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Born from will. So Maanas Putra means sons born from will.

Maareech's Vadh
Though Maareech assumed the form of a deer, he had to retain his heart and brain of his own. This is the yogic way of "Paraa Kaayaa Praveshanam" 'entering other bodies...' and these assumed artificial bodies do not hold ground in "Nidraa, Surata, Maran and in Dashesu" states of the body ('in sleep, copulation and death states...) where the mind, if distracted to these states, cannot concentrate or hold the body that is assumed by mental powers of Yog. Here no supernal god or deity is involved to grant such a capacity but one's own practice to achieve it. Whereas in other case like Raavan, gods have bestowed boons, so he need not practice such Yog etc, as he is blessed to be above these mortal's practices and thus can change his form and can rejoice in any state with that body or form. This is how he abducts Seetaa in the form of a Saadhu.

A traditional drink made of honey, yogurt, butter and milk of the coconut as a welcome drink.

Mandaraachal Parvat
Here Mandarachal Parvat is mentioned for Seetaa, not the Himaalaya or Meru Parvat, because, even though they are more massive and lofty. Vishnu used Mandar as a churn-staff to churn the Milky Ocean  not the Himaalaya or Meru Parvat and the burden of that Mandar was sustained by Vishnu alone by incarnating as a Kashchap (Tortoise), which is impossible for simpletons like Raavan, as Raavan failed to lift even Kailash Parvat. Before Lakshmee's emergence from the churning Milky Ocean, Her elder sister Halaahal 'lethal poison' emerged and She could only be controlled only by Shiv Jee, and now, if Raavan contemplates to consume her younger sister of Kaalkoot, Halaahal 'lethal poison' it is evident what will become of him. This is Nidarshan Alankaar (figurative speech); Samaan Vaakyaarth Aikyataa 'aesthetics of correspondence...'

Mandehaa people try to to hinder the Sun's path everyday in the morning, at the same time the Gayatree Mantra chanters will be chanting Gaayatree Mantra and offer water oblations to Gaayatree. The Mantra and oblations will hit the Mandehaa out making he Sun's path clear. This happens everyday that in the morning they fall down in waters and later they dangle again with mountain's peaks.

Mitra and Varun
Shree Mad Bhaagvat gives a different version of this story, that Vashishth Jee was not the son of both, but only of Varun; and Mitra had the son Agastya Jee. Both ejaculated their semen and kept in the same pitcher. So two Rishi took birth from that pitcher - Agastya Jee and Vashishth Jee.

Mohinee literally means 'that which bewitches...' usually a feminine when it is a name of a woman or neutral when it means trance-like on somebody. Here Vishnu assumed a physique of such a voluptuous and bewitching seductress, marvelously limbed, and mantled in see-thru clothing, and thus maddened everybody around Her. Then She started to serve Amrita / Ambrosia among Devtaa and Raakshas by making them sit on either side of her way. Even the age-old Brihaspati, the Jupiter, sitting in god's row, came under her charm and started gazing her from top to toe. But when he saw at the feet of that damsel, they appeared as male person's feet. He further looked at those two feet and recognized them as Shree Charan (Bhagvaan's feet), 'Reverential Divine Feet of Vishnu,' with which He covered the three spheres, Brihaspati's illusion got shattered and he venerated those feet, recognizing this as Vishnu's Maayaa.

Muhoort is a short period of time, about half an hour,  which is normally sought to do auspicious work, such as marriage, to start for a journey, or other religious ceremonies. Who believe in Jyotish do seek the auspicious time to perform certain activities for their success.

My Arrows
Since Raam is saying that "My arrows are are gotten from Shar Van of Kaartikeya", it means that His arrows contain both Amrit and Halaahal. Normally when an archer intends to kill anyone, he dips his arrow's tip into some poison, but here since Raam's arrows contain both Amrit and Halaahal, they don't need to be dipped in poison because they already have the most powerful poison to kill Baali or Raavan. They are like Amrit for friends and like poison for foes.

Nahush's son Yayaati
In Uttar Kaand, Sarg 56, it has been mentioned that when Urvashee could not make happy both Mitra and Varun, then Mitra gave her Shaap that she would have to take birth on Prithvi and she would be the wife Budh's son Pururavaa. He was the same Pururavaa who was born from -- when he came to the forest where Shiv Jee was enjoying Himself with Paarvatee Jee so he was converted into a woman. By Paarvatee's Var he spent a year as one month as male and one month as female. When he was in his female form, Chandramaa's son Budh saw him and got attracted to him and produced a son from him - Pururavaa. So Urvashee came to live with the same Pururavaa as his wife. There she gave birth to Aayu. Then Aayu had the son Nahush, and Nahush had the son named Yayaati.

Names of Raam and Lakshman etc
Raam is defined as "in whom all the people take delight for his virtuousness, that is why He is Raam. Padm Puraan says that Raam name is very old. Bharat is defined - because he bears the burden of the kingdom of Raam during Raam's exile. Lakshman is the favored flourisher. The wealth of selfless dedication is in him, that is why his name is Lakshman. He is a hearty dedication to Raam and he always wishes to stand by the side of his brother Raam. Shatrughn is always an enemy destroyer.

Nature's Activities
The reaction of the trees, wind, and river is, as said by Devtaa to Brahmaa Jee in Baal Kaand: "Soorya, the Sun will not verily parch Raavan. Marut, the Air will not surge at his sides. On seeing him, the lord of the undulating, drifting waves, Ocean... will not pulsate either, [and will hide the undulating waves, for the waves are his wives, and Ravana may abduct them... like Seetha."] [1-15-10]

The Oordhwa-retaa is a Yogee's very high practice of pure Yog called Hath Yog. These Yogee will hold their semen un-ejaculated by use or misuse, and they make its course head ward through the six-plexuses of human body. This is stated to make their mental and physical glow, enriched and a divine aura circulates around such Yogee.

Passed That Night
According to Aashcharya Raamaayan, another traditional version of Raamaayan, after taking leave from other Muni Raam came out of His hut in the night and killed many animals and told this to Seetaa for Her surprise and praise in the morning.

Paativrat Dharm
To be loyal to one's husband by "Manasaa, Vaachaa, Karmanaa" (heart, speech and action; or body, mind and soul). This is the Dharm of a Pativrataa woman. Satee women observe this very strictly. In Hindu Dharm Paativrat Dharm's power is great. It is believed that it can defeat even Bhagvaan. (Read the story of Tulasee

Pativrataa Woman
Who serves her husband by "Manasaa, Vaachaa, Karmanaa" (heart. speech and action).
[5/5,  9;   7/18]

Pind Daan
Pind Daan is performed for a dead. It is one of the obligatory last rites.

It is the word for greeting in Hindi language. Greeting to an elder, a respectable or a Devtaa by joining palms together, by bending a little and pronouncing "Pranaam".

There are two phrases used in this reference, 'Offering Prasaad', and 'Getting Prasaad'. In Hindu religion some kind of sweets or dry fruits or food items, or material are offered to Devtaa (deity) while visiting Him or Her. It is first offered to the Devtaa and then sometimes it is taken by the person who offers it, and many times it is distributed among Bhakt, family members, friends and even outsiders. It doesn't have to be in great quantity, an amount equal to chickpea size is enough. It is believed that after offering to Devtaa that item is blessed and eating or using it will bless the people who take it. Normally Prasaad must not be left out after a worship (Poojaa), it should be taken in both hands or in right hand (never in left hand), if the distributor forgets you to give it, it should be asked for.

Prithvi has been dug in every Kalp..
This is the cosmic routine. Every day of Brahmaa is one Kalp and in each Kalp Brahmaa starts to create the Universe afresh. Though it is just like the bygone era, it is still anew but the presiding souls of each object of universe change. If one soul presides the Sun or the Moon in this era, in the next era they attain a step more on the ladder and a soul-in-wait takes up the vacant space, just as good as an official's promotion. In this cosmic destruction even Devtaa and Devtaa-like people are also destroyed if they tend to ruin unnecessarily. This is true even with Indra. Vishnu in His Vaaman incarnation blessed the Raakshas Emperor Bali with such Indra-hood in some future Kalp, when Bali's sin are counted down.

Pushpak Vimaan
Pushpak Vimaan was built by Vishwakarmaa. It was used to carry Devtaa. Later Brahmaa Jee gave it to Kuber. When Raavan went for winning the world, he confiscated it from Kuber after wining him. It used to fly very fast. It was wish-driven. And it could be made smaller or larger according to the need. After Raavan's death, it came to Vibheeshan and Vibheeshan gave it to Raam. Raam sent it back to Kuber.
[5/4, 5/5]

Putreshti Yagya
Putreshti Yagya is performed to get sons. Raajaa Dasharath did it to get sons.

Raam's Army

Raam's Shaap
Raam was so sad at Pampaa Sarovar that He cursed - Champaa flowers not to be touched by honey-bees, Chakravaak birds (Chakavaa) to be separated at midnight, Kokilaa bird (cuckoo) children to be grown up in other's (crow's) nest, sandalwood trees to become the shelters for snakes, the breeze to become the food of snakes, in anguish of the separation of Seetaa. [Skand Puraan]

Raavan's Army

Raavan's Mind
Here Raavan is repeatedly saying that "You may go away after taking away Raam and Lakshman far from their cottage. He is thinking that Maareech will be able to escape after he had taken Raam and Lakshman out of Raam's hermitage area; and even if he is not able to escape, he doesn't care for him. But Maareech knows that he will not be able to save himself from Raam's arrows.

Rishyashring Muni
Rishyashring Muni was the son of Vibhaandak Muni; and Vibhaandak Muni was the son of Maharshi Kashyap Jee. It is said that Rishyashring was born from a deer and had a small horn on his head when he was born that is why his name was Rishyashring. Rish means the Sage; and Shring means horn; so Rishyashring means a Sage with a horn.

Saam, Daam, Dand and Bhed Policies
These policies are used by kings. Learned people have said that if one cannot get his work done by these policies, then only he should fight. Saam (conciliation), Daam (money or gift), Dand (punishment) or Bhed (divide and rule) policies

Sanctums are the fire places where Devtaa are invoked to participate in worship. In fact they should be 17 in all. Besides here there is no Sanctum for Shiv Jee. In fact Shiv Jee has no place for worship in the worship by Vaishnav (who worship Vishnu).

Sandhyaa word is originated from the word Sandhi. Sandhi means joint. There are two Sandhyaa everyday - dusk and dawn when day and night meet. In Hindu Dharm these two periods are very sacred. Several actions are prohibited at this time and some actions are prescribed. There is a short worship which is mandatory at both Sandhyaa times. Since that worship is done at the Sandhyaa time, it is called "Sandhyaa". That is What Raam did.
[1/  ;   7/30]

There are two meanings of Sanskaar. (1) There are 16 Sanskaar (rites) of a human being according to Hindu Dharm. They are performed throughout his life from birth to death. (2) The other meaning of Sanskaar is Karm of previous lives and teachings of parents etc in childhood and own nature of a person combined ascertain a certain kind of behavior of the person. Those bases of the behavior are called Sanskaar.

There are many dress rules to a 'Hindu Sanyaasee' where the main items are, as said by Sage Aangiiras: 'sacred thread, three-shafts, saffron clothing, deerskin, handy water vessel, grass-mat, loin-cloth, girdle-cloth... by these he will be known as a real  'Hindu Sanyaasee.' Out of all these items, the shafts make a difference. Vaishnavaite Sanyaasee-s handle three shafts tied into one, and the three are symbolic to Chit, Achit, Eeshwar 'animate, inanimate, and lord...' and on this Manu says the word Dand means 'repressing, suppression, control...' thus a Sanyaasee has to control his 'speech, mind, and body... by that alone he is renowned as Sanyaasee... But Raavan was only in the form of a Sanyaasee.

Satee  see  Pativrataa Woman

Seetaa Put a Blade of Straw..
'Husband-devout' wives do not chat with 'the other' males without making an improvised screen in between, may it be a half-veil, a door, or any other item that prevent the vilely ogles of others.

Seetaa's Entrance
Raavan is surprised to Seetaa like woman in that forest, so he says to Her - "your kind of woman is unspotted by me among humans, so you must be some goddess, but I have marked all gods and there also I did not find you. This province belongs to demons. As such, gods, Gandharv, Kinnar and others cannot enter this place, let alone the gods from Shiv Jee's side. Because Shiv Jee is the Ultimate for demons. If so, do you belong to Ekaadash Rudra (eleven Rudra) or, because Air can circulate here, so do you belong to any of the forty-nine Marut Gan (Wind-gods) or, because this Prithvi has ancient connections with Asht Vasu (eight Vasu), so do you belong to any one of them?' 

Seven Places for Vaayu
According to Vishnu Puraan, there are seven places for Vaayu - (1) Aavaha Air resides in clouds, thunderbolt, rain, meteors etc; (2) Pravaah Air in Solar orbit; (3) Samhaav Air in Lunar orbit; (4) Udvaah in Galaxies; (5) Vivaah in Planetary spheres; (6) Parivaah in Sapt Rishi (seven sages) sphere; and (7) Varaavaha in Polar regions. These are otherwise called - Gagan, Sparshan, Vaayu, Anil, Praan, Praaneshwar, and Jeev. Each of the seven Marut has a batch of seven Marut, thus they are 49 entities.

Shabd-Vedhee Vaan
Shabd means sound, Vedhee means which pierces, and Vaan means arrow. Means that arrow which can pierce on hearing the sound. In this the archer shoots his arrow at his aim on hearing the sound only. Raajaa Dasharath could do it. Arjun could do it. Raam also did it.

Shraadh is a religious ceremony performed for dead ancestors to remember them, to show respect towards them and to send food to them. It is customary to do them annually but they are done on other occasions also. Bharat did it on the twelfth day of Dashrath's cremation ceremony. This is the last rite done among the series of rites when a man dies.

Sin Produced by Desires
According to Manu Smriti, there are ten sins produced by desires - (1) hunting, (2) sleeping in daytime, (3) abusing others, (4) indulgence in women, (5,6,7) three artistic impulses - music, dance and drama, (8) wasteful wandering. [taken from Valmiki Ramayan 3/9/3 - sorry, it gives only eight sins not ten]

Six Mouths
It is said that Kaarttikeya has six faces and six mouths as such. When each of the six Krittikas-stars came forward to give her milk firstly to this boy, so observing their eagerness to feed him, Kaartikeya made his one face into six and sucked all the milk of all the six stars and became an adolescent boy in one day only. Later he argued with Shiv Jee that he was superior to him, because he had five-faces of Shiv, plus one of his his own, totaling to a six faced deity. In another way, the boy by birth is dexterous and he sucked the milk of all the six mothers in an split second with one face, but it appeared to all deities that the boy had six faces. Thus on establishing his ambidextrous personality, the gods nominated him as the Chief of Celestial Army.

Six Sandhi Vigrah
There are six ways employed by kings in their kingship: (1) Sandhi (friendship) - covenant with adverse kings; (2) Vigrah - continuing hostilities; (3) Yaan - waging war; (4) Aasan - sit out for proper time; (5) Dwaidee Bhaav - creating factions in enemy group; and (6) Sam-Aashraya - taking refuge under a coequal.

Here Baali is just telling his body's uselessness. Tiger's skin is used as carpet, its two canine teeth are used in golden necklace, its other body parts are said to contain medicinal properties. Elephant's tusks are a great decorative articles; camel's bones are made into bangles and bracelets; rhino's horn has religious use as well; Himaalayan yaak's hair is used for royal fanning instruments; deer skin is used by saints and sages to sit up on; but the skin, har and bones of a monkey, they are of no use.

Soot Putra is the person whose father is of low caste and mother is of higher caste. In this case Sumantra's mother was Braahman and father was Kshatriya. Such people do only business of being bard or charioteer. In Mahaabhaarat, Karn was also Soot-Putra.

There is a reference of Soot Jee in Bhaagvat Puraan also. His name was Ugrashravaa. He was the son of Maharshi Romharshan. In this case also Romharshan was a Kshatriya and his mother was a Braahman. But this Soot Jee, Ugrashravaa, uplifted himself by telling religious stories to people. So although he was known as Soot Jee, still he was not in the business of being bard or a charioteer.

Such marriages are called VILOM VIVAAH, i.e. wrong marriage. Because this customary in Hindu society that the girl can be of a lower caste but the boy should always be of higher caste. And this is true only for the first three castes - Braahman, Kshatriya and Vaishya, but not for the Shoodra.

Kaamdhenu's another name is Surabhi. Surabhi is a divine cow living in Dev Lok. She is the mother of all cows. She came out at the time of Saagar Manthan.

Swastyayana is a formality performed ceremony by the wives of the combating gallants before their departure to battlefields, by placing red Tilak (Teekaa, or  on forehead, Aaratee with camphor burning lamp, Akshat (rice), sprinkling the same on head, handing him his bow or sword, all with respective Vedic hymns. The weaponry of these heroes will be in the custody of their wives, for they have to worship the weaponry that brings victory to their husbands. Seetaa also gives Raam and Lakshman their bows and swords in Aranya Kaand, on their departure to forests from Suteekshn's hermitage as at 3/8/18.

Swayam means self and Var means husband. Swayamvar means to choose husband herself. Before girls had the right to choose their husbands. Father used to invite many kings or candidates for the marriage and the girl was given Var Maalaa in her hand. She used to go around the court getting introduction of every prince or the boy, and to whoever she wanted as her husband, she put her Var Maalaa in his neck. This process was very common in kings' families. Sometime a fight also broke among kings if the girl didn't choose a certain king.

Tarpan is oblation offered to dead ancestors. Shraaddh and Tarpan are offered to dead ancestors. they are done in a 16 day period falling from Bhaadrapad Poornimaa to Aashwin Krishn Amaavasyaa. Many people got to Gayaa, Haridwaar etc places also to do this.

Its English translation is 'upliftment' which is only close to it. Uddhaar means to save somebody who is in great pain, or difficulty, or in problem, from that pain, or solving difficulties or problems. So Ahilyaa Uddhaar means that Ahilyaa was in great problem and her problem was solved. There are many such stories in which Bhagvaan has done Uddhaar of many people and animals and even trees. Killing Raavan was also a kind of Uddhaar.

A religious ceremony which is to be performed every morning and evening and especially before the mid-day meal, followed by offering of food to Devtaa especially Agni Dev - the god of fire.

Vaitarnee River
Vaitarnee River flows in Yam Puree, that is what it is believed in Hindu Religion. It is not of water or anything else, but it is of blood, bones, pus etc. And everybody has to pass through that river after death.

Crying and lamenting with tears along with saying something about the person, especially the dead one - it is normally done at the time of death. But here Raam is doing it because He is afraid that either Raakshas have eaten Seetaa or abducted Her.

Emotions are of ten types - in Hindi they are called Ras. Shringaar Ras (sexual love) is one of them. This is also divided in two parts - while hero and heroin meet, and when they get separated. When the emotions of a separated person (hero or heroine) are described, that is called Virah. Here Raam is separated from Seetaa, so whatever Raam is thinking that is described. That is why it is called Virah.

Winkless Eyes
The winl-less-ness of eyes is the property of celestials, that is why Vaanar saw Seetaa with their winkless eyes. Although they used to see such things often but this was special because Seetaa was continuously calling "Raam, Raam" and was struggling to be free from Raavan's hold.They knew this Raakshas as Raavan and his alliance with Baali.If they intervened they could have been killed at the hand of Raavan instead of Baali that is why they did not say anything to Raam about the way Seetaa was abducted.

Holy fireplace where Yagya is performed by lighting fire and offering Aahuti for Devtaa. The Vedic ritual demands three fireplaces, called Tretaagni - Dakshinaagni (southern fire), Gaarhpatya Agni (domestic fire), and Aavaahniya Agni (invocaton Fire). These three are lit continuously day and night symbolizing that fire in human beings has continuity. Whenever a Vedic ritual takes place,the celestial devinity (Devtaa) will come down to take their share of offering and dance in the praise of the ritual.

Offering vessels are of particular nature and a long spoon is made of special wood to offer clarified butter or milk into the alter of fire. The deerskin is the prescribed Aasan for meditation, the sacred grass (Doorvaa or Doob) is essential even in domestic rituals, symbolizing that human kind shall prosper like the interlaced and intermingled grass. There is a Doorvaa Sooktam in Vedic hymns symbolizing the nature of grass.
[1/] Culled from  Valmiki Ramayan, Aranya Kaand 3/1]

There are four Varn in Hindu society - Braahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shoodra. Before they had their duties fixed in the society. Braahman's duty was to study and teaching, performing Yagya for themselves and for other Varn of the society. So when they are doing Yagya or any other religious ceremony for other Varn, those other people are called Yajamaan.

Yojan is an ancient measure of distance, where one Yojan roughly equals to 8 to 10 miles, its account is like this :
1 angul = 3/4 inch;
4 angul = 1 Dhanu Graha - bow grip;
8 angul = 1 Dhanu Mushti - fist with thumb raised;
12 angul = 1 Vitasti - distance between tip of thumb and tip of last finger when palm is stretched;
2 Vitasti = 1 Aratni - cubit;
4 Aratni = 1 Dand, Dhanush - bow height - 6 ft ;
10 Dand = 1 Rajju = 60 ft ;
2 Rajju = 1 Paridesh - 120 ft ;
2, 000 Dhanush = 1 Krosh , and also called Gorata - 4, 000 yards ;
4 Krosh = 1 Yojan
Thus one yojana is 9 to 10 miles, But the British Revenue measurement scaled it down to 5 miles, and all the dictionaries say that one Yojan is 5 miles. But traditionally it is held as 10 miles. More info on these measures can be read from The "ArthaShaastra" of Kautilya - a republication of Penguin.



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Created by Sushma Gupta on 5/27/03
Updated on 04/13/13