Dictionary Of Hindu Religion | Dictionary
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A gem or precious stone. Emerald. It is called Garutmat also. Some others are --
These all are called Mani or Ratn. This gemstone is rare because it is very difficult to find a flawless emerald. Aquamarine, morganite, goshenite, and heliodor are also members of the beryl family and have the same chemical constituents, except for chromic oxide, which gives emerald the green color that distinguishes it from the other varieties of beryl.
Pannaa is of several types - (1) African Emerald is really green fluorite from South West Africa. (2) Cape Emerald is really prehnite found in South Africa (not to be confused with true emerald from South Africa). (3) Evening Emerald is really a peridot. (4) Indian Emerald is really a green-dyed quartz. (5-6) Medina Emerald and Spanish Emerald are green glasses. (7) Mt Saint Helens Emerald is green glass that is man-made by fusing volcanic ash. (8) Scientific Emerald is synthetic stone or paste. (9) Uralian Emerald is green garnet. (10) Zerfass Emerald is synthetic emerald.
Where is It Found?
Most of the emeralds found at other places, Afagaanistaan, Siberia, Paakistaan, Brazil, Madagaskar, are a result of volcanic activity, which contain chromium bearing metamorphic, crystalline schists; and are known as "Metamorphic Emerald Deposits".
Colombian variety of emerald (found at the Chivor mine near the town of Somondoco, East of Bogota and the Muzo mine situated in the Western foothills of the Andes) do not come from volcanic activity. They are created by hydrothermal processes that are found in black shale dating back 120 million years. They are crystallized in veins that are several centimeters in diameter, which were made up mainly of calcite, sodium feldspar albite, and iron sulfite pyrite. Then a whole hydrothermal takes place. Biogenic masses from sea animals and organisms turned into the veins and cracks that held the mineral elements and caused the stones to cool as large crystals. When the pyrite enters the emerald, it gives them a rich genuine green color that is rarely found in emeralds from other areas. This natural process that produced the Colombian Emerald cannot be found anywhere else in the world. It is of the highest quality emerald.
Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/06
Updated on 06/09/11