (Sankraanti) on April 14th.
Names of Some Samvatsar
There are many Samvatsar
in use in he world. Here are given the names of some Samvatsar or years in use by
people of the world - See also Vaidik Calendar,
Baarhaspatya Measurement of Time
Used by whole world for the ease of calculating all dates and time
throughout the world. All holidays are observed by this calendar.
Used by Muslims. Started by Muhammad Saahab
Used by Ethiopians. Of 13 months - 12 months of 30 fays with a short 13th month
of 5 or 6 days. Their new year is on 6th September.
Kaarttikaadi Samvat was
started in Somnaath temple - another Shiv temple (or Jyotirling) - Vikram Samvat
was startedx in Pashupatinaath temple, Nepaal in 57 BC. This was for shipping
purpose as no cyclones come after Kaarttik month.
Malayaalam calendar followed in Kerala, except in Maalaabaar area. It
was started by a Cheraa King Raajshekhar Varmaa with the Tarissapalli
copper plates of 825 AD to Assyrian Monk Mar Abo which introduced Syrian
liturgy among Vaishnavite Nambudiree Christians of Cheraa Kingdom (present
south and central Kerala). it is a sidereal solar calendar which consists
of 12 months and each month is named after the constellation rising in the
orbit of the Earth. Medom is the first month according to the astronomical
calendar; it is identical with Chaitra month of the Shak Varsh (era). The
first of these months are supposed to mark the Vernal Equinox. Astronomically
the calendars need to be corrected to coincide with actual Vernal Equinox
which falls on the 21st of March. (Chaitram 1 usually falls on March 20, and
Medom 1 falls on April 14).
Laukik Era or Saptarshi Calendar or Yudhishthair Shak
Still in use in Kashmeer.
Started in 1500
Saptarshi Calendar (Era) or Laukik Era or Yudhishthair Shak
Still in use in Kashmeer.
Started in 3076 BC. The 5th of Shraavan Maas fell on a Saturday in the year 87
of any century, except in 4687, and 4487. Shraavan 5th correspondences to Aug
13, 1611 (Gregorian calendar). Saturday Shraavan 5, 4487 corresponding to Jul
25, 1411 (of the Julian calendar)
Started in 78 AD -
- still in use by Hindu. Shaalivaahan was the grandson of Vikramaaditya
Shak Nrip Kaal
When the news of ascension of Lord Krishn reached Hastinaapur Yudhishthir
coronated Pareekshit and he along with his brothers and Draupadee left
Hastinaapur. 25 years later ie, in 3077 BCE when Saptarshi moved
from Maghaa Nakshatra, he and his brothers did the Swargarohana and at that time was
the start of the Laukik Era or the Saptarshi calendar, which is still the
traditional calendar in Kashmeer. That is also the Yudhisthair Shak. After
2526 yeas from that ie., in 3077 - 2526 = 551 BCE the Shak Nrip Kaal started.
Varaah Mihir was born in 551-427 = 124 BCE. One cannot just wish away the
Shak Nrip Kaal as it has been mentioned definitely. Cyrus, the Great ascended
his throne in 551 BCE as his father died that year and that was the start of
the Shak Nrip Kaal.
Used by Hindu
Started in 1954 BC - used in Burmese history of Buddhism
Shoodrak ShakStarted in 756 BC -
called fictitious as his Federation had wiped Assyrian capital Nineveh in 612
Shree Harsh ShakStarted in 456 BC -
mixed up with Harsh Vardhan of 606 AD
Yudhishthair Shak or Saptarshi Calendar (Era) or Laukik Era
Started in 57 BC - by King Vikramaaditya - still in
use by Hindu. Vikramaaditya
went to Pashupati Naath temple in Nepaal during 103-33 BC, to start this Samvat.
At that time Anshuvarman or Avantee Varmaa was ruling there (see the
List of Nepaal Kings).
Kaarttikaadi Samvat was started in Somnaath temple - another Shiv
temple (or Jyotirling).
Still in use in Kashmeer.
Yudhishthair Shak Samvat has been used only from his coronation day, 36
years before Kali Yug started. Just after Kali Yug, Jayabhyudaya Shak
started from the coronation of Pareekshit used by Janamejaya. After the
death of Yudhishthir, Laukik or Saptarshi
era was started and used in Kashmeer where he died.