Puraan | Notes

1-Brahm Puraan2-Padm Puraan3-Vishnu Puraan4-Shiv Puraan5-Bhaagvat Puraan,
6-Naarad Puraan7-Maarkandeya Puraan8-Agni Puraan9-Bhavishya Puraan,
10-Brahm Vaivart Puraan11-Ling Puraan12-Varaah Puraan13-Skand Puraan,
14-Vaaman Puraan15-Koorm Puraan16-Matsya Puraan17-Garud Puraan18-Brahmaand Puraan



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Notes-2 N-Z

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Nir    see also    Sa
In Hindi language, "Nir" is a prefix used to mean without, such as "Nir-Gun" means without attributes; Nir-Jal means without water.

Gold coin used in those days.

Nivritti    see also    Pravritti
It is the opposite of Pravritti - means to leave something. Learned people advise to adopt this for Mukti (salvation).

Note 1
This reference comes in Mahaabhaarat, Shaanti Parv, chapters 218 and 219 also. Up to the 28th Shlok of 219th chapter, this reference is the same as it is here. After this, 15 Shlok are more in Mahaabhaarat, they are very important in this context.  After the 77th Shlok of Naarad Puraan, their meaning is needed here, that is why their brief gist is given here.

Sound depends on ears and ears depend on space, thus it is another form of space. The same situation is with skin, eyes, tongue, and nose. Touch, form, taste, and smell depend on them and thus they are the form of five elements. And all of them are governed by mind, that is why all are another form of mind. Because when these Indriyaan start their work, then mind is necessary to experience their subjects, that is why mind is considered the eleventh Indriya and Buddhi as the 12th one. Thus all beings behave, in the way they behave, because of A-Vidyaa (ignorance). In such situation only Gyaan or Vidyaa (knowledge) can remove A-Vidyaa. And as A-Vidyaa is removed, there remains only immortal Aatmaa (soul). As all rivers and riverlets lose their existence after joining sea, in the same way all beings lose their names, forms and existence after joining that immortal form. This is their Moksh.
[Naarad Puraan, 1/18]

Note 2
The logic of rebirth is that unless a person is not supposed to bear the fruits of his good or bad actions done in previous life, he does not take birth another time. For the same reason when we are engaged in good or bad actions in this life, certainly we will have to take another birth to bear their fruits. And since we cannot escape doing actions, we cannot escape taking birth again.
[Vishnu Puraan, 1/10]

Numbers   see     Paraardh

Paap    see also   Punya
Sin. Bad actions

Panch Tanmaatraa
The subtlest form of the Panch Mahaabhoot (five elements).

Panchbhoot are the five prime elements by which our physical body is made up of - Prithvi, Vaayu, Jal, Agni, and Aakaash (means earth, air, water, fire, and sky)

Panchaagni means five types of fire. In this type of Tapasyaa one sits or stand in the middle of the fire. He lights the fire around himself and keeps it lighted till he is busy in Tapasyaa.

Paramaarth means treating all beings and creature alike like himself, because God is One and that One exists in everybody. So no two people or creatures are different. Only their physical appearance is different and that is only because of their Karm (actions)

Pativrataa Woman
Pativrataa woman is she who serves her husband Manasaa (from heart), Vaachaa (from words) and Karmanaa (from actions) and does not even dream other man.

The personality word has been originated from the root word "persona" - a Greek word meaning "a mask" and the process of playing a role in a theater. Thus the personality is a particular mask worn by an individual to play a certain part on the stage.

Pitar Gan
There are three types of Pitar - Saumya, Barhishad, and Agni Shwaattaa.

Praakrit Pralaya
The complete dissolution of the Brahmaand - planetary system and its celestial bodies after the death of one Brahmaa.

There are two meanings of Praan.
(1) There are five types of Praan (air) in human body - Praan, Apaan, Vyaan, Udaan and Samaan. In fact All are different types of air. (1) Praan Vaayu is inhaled air which moves around inside our body in the form of breath and keeps us alive. If Praan is there, we are alive, and when it is not there we are dead; (2) Apaan Vaayu is exhaled air - goes out of our body after cleansing the body;

(2) According to Kath Upanishad, its other meaning is the balance of our all the actions of all our previous lives. In fact we are here in the world only because we have that balance in our account. We are born with this Praan (balance) and it stays with us till our death.

Praayashchit is a kind of action to cleanse oneself

The equilibrium state of the three Gun (Sat Gun, Rajo Gun, and Tamo Gun) is called Prakriti or Pradhaan.

Prakriti    see   Pradhaan

Pralaya    see    Praakrit Pralaya above, Kalp Pralaya,

Pravritti    see also   Nivritti
Being indulged in. It means nature also, and in fact nature is composed of both kinds of natures - Pravritti as well as Nivritti (to leave).

Prayaag means the place where two rivers meet. Thus any place where two rivers meet is called Prayaag. Thus Allahaabaad is called Prayaag because Gangaa and Yamunaa rivers meet there. There are other Prayaag also. For example, on the way to Badree Naath, there are Karn Prayaag, Dev Prayaag, Rudra Prayaag. All these Prayaag are located where two rivers or streams are meeting.

Punya    see also    Paap
Fruits of auspicious actions.

God, or Bhagavaan.

Har, Bahuroop, Tryambak, Aparaajit, Vrishaakapi, Shambhu Kapardee, Raivat, Mrigvyaadh, Sharv and Kapaalee are 11 Rudra. Hundreds of such Rudra are famous.
[Vishnu Puraan, 1/9]
Mrigvyaadh, Sharv, Nirriti, Ajaikpaad, Ahirbudhnya, Pinaakee, Aparaajit, Vishweshwarbhav, Kapardee, Sthaanu, Bhag.

[ Padm Puraan, 1/13]

Rudraaksh is a seed of a fruit usually found at higher altitude. Rudraaksh has from one to fourteen Mukh (faces) - thus they are called "Ek Mukhee, or "Do Mukhee" etc...

Sa    see also    Nir
In Hindi language, "Sa" is a prefix, which is attached to many words to mean "with", such as "Sa-Gun" means with attributes; "Sa-Beej" means with Beej (meditation and Mantra);

Saam, Daam, Dand, Bhed
According to Vishnu Puraan, Pratham Ansh, p 12, there are four kinds of policies to deal with people :
Saam means counseling; 
Daam means by giving money or weal; 
Dand means punishment; and 
Bhed means discrimination, or by divide and rule.

Samaadhi is a state of mind when a person sits quietly, with concentrated mind, unaware of his external world. Sometimes this Samaadhi can be taken by Yogee for years together.

Sankraanti is that day when Soorya (Sun) moves from one sign to another sign. Since Prithvi revolves around the Sun in one year, and there are 12 signs, thus the Sun goes through those 12 signs in one year, that is he stays in each sign for one month. Thus each month when he moves to another sign that day is called Sankraanti. In Hindu religion every Sankraanti is important, but Makar Sankraanti (Uttaraayan - northbound, or Capricorn) day is celebrated with much pomp and show. People give many things in charity to Braahman. This always falls on 14th January.

Saraswatee River flows in five streams in Pushkar Jee - Suprabhaa, Kaanchanaa, Praachee, Nandaa, and Vishaalaa. Among them Praachee is more important.
[Padm Puraan, Srishti, 52]

There are two meanings of Satee - (1) A woman who is faithful to her husband by her heart, speech and actions.
(2) When somebody's husband dies, the woman immolates herself with his body and dies with him. This is called "to be Satee". This was an old tradition in India, although not 100 per cent but many of them became Satee with their husband. But British rulers stopped this.

Shaiv Darshan

Shauch rules are described in Matsya Puraan like this - The pregnant woman should not eat food in the evening, should not go under trees, nor she should stay there' nor she should quarrel with anybody, nor she should leave her hair loose, nor she should be dirty anytime. Bhaagvat Puraan also says that one should not kill any creature, nor one should abuse anybody or tell lie.

When a child is born to a Braahman man and a Kshatriya woman, he is called Soot. Their job was only to serve kings. In Mahaabhaarat Adhirath, the Saarathee (charioteer) of Raajaa Shantanu and Dhritraashtra was a Soot who brought up Kuntee's son Karn whom he found in Gangaa River in a box while taking bath in it. That is why Karn was called "Soot Putra" and was disregarded all over. Even Sanjaya, the Saarathee of Dhritraashtra who told the account of Mahaabhaarat war to blind Dhritraashtra, was also a Soot Putra.

But there was a Soot Putra, very famous with the name of Soot Jee only, used to tell religious stories. Many people still do not know his real name - Ugrashravaa (son of Lomharshan Jee). He was a great disciple of Maharshi Ved Vyaas and pleased with him Vyaas Jee allowed him to tell religious stories to people.

Start of Sat Yug
Although every 12th year, when Jupiter goes in Kark Rashi (Cancer sign), then on Amaavasyaa day (New Moon day) in Pushya Nakshatra (constellation), all these three are together (Jupiter, Kark Raashi and Pushya Nakshatra), 'Sameshyanti' does mean that they will come together, but that moment should be different not this usual 12-year.

Subjects of Indriyaan
These subjects are of Gyaan Indriyaan - beautiful things for eyes, melodious sounds for ears, tasty food for tongue, sweet smell for nose and soft touch for skin.

Hindu Maalaa (rosary) always has 108 beads. But there is an extra bead which is kept above the 108 bead rosary. This normally indicates that one has finished 108 beads, or one has reached at the end of the rosary. This extra bead is called as Sumeru. It is called Meru also.

Sumeru is a mountain also.

Swayam means self, and Var means husband, Swayamvar means to choose one's husband herself. In olden times, girl's father used to call all suitable candidates, and the girl used to go around taking a garland in her hand, and to whom she wanted to be her husband, she put the garland in his neck.

There are three types of Taap - Adhyaatmik, Adhi-daivik, and Adhi-bhautik.

Tanmaatraa is the attribute of the Tattwa (element). As such there are five elements - Prithvi (earth), Jal (water), Agni (fire), Vaayu (air), and Aakaash (sky). So are five Tanmaatraa

Prithvi's Tanmaatraa is smell,
Jal's Tanmaatraa is taste,
Agni's Tanmaatraa is Roop (beauty) or seeing,
Vaayu's Tanmaatraa is touch,
Aakaash's Tanmaatraa is sound.

Tattwa (Elements)
There are 25 Tattwa - 10 Indriyaan, 5 Mahaabhoot Tattwa5 Tanmaatraa, Man, Ahankaar, Mahat-Tattwa, Prakriti and their witness Consciousness.

Ubatan is a kind of Indian traditional fragrant paste of herbs etc which is used to rub on body before taking bath in place of soap. As it is rubbed on the body, its water content is dried and the dry material falls down along with dirt of the body. A very common Ubatan is made by mixing some barley flour, a little turmeric powder, a little sandalwood powder, a little some kind of oil (sesame oil, or mustard oil, or almond oil) and a little water to form a paste.

Ushaa and Vyushti
They are the Vaidik names of night and day respectively.

There are five kinds of Vaayu in our body - (1) Praan - inhaled air - Praan Vaayu moves inside our whole body and keeps us alive; (2) Apaan - exhaled air - goes out of our body after cleansing the body (3) Vyaan, (4) Udaan, (5) Samaan.

In Hindu religion the society is divided in four Varn - Braahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shoodra. Braahman's duty is to study and teaching and performing Yagya etc for themselves and other three Varn people. Kshatriya's duty is to protect society from ill behavior. Vaishya's duty is to provide food to everybody and trading. Shoodra's duty is to serve everybody in the society so that everybody can work well for the welfare of he society.

Varn-sankar children are those children who are born from a mother of different Varn than of his father, such as Braahman father and Shoodra mother.

Country or a piece of land as Bhaarat Varsh

Means action, or Kaarya, or Karm.

Braahman's duty is to do Yagya for himself and for other Varn of the society - Kshatriya, Vaishya etc. So the person who asks Braahman to do a Yagya for him, is called Yajamaan. Normally Yagya are done to fulfill some desire, the Hotaa (who does the Yagya) expresses the wish of the Yajamaan at the end of the Yagya. All Yajamaan have the obligation to give Dakshinaa to Hotaa at the end of the Yagya.

Yam, Niyam etc.
These are ten in number for self-control and preconditions for Yog. There are five Yam (Brahmcharya, Ahinsaa (non-violence), Satya (truth), Asteya (devotion to God), and Aparigrih); and five Niyam (Swaadhyaaya (self-study), Shauch (cleanliness), Santosh (patience), Tap (penance), and meditation).



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Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/05
Updated on 05/31/13