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See also Time Measurement in India-2; Time Measurement in India-3; Time Measurement in India-4;
Time Measurement in India-5; Measurement of Time in Puraan; Measurement of Time in China;
According to Hindu astrology, there are nine ways to measure time -
(1) Braahm (related to Brahmaa),
(7) Chaandra (Lunar) - Sanskaar time (Yagyopaveet, Mundan) Tithi (day), Lord of the year, festivals, fasting days are known by this measurement. Whatever time Moon takes to go through all Nakshatra (approximately 29 days), it is called Naakshatra (related to Nakshatra or Lunar) month. From Shukla Pratipadaa (1st day) its 29 days' Lords are (1) Brahmaa, (2) Agni, (3) Viranchi, (4) Vishnu, (5) Gauree, (6) Ganesh, ((7) Yam, (8) Sarp (snake), (9) Chandramaa (Moon), (10) Kaartikeya, (11) Soorya (Sun), (12) Indra, (13) Mahendra, (14) Vaasav, (15) Naag, (16) Durgaa, (17) Dand-dhar, (18) Shiv, (19) Vishnu, (20) Ravi, (21) Hari, (22) Kaam Dev, (23) Shankar, (24) Kalaadhar, (25) Yam, (26) Chandramaa, (27) Vishnu, (28) Kaam Dev, and (29) Shiv.
(8) Naakshatra (related to constellations) - Ghadee, Muhoort etc in a
year are known by this measurement.
Every single measurement has its own different year each of 12 months.
of Time -
[Some of these names are given in Agni Puraan, ch 139, p 298-299 also along with their effects]
They all give fruits according to their name and form. Five years make a Yug. The Lords of the five years are - (1) Agni (Fire), (2) Soorya (Sun), (3) Chandramaa (Moon), (4) Brahmaa, and (5) Shiv.
[Some say that first 20 years are ruled by Brahmaa, the next 20 years are ruled by Vishnu and the last 20 years are ruled by Shiv.]
Thus there are 12 Yug in 60 Samvatsar (years). The Lords of those 12 Yug are like this -- (1) Vishnu, (2) Brihaspati (Jupiter), (3) Indra, (4) Lohit, (5) Twashtaa, (6) Ahirbudhnya, (7) Pitar, (8) Vishwedev, (9) Chandramaa (Moon), (10) Indraagni, (11) Ashwinee Kumaar, and (12) Bhag
Measurement of Time
From Maagh-Phaalgun, Shishir etc six seasons, are there of two months each. Thus according to Soorya, from Makar (Capricorn) sign, the three seasons - Shishir (Winter), Vasant (Spring) and Greeshm (Summer), are in Uttaraayan; and from Kark (Cancer) sign, the other three seasons of two months each are - Varshaa (Rainy season), Sharad (light Winter) and Hemant (Fall or Autumn), in Dakshinaayan.
From the 1st day of the Chandra Maas (Lunar month) to 15th day of the month is called Shukla Paksh (bright fortnight) and then from the 16th day of the Chandra Maas to Amaavasyaa (New Moon day) is called Krishn Paksh.
From Soorya's one Sankraanti to another Sankraanti is called Saur Maas (Solar month - Sun stays in one sign for one month only. The day he transits into another sign is called Sankraanti day.) Thirty days make one Saavan Maas; and whatever days Chandramaa (Moon) takes to go through all the Nakshatra, it is called Naakshatra Maas. Chandra passes one day in one Nakshatra, and Nakshatra are 27, so Chandramaa takes 27 days to pass through all Nakshatra.
Madhu, Maadhav, Shukra, Shuchi, Nabhah, Nabhasya, Ish, Urj, Sahaah, Shasya, Tap and Tapasya are the names of Chaitra, Vaishaakh etc 12 months. On whichever Poornimaa, whatever Nakshtra is there, the same name is of the same month. For example, whichever month's Poornimaa falls in Chitraa Nakshatra, the same month is called Chaitra month; and that Poornimaa is also known with the same name, such as Chaitree Poornimaa, or Vaishaakhee Poornimaa etc.
Every month consists of two
fortnights - Dev Paksh and Pitra Paksh. Some other learned people call
them Shukla Paksh (bright fortnight) and Krishn Paksh (dark fortnight).
These two Paksh are considered while doing any auspicious or inauspicious
Karm. (1) Brahmaa, (2) Agni, (3) Viranchi, (4) Vishnu, (5) Gauree, (6)
Ganesh, (7) Yam, (8) Sarp (snake), (9) Chandramaa, (10) Kaartikeya, (11)
Soorya, (12) Indra, (13) Mahendra, (14) Vaasav, (15) Naag (serpents), (16)
Durgaa, (17) Dand-dhar, (18) Shiv (19) Vishnu, (20) Hari, (21) Ravi, (22)
Kaam, (23) Shankar, (24) Kalaadhar, (25) Yam, (26) Chandramaa, (27)
Vishnu, (28) Kaam, (29) Shiv - these 29 Devtaa are the Lords of 29 Tithi
from the 1st Shukla Paksh to the end, the 14th day of Krishn Paksh.
Amaavasyaa's Lord are Pitar.
Measurement of Time on Prithvi
15 Nimesh = 1 Kaashthaa
1 Human Month = 1 Pitar Day (That is when Soorya meets Chandra, on Amaavasyaa - the best Pitar time)
Divine Days (360 Human Years) = 1 Divine Year
Yug = There are 4 Yug, Sat, Tretaa, Dwaapar, and Kali. They are in the
proportion of 4:3:2:1 thousands Divine-years. Thus :
This period, creation and Pralaya combined, is Brahmaa's 1 Day. This is one Human Kalp too.
1,000 4-Yug = Brahmaa's 1 Day (4.32 billion Human-years) -
2 Paraardh = Brahmaa's Age = Vishnu's 1 Day
Time in One Day
100 Truti = 1 Lav
That means, in a day and night, there are 17,496,000,000 Truti altogether. We may just wonder about the genius of our ancient sages and Rishi, because today, in spite of having facilities of modern laboratories and equipments, the modern science could identify only 1 (one) second as the shortest division of the time. Thus, according to Western science, there are 86,400 seconds in a day and night, whereas in Indian science, a day and night consists of 17,496,000,000 (17,496 million) Truti.
In another words ----
1 Krati = 34,000th of a second
100 Varsh = 1 Shataabd or Shataabdee (1 Century)
Brahmaa's age of his 100 year is called a Mahaa Kalp. At the end of this Mahaa Kalp, the whole Universe is dissolved. The ancient texts call it "Cosmic Dissolution". All the levels of the manifest universe disappear. After a great cosmic rest cycle, another creative cycle begins as a new Brahmaa emerges out of the navel of Naaraayan and a new Universe is created. Another item of importance is that one who has achieved the highest level of conscious realization is said to realize and become one with Brahm. At this point, all individuality as we know it disappears. The individual Jeev, Soul or Aatmaa returns to its source from which it will not return of its own volition. However, for reasons known only to itself, certain souls may return for reasons understood only by Naaraayan.
Therefore, the lowest time measurement was 34,000th of a second known as
Krati and the highest of the measurement of the Time was known as Kalp, which
equaled to 4.32 billion years. Is it not amazing? Are you not feeling proud to
be a Hindu descendent? Swami Vivekananda, the modern sage of Bharat, stated in
his famous sermons compiled in his Rousing Call to the Hindu Nation, "Take pride
in Hinduism; pronounce yourselves as a descendant of a Hindu. Boast to be a
Hindu and give a clarion call to rouse the Hindu nation from its lethargy and
60 Tatpar = 1 Paras
Therefore, it is clear that there are 46,656,000,000 Tatpar in a day and night. This shows that our system can go how far in dividing time, while in the western system the smallest unit of measurement of time is second.
(Mahaabhaarat, Aadi 0/7)
Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/06
Updated on 04/11/13