Hindu calendar is a Lunar calendar, means it runs with the movements of the
Moon. Islaamik calendar is also Lunar calendar. Normal calendars are according
to the movements of the Sun.
Hindu Lunar calendar has 12 lunar months - Chaitra, Vaishaakh, Jyeshth, Aashaadh,
Shraavan, Bhaadrapad, Aashwin (Kuaar), Kaartik, Maargsheersh (Agahan), Paush (Poos),
Maagh (Maah), and Phaalgun (Phagun).
And two fortnights in each month - first fortnight is called Krishn Paksh; and the second
one is called Shukla Paksh. Krishn Paksh has Amaavasyaa on its 15th day, and Shukla Paksh
has Poornimaa ( Poornmaasee) on its 15th day. All other 14 days are called Tithi like this -
Pratipadaa (Padavaa), Doyaj, Teej, Chauth, Panchamee, Shashthee (Chhat), Saptamee, Ashtamee,
Navamee, Dashamee, Ekaadashee, Dwaadashee, Trayodashee, Chaturdashee.
There are nine planets - Soorya (Ravi or Sun), Chandra (Moon), Mangal (Kujaa or Mars),
Budh (Mercury), Brihaspati (Guru or Jupiter), Shukra (Venus), Shani (Saturn), Raahu
Sun revolves around the Earth in 12 solar months and passes through 12 signs situated
around the Earth or in Zodiac. They are (1) Mesh (Aries), (2) Vrish (Taurus), (3) Mithun
(Gemini), (4) Kark (Cancer), (5) Sinh (Leo), (6) Kanyaa (Virgo), (7) Tulaa (Libra),
(8) Dhanu (Sagittarius), (9) Vrishchik (Scorpio), (10) Makar (Capricorn), (11) Kumbh
(Aquarius), (12) Meen (Pisces).
There are 27 constellations around the Earth and each constellation is divided into four
Paad (parts), thus the Sun stays in one Raashi (sign) and in two and a quarter Nakshatra
for one month. These constellations are --
1. Ashwinee, 2. Bharanee, 3. Krittikaa, 4. Rohinee, 5. Mrigshiraa, 6. Aardraa,
7. Punarvasu, 8. Pushya, 9. Aashleshaa, 10. Maghaa, 11. Poorvaa Phaalgunee,
12. Uttaraa Phaalgunee, 13. Hast, 14. Chitraa, 15. Swaati, 16. Vishaakhaa,
17. Anuraadhaa, 18. Jyeshthaa, 19. Mool, 20. Poorv Aashaadha, 21. Uttar Aashaadha,
22. Abhijit, 23. Shravan, 24. Dhanishthaa, 25. Shatbhishaa, 26. Poorv Bhadraa,
27. Uttar Bhadraa, 28. Revatee
In fact Abhijit, the 22nd one, is not a Nakshatra, but a certain time period. Some
people consider Abhijit as Nakshatra, thus making 28 Nakshatra. This time period,
Abhijit, is very auspicious Muhoort and it falls in day time - one Ghadee (24 minutes)
before and one Ghadee after 12.00 pm. Even if the whole
Panchaang is not
auspicious, even then to travel during this period is very auspicious.
No Nakshatra is less
than 56 Ghatee (28 Muhoort, or 22.4 hours) and more than 66 Ghatee (33 Muhoort or 26.4
hours). One Muhoort is of 48 minutes. (Naarad Puraan, p 331)
Pushya Nakshatra is very powerful, even in Paap Graha. Leave alone marriage, this
Nakshatra gives desired fruit in all auspicious Karm.
Patraa or Panchaang
Physical Hindu calendar is known Patraa or Panchaang, because it normally contains 5 parts -
Tithi (Day - 1st, or 2nd or 3rd etc)
Yog (Combinations of various parts, such as Tithi, Nakshatra etc)
For the ease of use the following information is also given there -
Vaar (Day - Som, Mangal or Budh etc - Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday etc)
Time of Sunrise
Movements of planets, Nakshatra etc.