Dictionary Of Hindu Religion | Dictionary
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See also Soorya-Powers, Soorya-Worship
1. Soorya Dev is considered a Vaidik Divinity. God expresses His power in many ways, one of them is Soorya. He appears in his golden chariot everyday. There are several hymns devoted to Soorya in Rig Ved.
2. [Bhavishya Puraan, 1/14] says that its diameter is 9,000 Yojan and circumference is 27,000 Yojan. There are 20 names of Soory'a rays - Heti, Kiran, Gau, Rashmi, Gabhasti, Abheeshu, Ghan, Ustra, Vasu, Mareechi, Naadee, Deedhiti, Saadhya, Mayookh, Bhaanu, Anshu, Saptaarchi, Suparn, Kar and Paad; which are otherwise 1,000 in number. From among them, 400 rays, whose name is Chandan, shower rains, they are like Amrit. Among the rest, 300 rays bear Him (snow), and their name is Chandra and color is yellow. And the rest 300 rays produce sunshine, and their name is Shukla. These all rays satisfy human beings, Pitar and Devtaa in the form of medicinal herbs, Swadhaa and Amrit.
His 300 rays gives light to each of three Lok - Bhoor Lok, Bhuvar Lok, and Swar Lok; and his 100 rays gives light to Paataal Lok. All planets shine through his light only. Among his 1,000 rays, seven rays are chief rays - Sushumnaa, Harikesh, Vishwakarmaa, Soorya, Rashmi, Vishnu, and Sarvbandhu.
Soorya or Sun has 12 Kalaa (phases) - (1) Tapinee, (2) Taapinee, (3)
Dhoomraa, (4) Mareechi, (5) Jwaalinee, (6) Ruchi, (7) Sushumnaa, (8)
Bhogadaa, (9) Vishwaa, (10) Bodhinee, (11) Dhaarinee, and (12) Kshamaa.
The same names of 12 Kalaa of the Sun are given in Mahaanirvaan Tantra (VI,
ver 29, p 108) also - (1) Tapinee - containing heat, (2) Taapinee - emanating
heat, (3) Dhoomraa - smoky, (4) Mareechi - Ray producing, (5) Jwaalinee -
burning, (6) Ruchi - lustrous, (7) Sudhoomraa - purple or smoky red, (8)
Bhogadaa - granting enjoyment, (9) Vishwaa - universal, (10) Bodhinee - which
makes known, (11) Dhaarinee - quality productive of consciousness, and (12)
Kshamaa. Dhaarinee and Kshamaa denote the qualities in virtue of which the Sun
draws water from the Earth to himself and showers it again on the Earth as rain.
There is an Puraan also in Soorya's name - Soorya Puraan.
Who reads these 12 names daily, he gets Param Gati being free from sins and diseases.
He has some other names also. Who remembers these names he is not to be
scared from any disease.
Soorya's 12 Names in Various Puraan
It seems that this difference
is because of the difference of Kalp.
Soorya's 12 General Names
(1) Aaditya, (2) Soorya, (3) Bhaaskar, (4) Ark, (5) Bhaanu, (6) Swaayambhoo,
(7) Suvarnretaa, (8) Mitra, (9) Pooshaa, (10) Twashtaa, (11) Divaakar, and
Names of 12 Aaditya
The Sun Deity
Names of the Sun Deity - The Sun Deity has several Names. Twelve of them are names of the Aaditya. When performing Soorya Namaskaar (the solar bent posture) his following twelve Names are chanted : (1) Mitra, (2) Ravi, (3) Soorya, (4) Bhaanu, (5) Khag, (6) Pooshaa, (7) Hiranyagarbh (see below why he is called as Hiranyagarbh), (8) Mareechi, (9) Aaditya (The word Aaditya is derived from Aadi and Atya. Aadi means from the beginning and Atya means till the present moment), (10) Saavitree, (11) Ark and (12) Bhaaskar.
The table above, "Soorya's Names in Bhavishya Puraan" gives the Names of the Sun Deity suitable for chanting in different months. If the name of the Sun Deity which matches the month is considered as 100%, then in comparison to the other names which are of only 95% importance for that month.
His Birth - There are several references about his birth as the son of Indra, the son of Mitra-Varun, the son of Som, the son of Indra-Som, the son of Indra-Vishnu, the son of Indra-Varun, the son of Agni and Dhaataa and that of Agniras.
Mission and special features - Priest of the deities, Creation of the universe, the life of all living beings is dependent on the Sun as it gives both radiance and light. The Sun deity eliminates physical illnesses and endows longevity.
The chariot of the Sun deity has one wheel and seven horses. Serpents are the reins. The chariot flies through the sky without touching the ground. Its charioteer, Arun does not have legs. Despite this due to His sattva component the Sun deity is constantly able to travel through the entire sky, that is why poets have praised Him. When the chariot of the Sun deity approaches the earth the charioteer is seen first and only then the Sun deity. That is why the advent of dawn that is rise of Arun (Arunodaya) occurs before sunrise (Sooryodaya).
Ability and manifest energy - Ability : Creation 40%, sustenance 10% and
Manifest energy : 10%. Information on Soorya frequencies is given in ‘Science of Spirituality : Chapter 20 - Holy festivals, point - Gudee Padavaa’.
Science behind the idol - In the ancient times the image of the Sun was represented by carving or drawing a round dish with rays of sunlight. It was during the reign of the Maurya kings and the Shung kings that idols in a human form began to be used in ritualistic worship. Temples of the Sun deity were mostly constructed during the reign of the Gupta dynasty. One comes across these temples in Gwaalior, Mandasaur, Indore, Multaan, Konaark, Kashmeer, Khadayat (Gujarat), Patanaa, Gayaa, Jhaansee, Naasik, Aurangaabaad, etc.
Sons : Nasatya, Dastra (Ashwinee Kumaar), Revant (Raivat Manu), Vaivasvat
Manu (Deity of making an offering to ancestors - Shraaddh Dev), Yam, Yamunaa,
Saavarni Manu, Shani, Tapatee, Vishti, Prabhaat and Raivat.
Deities in the retinue: "Mitra is a Vaidik deity. Based on the quality of “governing the path of the sun”, in the Braahman holy text Mitra is associated with the day and Varun (deity of rain) with the night. In literature on rituals of five sacrifices (Yagyas) Mitra is referred to as the white and Varun as the black animal. This will illustrate how Mitra and Varun were considered as the Deities of the day and night respectively. The indistinct statement in the Vaidik texts which states that Mitra is the Sun deity is supported by the holy text, Avestya of the Zoroastrians.’ (1) The Sun seen on the earth is referred to as Mitra. Mitra acquires frequencies of radiance through a series of Suns beginning from the basic Sun Deity. All the satellites of the Sun acquire vital energy (Praan) or radiance (Tej) from the Sun Deity.
Spiritual practice of the Sun deity
- Intolerable: First chant any Name of the Sun Deity and then the name of any
superior deity which one has not chanted before, each for two minutes. The Gaayatree
Mantra is also a form of worship of the Sun deity. Synonyms of Soorya - Aaditya,
Synonyms of Soorya -
Why Soorya is called Hiranyagarbh?
What is the center of the Swarg and Prithvi?
Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/06
Updated on 02/22/13