Dictionary Of Hindu Religion | History


Home | Rel-Dictionary | History


Previous | Next


Agni Vanshee Kings - 4 Agni Vanshee or Brahmkshatra Kings
Pramar or Panvaar Dynasty
Chapahaani or Chauhaan Dynasty - Tomar, Samaldev are its branches
Shukla or Chaalukya Dynasty - Solankee in Gujaraat, Raajasthaan, Salunkhe in Mahaaraaashtra, Karnaatak
Parihaar or Pratihaar Dynasty

Paramaar Dynasty - 392 BC - 377 BC - 85 yrs
1. 392 - 386 BC  -  Pramar
2. 386 - 383 BC  -  Mahaamar
3. 383 - 380 BC  -  Devaapi ,
4. 380 - 377 BC   - Devadatt

For 195 years from 377 - 195 BC, Shak kings captured Ujjain and they went to Shree Shailam.

6. 182 - 132 BC     -  Gandharvsen
7. 132 - 102 BC     -  Shankharaaj went to forest from meditation and died issueless.
8. 102 - 82 BC       -  Gandharvsen returned from forest and had second son named Vikramāditya.
9. 82  - 19 AD       -  Vikramaaditya,
10. 19 - 29 AD       -  Devabhakt

Anarchy from 29 - 78 AD

78 - 138 AD      -  Shaalivaahan - settled Jesus Christ in Kashmeer.
12. Shaalihotra,
13. Shaalivardhan,
14. Suhotra,
15. Havirhotra,
16 Indrapāla,
17. Maalyavaan,
18. Shambhoodatt,
19. Bhaumaraaj,
20. Vatsaraaj

9 Kings for 500 years (138-638 AD)

21. 638-693 AD  -  Bhojaraaj - Met Prophet Mohammad.
22. Shambhoodatt-2,
23. Bindupaal
24. Raajpaal,
25. Maheenar.
26. Somvarmaa,
27. Kaamavarmaa,
28. Bhoomipaal or Veer Sinh

7 Kings for 300 years (693-994 AD)

29. Rangpaal,
30. Kalp Sinh,
31. Gangaa Sinh (issueless)

200 years (993-1192 AD)

The last king died in war on side of Prithvee Raaj Chauhaan in 1192 AD at Taraeadi, called Kuru Kshetra here.

Chaahmaan (Chauhaan) Kings
1. Chaahmaan,
2. Saamantdev,
3. Mahaadeva,
4. Kuber,
5. Bindusaar,
6. Sudhanvaa - He set up 4 Peeth of Shankaraachaaryas for which an order
was issued on copper plate dated 2663 Yudhishthir Shak (485 BC) on Aashwin Shukla 15.
7. Veerdhanvaa,
8. Jayadhanvaa,
9. Veerasinh,
10 Varasinh,
11. Veeradand,
12. Arimantra,
13. Maanikya Raaj,
14. Pushkar,
15. Asamanjas,
16. Premapur,
17. Bhaanu Raaj,
18. Maan Sinh,
20. Hanumaan,
21. Shambhoo,
22. Mahaasen,
23. Surath,
24 Rudradatt,
25. Hemarath,
26. Chitraangad,
27. Chandrasen,
28. Vatsaraaj,
29. Dhrishţdyumn,
30. Uttam,
31. Suneek,
32. Subaahu,
33. Surath,
34. Bharat,
35. Saatyaki,
36. Shatrujit,
37. Vikram,
38. Sahadev,
39 Veerdev,
40. Vasudev,
41. Vaasudev (king in 551 AD) - his 2 branches started kingdoms. One branch ended with last king of Delhi-Prithveeraaj-3 killed in 1192 AD. The other branch had Veera Gogaadev who fought with Mahmood Gazanavee in desert. Delhi-Ajmer branch
42. Saamanta,
43. Naradev or Nrip,
44. Vigraharaaj-1,
45. Chandraraaj-1,

46. Gopendra Raaj or Gopendrak,
47. Durlabha Raaj,
48. Govind Raaj or Guvak-1-in time of Pratihaar King Naagabhatta-2.
49. Chandra Raaj-2 (843-868 AD),
50. Govind Raj or Guvaka-2 (868-893 AD),
51. Chandan - Govind Raaj (893-918 AD),
52. Vaakpati Raaj-1 (Vappayarai) (918-943 AD),
53A. Vindhya Raaj - very short period followed by his brother.
53B. Sinh Raaj. He had 4 sons - Vigraha Raaj-2, Durlabh Raaj-2, Chandra Raaj, Govind Raaj.
54A. Vigraha Raaj-2 (from 973 AD) - He had defeated Mool Raaj of Gujaraat and made Aashaapuraa Temple in Bhrigu-Kachchha. He had sent army in 997 AD to help Lahore King against Subuktagin.
54B. Durlabh Raaj-2 (998 AD),
55. Govind Raaj-3 (999 AD),
56A. Vaakpati Raaj-2 (999-1018 AD),
56B. Veerya Raaj (1018-1038),
56C. Chaamund Raaj (1038-1063 AD) - these 2 were brothers of 56A - Vaakpati Raaj-2.
57A. Sinhal - eldest son of 56C - Chaamund raaj.
57B. Durlabh Raaj-3 (1063-1079 AD) - son of 56C - Chaamund Raaj.
57C. Vigraha Raaj-3 (1079-1098 AD) - brother of 57B - Durlabh Raaj-3
58. Pŗthvee Raaj-1 (1098-1105 AD),
59. Ajaya Raaj (Ajaya Dev or Salhan) - (1105-1132 AD) - built Ajmer.
60. Arno Raaj (Anal Dev, Anna, Anak) - (1132-1151 AD),

61A. Jagadev (1151 AD) - He had killed his father Arno Raaj for which he was killed by his brother Vigraha Raaj-4
61B. Vigraha Raaj-4 (Vishaal Dev) - (1151-1167 AD) - he had defeated Chaalukya.
61C. Someshwar Dev (1169-1177 AD) - Brother of 61B (Vigraha Raaj-4), as Prithvee Raaj-2 - son of 61A (Jagadev) had no son.
62A. Apar Gaangeya or Amar Gaangeya - son of 61B (Vigraha Raaj-4).
62B. Prithvee Raaj-2 - son of 61A (Jagadev). He defeated 61A and died issueless in 1169 AD.
62C. Prithvee Raaj-3 (1177-1192 AD) - last Hindu King of Delhi. He defeated Mohammad Gauree in 1191, but was defeated in 1192 AD due to Jayachand of Kannauj.

Shukla or Chaalukya (at Dwaarakaa Raashtra) - 27 kings (392 BC-1192 AD)

1. Shukla or Chaalukya,
2. Vishwaksen,
3. Jayasen,
4. Visenaa,
5. Madasinh,
6. Sindhuvarmaa,
7. Sindhudweep,
8. Shreepati,
9. Ranavarmaa,
11. Chitravarmaa,
12. Dharmvarmaa,
13. Krishnvarmaa,
14. Udaya,
15. Vaapyakarma,
16. Guhila,
17. Kaalabhoja,
18. Raashtrapaal,
19. Jayapaal,
20. Venuk,
21. Yashovigraha,
22. Maheechandra,
23. Chandradev,
24. Mandapaal,
25. Kumbhpaal or Vaishyapaal,
26. Devpaal - Son-in-law of Anagapaal, Tomaa king of Delhi.
27. Jayachandra - His daughter Sanyuktaa married to Prithveeraaj Chauhaan, last Hindu king of Delhi. He died in war with Gauree in 1193.

Pratihaar Dynasty (Kalinjar) 35 kings (392 BC-1193 AD).

1. Parihaar,
2. Gauravarmaa,
3. Ghoravarmaa,
4. Suparn,
5. Roopan,
6. Kaaravarmaa,
7. Bhogvarmaa,
8. Kalivarmaa,
9. Kaushik,
10. Kaatyaayan
11. Hemvarmaa,
12. Shivavarmaa,
13. Bhaavavarmaa,
14. Rudravarmaa,
15. Bhojvarmaa,
16. Gavavarmaa,
17. Vindhyavarmaa,
18. Sukhasen,
19. Balaak,
20. Lakshman,
21. Maadhav,
22. Keshav,
23. Soorasen,
24. Naaraayan,
25. Shaantivarmaa,
26. Nadivarmaa (conquered Gaud and ruled there),
27. Saarangdev,
28. Gangadev,
29. Anang Bhoopati,
30. Maheepati-1,
31. Raajeshwar,
32. Nrisinh,
33. Kalivarmaa-2,
34. Dhritivarmaa,
35. Maheepati - Died in Kurukshetra
war with Gauree in 1193.

1500 - 1700 AD Mugal Dynasty
In early 16th century Genghis Khan (Changez Khaan) came through Khaibar pass and established Mugal Dynasty which lasted for 200 years. 

1526 AD
Baabar (1526 AD - 1531 AD) defeats Ibraaheem Lodee to establish Mugal Empire.

Paaneepat Battles - 1526, 1556, 1761
First Paaneepat Battle - 1526
On April 21, 1526, Baabar, the first Mugal emperor, fought with Ibraaheem Lodee. He came with 12,000 people. By the time he came to Panjaab, his force increased to 25,000 men. Ibraaheem Lodee's army was said to number 100,000 men and 1,000 elephants. Baabar's army defeated him. When the battle ceased, about 20,000 men of Baabar were killed including their leader Ranjit Sinh of Maalavaa.

Second Paaneepat Battle - 1556
On November 5, 1556, Akbar who had just succeeded his father Humaayoon's throne, and his General-cum guardian Baharaam Khaan defeated Hemoo the General of the Afgaan Sher Shaah). This battle was bad for Akbar until Hemoo was badly wounded in his eye. He got unconscious and was brought to Akbar. Baharaam Khaan beheaded his head and sent to Kaabul; and his body to Dehlee to be hung on a gibbet. There was a mass slaughter of the captives, and in the tradition of Changez Khaan and Taimoor Lang, a victory pillar was built with their heads plastered in.

Third Paaneepat Battle - 1761
On January 13, 1761, the remaining Mugal people were threatened from the west by the Raajpoot and Afgaan from the northwest. They sacked Delhi in 1756-57. The Mugal minister called in the Maraathaas and thus the struggle started between the three - Mugal, Maraathaas, and Afgaans. The Maraathaa army numbered 15,000 infantry, 55,000 cavalry and 200 guns. These were supported by 200,000 Pindaarees. The Afgaans comprised 38,000 infantry, 42,000 cavalry and 70 guns. Despite their numbers Maraathaas lost and their soldiers fled.

However, the Afgaan leader Ahmad shaah Durraanee was unable to take advantage of his victory as his followers mutinied for the 2-years' arrears of pay he owed them. Thus the former Mugal Empire was denied both the Afgaans and Maraathaas, leaving North India in a political vacuum which adventurers tried to fill during the next 40 years.

Baabar - 1526-1530 AD - 4 years
Baabar was born in 1482. He founded Mugal dynasty on April 21, 1526 AD by defeating Ibraaheem Lodee. It was not until Baabar, that dynamite was used in warfare. He was used to the delights of Persian gardens and the cool of the Afgaan hills. He was not happy when he first came to India. His first impression about India was - in his autobiography he has written - "Hindustaan is a country that has few pleasures to recommend it. The people are not handsome. They have no idea of charms of friendly society, of frankly mixing together, or of familiar intercourse. They have no genius, no comprehensions of mind, no politeness of manner, no kindness or fellow-feeling, no ingenuity or mechanical invention in planning, or executing their handicraft works, no skill or knowledge in design or architecture; they have no horses, no good flesh, no grapes or musk melons, no good fruits, no ice or cold water, no good food or bread in their bazaars, no baths or colleges, no candles, no torches, not a candlestick."

In three victories, Baabar secured all of North India, but little more than a year later, following the last battle, on December 26, 1530, he died in Aagaraa, after calling upon Allaah to take his life in exchange for the recovery of his son Humaayoon (1508-1556) who was deadly ill at that time.

Humaayoon - (1530-1540 AD) - 10 years
He ruled for 10 years but was overpowered by one of his father's Afgaan Generals Shershaah Sooree in 1540.

Shershaah Sooree - (1540-1545 AD) - 5 years
After Baabar's death, his son Humaayoon could not manage the kingdom, so Baabar's lieutenant Shershaah Sooree and two of Hummaayoon's brothers sent Humaayoon back to Persia from Delhi in 1540.

Humaayoon - (1555-1556 AD) -  1 year
After Baabar's death, Baabar's lieutenant Shershaah Sooree and two of Hummaayoon's brothers  sent Humaayoon back to Persia from Delhi. So he fled away with his pregnant wife through Sindh. Akbar was born in Umarkot, Sindh, during the period of exile, on November 23, 1542.

In 1545, Humaayoon recaptured Kaabul and Kandhaar with the help of Eeraanians from his brother Kaamaraan. Initially Humaayoon forgave his brother but ultimately he had to blind him. (Shakespeare's "King Lear" was written some 50 years later). Humaayoon got Delhi back in 1555 AD. For the remaining year of his life, he spent much of his time in the octagonal building "Sher Mandal" in "Puraanaa Kilaa". One year after his final return to Delhi, in 1556, Humaayoon died from the effects of a fall on the stairs of his library in. His tomb was built in Puraanaa Kilaa  by his senior widow, Akbar's mother Hameedaa Begam during 1564-1573.

Akbar - (1556-1605 AD) -  49 yrs
One year after his final return to Delhi, Humaayoon died. [Queen Elizabeth I ruled 1558-1603] Akbar was only 13 years old when he took charge of the throne. Although he inherited the throne but it was he who really created the Empire. From 1556 to 1560, until his 18th birthday, he was served by a prince regent named Baharaam Khaan. He incorporated Raajpoot princes into his administrative structure. He had a splendid library on biography, theology, comparative religion, history, astrology, medicine, zoology. He was always hyperactive throughout his life, so he required very little sleep.

He admired artists. Baasavaan (Basawan) and Miskin captured animal life. Examples of their works can be seen not only in India, but also at major museums in Europe. He had nine gems in his court - Taansen (singer), Maan Sinh, Abul Fazal,  Beerbal.

Jahaangeer - (1605-1628) - 23 yrs
Akbar died of a stomach illness in 1605. He was succeeded by his son Jahaangeer. His real name was Saleem, but when he sat on the throne, he was named as Jahaangeer. In his early period, he showed some artistic temperament, but soon he became alcohol addicted and then to opium. According to his autobiography he started drinking from the age of 18, from a glass of wine gradually increasing up to 20 cups a day. When he cut back on alcohol on doctor's advice, he became addicted to opium.

His dearest wife was Noorjahaan, the daughter of an Iranian nobleman Giyaas Beg. She came to Mugal court as a child with her father and moved to Bengal as a wife of Sher Afagan. Sher Afagan died in 1607, so she moved to Delhi as a waiting woman in the service of one of Akbar's widows. Early in 1611, she was playing with her mates at a bazaar, then she met Jahaangeer. Mutually agreed, she married him in May. Jahaangeer gave her the title "Noor Mahal". Aged 34, she was strikingly beautiful and was physically skilled and intellectually intelligent. By 1622, she was effectively participating in all kingdom related works of Jahaangeer. Throughout her life, Jahaangeer was captive of her beauty, so much so that he minted coins bearing her image. She herself was also an artist.

Shaah Jahaan - (1628-1658 AD) - 30 yrs
His real name was Khurram. When he became king he was named as Shaahjahaan. When he took over the kingdom from his father Jahaangeer, it was bankrupt. He moved from Aagaraa to Delhi in 1638. The huge city of Shaajahaanbaad, now known as old Delhi, was built in 10 years. Much of the building materials was taken from the ruins of Firozaabaad and Shergarh. its principal street was Chaandanee Chauk. It was protected by rubble wall with 14 gates; some of them are still in existence - Ajameree Gate, Kashmeeree Gate, Delhi Gate, Turkmaan Gate, Laahoree Gate. Between this city and Yamunaa River he built the Red Fort (started in 1639 and completed in 1648), based on the model of Aagaraa Fort.

He was much more successful in pushing in south, rather than consolidating the Empire in Afagaanistaan. He also admired art and literature and above all architectural monuments on an unparallel scale. Taaj Mahal built during 1632-1653 (in 21 years) is the most striking building of his period. His other buildings include Red Fort, mosques, in Dehlee, Aagaraa and Laahaur, not only in scale but also in details. He loved his wife Mumtaaz Mahal so much that he built Taaj Mahal to pay his tribute to her. She died in 1631 while giving birth to her 14th child.

During his last days of life, 1657-1666, he was imprisoned by his own son Aurangzeb for the sake of throne. At that time he was living in Agaraa so he was imprisoned there only - in Aagaraa fort. There he again fell ill (in June 1658) and died in February 1666.

Aurangzeb - (1658-1707 AD) - 49 yrs
See also Shivaajee (-1680)
When Shaajahaan got terminally ill in 1657, his all four sons claimed the throne. (1) Daaraa Shikoh (1615-1657) (2) Aurangzeb ruled in Daccan (3) Shujaa (4) Muraad. Aurangzeb, who finally succeeded him, was his 2nd son and 6th child - a tough and cruel but highly intelligent strategist. Soon he found that his father had recovered, so instead of taking any risk of being deposed, he defeated his elder brother Daaraa Shikoh and imprisoned his own father who was living in Agaraa, in Aagaraa fort. There he again fell ill and died in 1666. Daaraa was condemned to death on the night of 30th August 1659. Aurangzeb knew that if he had to survive, he had to expand his kingdom, so he pushed to south. He was mainly opposed by Maraathaa born Shivaajee (died in the age of 53, in 1680). Aurangzeb's full name was "Abu Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Aalamgeer". He was a Persian. The last 39 years of his life, he had to struggle to sustain his power. Although Shivaajee died in 1680, Aurangzeb never came fully came to terms to Maraathaa, though he allowed them to form the kingdom of their own.

Read about all the kings of Mugal Dynasty from 1707 to 1858 when they had to hand over India to British.

Naasiruddeen Muhammad Shaah - (1719-1748 AD) - 29 years

Bahaadur Shaah Zafar - 5 yrs
At the age of 63, Aurangzeb's son Bahaadur Shaah took the last Guru of Sikh in his service. 

Bahaadur Shaah II - the last Mugal Emperor (-1858)
During the 1857 mutiny Bahaadur Shaah took shelter in Humaayoon's Tomb with his three sons. Over 80, he was seen as a figurehead by Muslims opposing the British. When captured, he was transferred to Rangoon (Burmaa) for the remaining four years of his life.

Mugal rule continued from Delhi until 1858 when its last ruler went to exile to Rangoon in 1858.

After Aurangzeb, Mugal power was fading like a "magnificent flower slowly wilting and occasionally dropping a petal, its brilliance fading, its stalk bending ever lower and lower". Nine emperors succeeded Aurangzeb, between the death of Aurangzeb and the exile of its last emperor to Rangoon in 1858. It was no accident, that the British ended the rule of its East India Company and decreed India to be its Indian empire.



Home | Rel-Dictionary | History


Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/06
Updated on 02/06/13