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51-Indian History Kali Yug
Bhavishya Puraan, 3-Pratisarg-, p 276-278

India has a continuous civilization since 2500 BC. During the 2nd millennium, Aryan speaking tribes migrated from northwest into the Indian subcontinent.

c 1500-800 BC
Aaryan tribes from the Iraanian plateau began to penetrate eastward, clearing forests and establishing tribal settlements along Gangaa and Yamunaa rivers. Caste system as a social order began to be formed. Aaryan and non-Aaryan cultures fused in northern India whose language groups are the roots of 75% of Indian population today, including Hindi, Panjaabee, Raajsthaanee, and Bangaalee. Meanwhile Draavidian culture in southern India remained isolated from Aaryan culture especially in its languages - Kannad, Telagoo, Tamil, and Malayaalam. Although India never had a common language, but Sanskrit language remained the chief language for long time.

600 BC
By 600 BC, 16 such territorial powers including Magadh, Koshal, Kuru, and Gaandhaar stretched across the north Indian plains from modern day Afghanistan to Bangla Desh. The right of a king to his throne, no matter how it was gained, was usually celebrated through elaborated sacrificial rituals

500 BC
By 500 BC, most of northern India was inhabited and brought under cultivation. Gangaa River became center of trade.

The political map of ancient and medieval India of small kingdoms of fluctuating boundaries.


c 240-160 BC - Ashok
Ashok - Emperor Ashok was a very famous king of India. His capital was Paataliputra (present Patanaa in Bihaar), in Magadh. He was the grandson of Chandragupt Maurya who founded Maurya dynasty. Ashok fought fierce Kaling war, in 260 BC, in which a 100,000 people died. He got very sad seeing this great killing, he converted to Buddhism and became its greatest proponent. He sent missionaries to Macedonia and Egypt in the west, to Shree Lankaa in the south, and the far eastern borders of Asia in the east. He is said to have erected 84,000 columns with inscriptions of moral laws on them. According to Al-Baroonee at one time, people of Khoraashaan, Iraan, Iraaq, Mosal, and Syria were Buddhist.
(Aangiras, p 55-56)

Grand Trunk Road - He gave the paving stones, watchtowers, and some of his pillars beside this road - Grand Trunk Road (1,200 mile long, from Peshaavar on the Paakistaan-Afgaanistaan border to Kalkattaa on the Bay of Bangaal.

Shershaah Sooree carried out major maintenance work and built Saraaya (motels) along the road.

The Mugals added wells; the British added asphalt and the present name GT Road. Now it is India's "National Highway 1"


C 110-30 BC - Kanishk
A king who was a great supporter of Buddhism. The exact extent of this emperor is not known, but it is possible that it included what later became Afganistaan, Iraan, Turkey, Uzbekistaan, Greece and even territories going up to Rome (Italy) in the west. His capital was Purushpur (present Peshaavar). Among the famous philosophers and theologians who graced his court were Ashwaghosh and Naagaarjun.
(Aangiras, p 94)

100 BC (2,700 years of Kali Yug had passed)
Maybe Bhavishya Puraan 3/30 events took place at this time. Because it shows that Buddhism had settled very well by then. The second important thing it mentions that by then almost 2,700 years of Kali Yug had passed. The third important thing it mentions that Buddha was not an Avataar of Vishnu as Bhaagvat Puraan, or Vishnu Puraan say, but was Maya named Asur who was sent by king Bali.


200-550 AD - GUPT EMPIRE
In the 4th and 5th centuries India was unified under the Gupta Empire.

5th Century AD - Kaalidaas
He was one of the nine gems of Chandragupt. He wrote "Abhigyaan Shaakuntalam", "Raghuvansh", "Meghdoot" etc.



Prabhaakar Vardhan  -606 AD
After the downfall of Gupta Empire in the middle of the 6th century, Hoon came to rule in Panjaab. The northern and western India was passed on to many state kings. One of them was Prabhaakarvardhan. He was the first king of Vardhan dynasty. His capital was Thanesar (located in the vicinity of Kurukshetra) in Panjaab. He died in 606.

Raajya Vardhan - 606-606 AD
After the death of Prabhaakarvardhan in 606, his eldest son Raajyavardhan ascended the throne. He was killed in a battle with Devagupt. Devagupt had killed the husband of Raajyavardhan's sister Raajyashree - Grihvarman also.

Harsh Vardhan - 606-647 AD (41 Years)
He was born in Thanesar, near Kurukshetra in 590 AD. He was 16 years old when he sat on the throne, and he ruled for 41 years. His kingdom was Kaanyakubj, Kannauj city being its capital. First he rescued his sister as she was going to become Satee. He defeated Shashaank of Bengal, Dhruvsen of Gujaraat. He was stopped by Pulakeshee II (the Chaalukya king of Vaataapi in Northern Mysore). He had no son so his Empire died with him. He was the last Empire builder of ancient India. He wrote three well known plays - Naagnand, Ratnaavalee, and Priyadarshikaa.

[Harsh Vardhan is famous for conducting a religious conference in which approximately 1,000 people participated including Chinese visitor to India - Huen Saang. Huen Saang's lecture on Mahaayaan (a branch of Buddhism) annoyed a lot of followers of Heenyaan Buddhism and they tried to physically harm him, but Harsh Vardhan protected him. This conference lasted for 21 days. This conference annoyed Braahman also who tried to kill the king but their attempt failed.]
(Aangiras, p 95)

In 647 AD, he fell victim to a murder plot organized by a Braahman minister and carried out by the army. After Harsh Vardhan, the succeeding period is very obscure and badly documented.

900-1700 AD - ISLAM - 
Islam spread in India over a period of 500 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries Turk and Afghaan invaded and established their Saltanat in Delhi.

700-1200 AD
1193 AD - Qutub Meenaar was built by Qutubuddeen Aibaq.

Mahamood of Gazanee sacked Thaanesar in 1011 AD.



11th to 13th CENTURIES

1000-1026 AD - Mahamood Gazanavee
Mahamood of Gazanee raided Panjaab virtually every year between 1000 and 1026 AD. The enormous wealth in cash, golden images and jewelry from north Indian temples brought him back to India every year. He looted the wealth from Mathuraa (UP) in 1017; Thaanesar (Hariyaanaa) in 1011; Somnaath temple in Gujaraat in 1024; and Kannauj (UP). He died in 1030 AD.

1180-1192 AD - Prithveeraaj Chauhaan
Chauhaan Vansh is said to rule in Raajsthaan, near Ajmer. Prithveeraaj Chauhaan, the most famous ruler of Chauhaan Vansh ruled from 1180-1192. His father's name was Someshwar (died in 1179) and his mother's name was Karpooree Devee. [He was the last but one Hindu ruler of India. The last Hindu ruler was Hemoo - Hemchandra Vikramaaditya Bhaargav, Braahman by caste.] He did Sanyogitaa Haran, as Sanyogitaa (daughter of Jayachand) wanted to marry Prithveeraaj. When her Swayamvar was taking place, she put her Jayamaalaa in the neck of Prithveeraaj Chauhaan's statue in the absence of Prithveeraaj. "Prithveeraaj Vijaya" of Jayanak; and "Prithveeraaj Raaso" of poet Bardaayee have immortalized the deeds of Prithveeraaj. He was the last Hindoo king. At the same time, Jayachand ruled in Kaanyakubj Desh Kannauj). He troubled Hindoo rulers, and strengthened foreign invaders, thus he ended Hindu culture from there.

[Hemoo used to sell food, gunpowder etc to Shershaah Sooree's army. After Shershaah's death, his son Islaam Shaah who ruled from Delhi recognized his abilities and placed him in an important position. After Islaam Shaah's death Aadil Shaah took control of most of Northern India, but as he was not a good administrator, he sought advice from Hemoo. He made him in-charge of his army. Hemoo fought some 22 battles from Panjaab to Bangaal. He was very popular among Hindoos as well as Afgaans. This unity encouraged Hemoo to take on Mugals. He easily won his 21st battle of Aagaraa and Mugals ran away. Similarly he won Delhi on October 5, 1556. He became the King on October 6, 1556 of Delhi. He thus re-established Hindu Kingdom and started Vikramaaditya Dynasty after centuries of foreign rule. Later Hemoo was captured and beheaded by Baharaam Khaan on November 5, 1556, after Akbar hesitated or refused to execute him himself. His head was sent to Kaabul, while his body was placed in a gibbet. His army was chased down and destroyed by Iskander Khaan.
- from Wikipedia]


1192-1222 AD - Qutubuddeen Aibaq
As Muslims continued to trouble Hindu kings, Muizuddeen used to raid India. After the Second Battle of Taraaee in 1192, Muizuddeen left his deputy Qutubuddeen Aibaq at Indraprasth. Thus after Prithveeraaj Chauhaan, Qutubuddeen Aibaq came in India and troubled kings here. He took Laahaur in 1206. His lieutenant and son-in-law Iltumish, a Turkish slave, took Delhi in 1211 AD. Aibaq built a victory tower Qutub Meenaar in Delhi.

1210-1236 AD - Iltumish
From 1222 AD, Iltumish ruled from Delhi completely and independently. He took Sindh in 1228 AD and all the territory in East, up to Bangaal, by 1230. In 1230 he became the Sultaan of Delhi.

Kabeer Daas - 1398-1518 AD (120 years)
Kabeer Daas, Raayadaas, Raamaanand, Shankaraachaarya, Sadan Kasaaee, Narasee Mehtaa, Guru Naanak, Nityaanand Jee, Naam Dev, Raankaa-Baankaa were all in the same time.

Raamaanand's disciples were - Kabeer, Raankaa, Narasee Mehtaa, Guru Naanak, Raayadaas (He defeated Kabeer, but got defeated from Shankaraachaarya), Tulasee Daas (in Akbar's time)
(Bhavishya Puraan, 3/28)

Chaitanya Mahaaprabhu - 14th Century
He also has a long list of disciples - Eeshwarpuree, Shreedhar, Raam Sharmaa, Jeevaanand, Roopaanand, Vishnu Swaamee, Maadhavaachaarya, Varaahmihir (one of nine gems of Vikramaaditya's court)
(Bhavishya Puraan, 3/29)

When Sikandar was ruling in India - Naamdev was there. Sikandar gave him 50 Laakh coins. (Bhavishya Puraan, 3/27)

13th - 16th CENTURIES



He made his capital Tugalakaabaad, near Delhi. He built a massive fort around his capital. The fort is roughly octagonal in plan with a circumference of 6.5 kms with 10-15 m high rubble wall. It has 13 gates and 3 inner gates to citadel. it is a magnificent fort comparable to Red Fort in Delhi. He was killed by his son Muhammad Bin Tugalak. When he was returning from a victorious campaign to his capital Tugalakaabaad, his son had erected a splendid pavilion to welcome him, secretly designed by his engineer to collapse upon him at the first tread of his elephant. Tugalakaabaad was inhibited only for a very short period, 5 years, then it was abandoned.

He was Gayaasuddeen's son. Ibn Batootaa, a Moorish traveler, has described him fond of making presents and shedding blood. When he was returning from a victorious campaign to his capital Tugalakaabaad, he had erected a splendid pavilion, secretly designed by his engineer to collapse upon the Sultaan at the first tread of his elephant.

1351-1388 AD - FEEROZ SHAAH TUGALAK (37 years)

Taimoor Lang came from Mongol in 1398. Taimoor was lame that is why he was called "Lang". This self-styled \Scourage of God" was illiterate, a devout Muslim, an outstanding chess player and a patron of arts. Five years before he came to India, 1393, he had taken Bagadaad, and in 1396 he had ravaged Russia devastating their land and pillaging their villages.

Taimoor came to Delhi shedding lots of blood, but a group of Indian troops beat Taimoor and his troops. 50,000 prisoners in his cam were butchered within an hour. He did not stay long in India, only less than six months, but left a carnage unprecedented in India's long history. He is believed to be responsible for 5 million deaths. Famine followed the destruction caused by him and plague resulted from the corpses left behind.

1398-1451 - 50 years in chaos

1451-1526 - LODEE KINGS (75 years)
After Taomoor, it took 50 years for the Delhi Kingdom to become an Indian headquarters. After the last Tugalak king, some Saiyad came. They were Afgaan soldiers but later they called themselves Sultaan - three Lodee kings (1451-1526).
Afgaan Lodee Dynasty established under Bahalool (1451-). 
Sikandar Lodee (1506-). 
Ibraaheem Lodee (-1526)
They moved their capital to Aagaraa.


c 1440-1518 AD - KABEER DAAS (78 years)
A great devotional poet, born in a house of Muslim cloth weaver in Benaaras, but grew into one of the great contributors to Hindu religion and thought. He was a revolutionary poet of all time. Some of his poems form the part of the "Aadi Granth" (Guru Granth Saahib) - the sacred scripture of the Sikh religion.

Afgaan Lodee Dynasty established under Bahalool

Guru Naanak was born in Panjaab

Vasco da Gama reached India in 1500 AD.

Sikandar Lodee founds Aagaraa in 1506.

Shivaajee was a son of a Hindu who served a small-scale Muslim chief in the state of Beejaapur in southern India. The weakness of Beejaapur encouraged Shivaajee to extend his father's area of control. Beejaapur's General Afzal Khaan was sent to put it down and he agreed to meet him in private. During that meeting, Shivaajee embraced him with steel claws attached to his fingers and tore him apart. This incident is remembered by both Hindoo Maraathaa and Muslims. It was the start of the campaign which took Maraathaa power to as far as Maduraee (Madurai) in south and Delhi and Calcuttaa in north and east.

Shivaajee ttacked Mugals several times. Although Shivaajee died in 1680, but Aurangzeb never fully came to terms with the rising power of Maraathaa.

When Shershaah Sooree came to India, Chaitanya Mahaaprabhu was also there. There is a difference of 300 years between the times of Chaitanya and Aurangzeb.

Naadir Shaah came from Persia in 1724 and went back to Iran. Later in 1739, he captured Delhi and massacred thousands.

Maadhav took kingdom after killing Aalomaa and ruled for 10 years. After that 30 years passed, there was no one single king during this period.

BRITISH RAAJ (1619-1947, 250 years)
1 - First British outpost was established at Soorat, on the northwestern coast in 1619. Later in the century it opened permanent trading stations at Madras, Bombay and Calcutta each under the protection of native rulers.

The Company established itself in Calcutta in 1690 and got the rights to collect land revenue in Bangaal in just 11 years, in 1701.

Battle of Plaasee - In June 1757, Robert Clive defeated Nawaab Siraajuddaulaa, 20 year old Nawaab, of Bangaal. The battlefield was Plaassee (modern Palaashee), about 100 kms north of Calcuttaa. Although battle was not very big, but Clive took eight years to take over the management of the revenues of the whole of Bangaal.

In 1788, after 100 years of Battle of Plaasee, Calcuttaa, which was just a collection of villages became the chief city of east India with a population of a quarter of a million.

Warren Hastings, (Governor General, 1774-1785)
Lord Cornwallis (Governor General, 1786-1793) - He was responsible for putting Europeans in charge of all the higher levels of reveniue collection and administration and for introducing government by the rule of law, making even government officers subject to the courts. 

2 - By 1850s they controlled most parts of present India - India, Paakistaan, Banglaa Desh.

3 - In 1857, a rebellion (Mangal Paandey) in north India, led by mutinous Indian soldiers, caused the British Parliament to transfer all political power from the East India Company to the crown.

4 - Beginning in 1920, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi transformed the Indian National Congress political party into a mass movement to campaign against British rule. The Party used both parliamentary and nonviolent resistance and non-cooperation to achieve independence.

In 1724 a Persian, Naadir Shaah, came to India. In 1739, he captured Delhi and massacred thousands.

1 - India got her independence on 15 August 1947, and became a dominion of Commonwealth. Enmity between Hindu and Muslims led the British to partition British India creating East and West Pakistan from it. India became Republic within the Commonwealth after promulgating its constitution on 26 January 1950.

2 - Jawahar Lal Nehru (1950-1964) - After independence in 1947, Congress Party, Jawahar Lal Nehru ruled India (1950-1964) for 14 years. He died in office.

3 - Lal Bahadur Shastri - He also died in office.

4 - Indira Gandhi (1966-1977) - Then came Jawahar Lal Nehru's daughter Indira Gandhi, who also died in office.

5 - Morarji Desai - (1977-1979)

6 - Charan Singh - Interim Government

7 - Indira Gandhi (Jan 1980- Oct 31, 1984) - She was assassinated.

5. Rajiv Gandhi ruled as Prime Ministers (1984-1987) - Assassinated on May 27 1991.

9 - Followed by VP Singh and Chandra Shekhar

Some Sources for Indian History Information -

1. 1996 India Handbook. 5th ed. Passport Books.
2. Eyewitness Travel Guide: India: Festivals, palaces, wildlife, beaches, museums, mythology, trekking. DK Publishing. 2002.
3. National Geographic Traveler: India. ISBN 0-7922-7898-4



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Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/06
Updated on 04/28/13