Vaalmeeki Raamaayan | Notes A-L

Baal Kaand | Ayodhyaa Kaand | Aranya Kaand | Kishkindhaa Kaand | Sundar Kaand | Yuddh Kaand | Uttar Kaand


Home | V-Raamaayan | Notes

Notes - A-L

Previous | Next

Notes - A-L

11 Rudra
11 Rudra are sometimes called the brainchildren of Rudra and sometimes of Brahmaa. Their names are: (1) Aj, (2) Ekpaad, (3) Ahirbudhni, (4) Har, (5) Shambhoo, (6) Triyambak, (7) Aparaajit, (8) Eeshaan, (9) Tribhuvan, (10) Twashtaa, (11) Rudra.
[From Valmiki Ramayan, 4/43)

12 Months Time
If one king conquers another and lay seize to queens, a twelve month time is given to the defeated king to regain his captivated queens, by making another round of combat. If the defeated king is unable to do so, or reluctant to do so, the captivated queens of the defeated king automatically belong to the conquering king... Raaj Neeti - Shaanti Parv - Mahaabhaarat.

33 Devtaa
33 Devtaa were not the all Devtaa who came to see Brahmaa Jee, there were many others also, but these 33 Devtaa are main. They are: 8 Vasu, 11 Rudra, 12 Aaditya, and 2 Ashwinee Kumaar

Aachman is a process to clean mouth before doing any religious activity. It is done before and after taking the food also. When it is done before any religious activity, normally it is done three times.
[2/52;   7/30]

Aahuti is offered in Yagya, or Havan (in fire through Agni Dev). There are two types of Aahuti, either some food, cooked or raw; and Ghee (clarified butter). It is believed that these things when offered through fire go to respective Devtaa for whom it is meant for. Agni's wife's name is Swaahaa, so whenever any Aahuti is offered it is always followed by the name Agni's wife's name 'Swaahaa'.

Abhimantrit means to bind something with a Mantra. In Hinduism normally all alms, Baayanaa, Shaap etc. are Abhimantrit first. In the process of alms and Baayanaa the things are kept aside and a little water, sometimes with some money is kept in right hand and the thing is circled with that water three times. Then the thing becomes Abhimantrit and it cannot be used by anybody else than the person or for any other purpose for whom and which it has been kept aside. For example, Baayanaa is given to some higher status person (these statuses are defined), and alms are given to Braahman or beggars or Dakaut (who accept alms for Shani). In the case of Shaap, people used to take water in their right hand and utter some Mantra to give Shaap and sprinkle that water on the person to whom they wanted to give Shaap.

Religious and sacred bath or sprinkling water over a person or an idol of Bhagvaan or Devtaa as a part of performance of a religious ceremony.

Akshawhinee Army     see      Chaturanginee Army

Alark, Raajaa
Raajaa Alark once bestowed a boon to a blind Braahman. So to fulfill it he had to part with his own eyes as the Braahman asked for Raajaa's own eyes in order to have his own eyesight restored.

Ashwamedh Yagya
Ashwamedh Yagya is done to please Shiv Jee. In Ashwamedh Yagya, Raajaa has to send a decorated Yagya horse around to other countries with his trusted people and possibly army. Whoever kings accept the doer of that Yagya as their king, they leave the horse, but whoever do not accept his dependence they capture the horse and fight. Normally this Yagya is done only when the king is sure of his victory over all other kings. In Indian history some Ashwamedh Yagya are famous. Raajaa Sagar did it. Raajaa Raam did it. Indra did it to wash His sin of Brahm Hatyaa of Vritraasur. Raajaa Dasharath did it. A group of Muni did it for Raajaa Il to get him free from Shiv's Shaap [7/89-90].

Banyan Tree
Banyan tree is an Indian fig tree, Ficus benghalensis, the branches of which hang down and root themselves in the soil individually thus making each branch developing in a separate tree. Its simile to Raam says that: he is like an atom in the atomic seed of that tree. On its growth, it spreads so wide and broad and its every branch take its own root like the manifold growth of this universe. Hence, every individual being is his offspring and progeny. And the whole universe is pervaded by his 'tree-top' like shelter. Secondly, that tree gives shelter to innumerable beings for it is so wide at its apex. Hence, anyone can take shelter under Raam, because he is obliged to oblige all as said in an ancient saying: 'water in a well, banyan tree shade, maiden's two breasts, will warm up in cold season and cool down in hot season...

Who follows Brahmcharya or celibacy. There are only four lifelong Brahmchaaree - Naarad Jee, Sanakaadi Muni (all four), Hanumaan Jee, Bheeshm Pitaamah.

Means celibacy. Living with a great discipline and without sensual pleasures. There are two types of celibacy: one is when one lives with discipline and without sensual pleasures from the beginning; the other one is when one does not enjoy his or her partner on forbidden days, such as new moon, full moon etc. So it is not only that a person has to live without marriage throughout his whole life, but as a married man also he can follow the Brahmcharya. The one who lives like this is called Brahmchaaree. For example Arjun was a Bramchaaree even being a Grihasth, while Ashwatthaama was not.

Chakor and Chakoree
There is a bird named Chakore and his female named Chakoree. The bird's specialty is this that it always looks at the Moon.

Chanvar or Chamar
It is made of Chanvar named after cow's bushy tail's silver-white hair (Bos grunniens), tied to a short or long size stick, or golden or silver handle to fly flies by shaking it over a person. It is normally used for Bhagavaan's idols (in temples) and Raajaa.

Chaturanginee Army   see also  Numbering System
An ancient army which had four kinds of warriors - (1) who fought on elephants, 21,870 elephants; (2) who fought on horses, 65,600 horse riders; (3) who fought on chariots, 21,870 Rath (cavalry); and (4) who fought on foot - infantry - 109,350 soldiers; made up one Akshauhinee Chaturanginee army. Paandav had 7 Akshauhinee army and Kaurav had 11 Akshauhinee army in Kurukshetra war in Mahaabhaarat. Kaurav army included Shree Krishn's Narayanee army also.

A row of army consists of 1 chariot, 1 elephant, 3 cavalry (Rath-riders) and 7 foot-soldiers. Multiples of these is called Akshauhinee and since there are four types of warriors it is called Chaturanginee (four colored or four types) army also.

Dakshinaa is a kind of fees, given in cash or kind, given to Braahman by other three Varn for taking some religious work from him, for example after doing a Yagya for a Kshatriya, the Kshatriya should give Dakshinaa to that Braahman. Without giving this Dakshinaa the Kshatriya will not get the result of the Yagya.

There is one Guru Dakshinaa also. This is also the same as above, given in cash and kind, but given to Guru at the time of termination of education and learning. In this it does not depend on the student's wish but the Guru asks for it, and the student has to pay it. In our history some Guru Dakshinaa are very famous: Krishn and Balaraam brought their Guru's dead son back from Yam Raaj's place. Eklavya gave his right hand thumb to Guru Dronaachaarya when he asked Guru Dakshinaa from him. Paandav brought Raajaa Drupad tying with a rope behind their chariot after defeating him as Guru Dakshinaa to their Guru Dronaachaarya Jee. Education is not believed to be complete until Guru Dakshinaa is paid.
[   ]

Darshan means seeing. It is especially used for respectable person too. In religious context it is much more than seeing. Darshan can be of one's deity Bhagvaan or of some very great man (maybe Guru). When one goes to have a Darshan of Bhagavaan in a temple, it is not only seeing the Bhagavaan's idol but it also includes seeing it with Bhakti (devotion), Shrddhaa (politeness), love, faithfulness, a feeling of contentedness and satisfaction, a feeling of slave and master. Bhakt daily goes to have Darshan of his deity in temple or does this in his home, then what is in seeing the same idol again and again daily? It cannot be only seeing, certainly it includes something else too. They believe that by seeing that idol or that person their whole day will pass very successfully.

Divine Bow
This bow belonged to Shiv Jee. Shiv Jee from which He destroyed the rituals of Raajaa Daksh. Then gods pleased Shiv Jee and obtained this bow and gave it to Devaraataa, an earlier king of Mithilaa, as a boon of Vaidik rituals. Nobody - gods, Gandharv, Asur, Raakshas - could even lift it up. Many princes, including Raavan, came to lift it up but nobody could lift it up. (It is said that since it was Shiv Jee's bow that is why Raavan could not even dare to touch it. He was a great devotee of Shiv Jee.

It is also said that there were two such bows, one was given to Mithilaa kings and the second one was given to Kans' family. Kans also arranged Dhanush Yagya and invited Krishn to witness it. He knew that whoever will break that bow only he will be able to kill him. Krishn came to Mathuraa with Akroor Jee and went to the place where that bow was kept and broke it. When Kans came to know about this, he knew that Krishn is the one who is his killer as well as Devakee's eighth son.

When one undergoes the process of Deekshaa, he undergoes some ceremony and he has to abide with some rules. Like, after one has taken the Deekshaa for a Yagya, he has to sleep on floor, or maybe eat food only once a day, not to be angry with anybody, to feed everybody whoever comes to his house at any time of the day, etc. etc. In the olden times when children used to go for their education, they also took Deekshaa from their Guru Jee. This also meant to abide with some rules.

East Side
The eastside is not the eastside of Kishkindhaa, but to the East of Jamboo Dweep, that is "Indian subcontinent... inclusive of South-East Asia...". The meridian of the Saraswatee Trivenee (confluence of the rivers Ilaa, Bhaaratee, and Saraswatee) is still the prime meridian for Indian astronomers. The first observatory, Ujjain Observatory, is on this meridian. Taking Ujjain, the place where one ancient river flowed circuitously in Central India, named Sharaavatee, as the center of the country, ancient astronomers have decided the quarters. So, Sugreeva said about the absolute east of India but not about the east of his small kingdom.
[From Valmiki Ramayan, 4/40]

Eligible Queens
The divine sweets was meant for only eligible queens and also in order to maintain the divinity of Raam's birth. Dasharath gave 1/2 to Kaushalyaa, then the 1/2 of remaining part (i.e. only 1/4th) to Sumitraa, then the 1/2 of the remaining part (now remains only 1/4th so only 1/8th) to  Kaikeyee and the last 1/8th part to Sumitraa again after thinking for a while. This resulted in the birth of four princes - Raam to Kaushalyaa, Lakshman and Shatrughn to Sumitraa and Bharat to Kaikeyee.

Enjoyed Umaa
Shiv Jee enjoyed Umaa for 100 divine years thus: this prolonged act of copulation is an act of Yog called Mahaa Maithun. The Shaaktaite Taantrik who practice Panch Makaar (5 Ms): Madya (liquor), Maans (meat), Matsya (fish), Mudraa (postures or loosely: calisthenics] ), Maithun (copulation) make use of these things. In these practices, the Yogee use Mudraa's 'posture' 'calisthenics' at the time of copulation even, so that there will be no ejaculation for a longer period. This is their 'Five-element theory...'

Fifth State
Fifth state of life is death. There are four states in aone's life. (1) Jaagrit Avasthaa (Waking state); (2) Swapn Avasthaa (dreaming state); (3) Sushupt Avasthaa (sleeping state); and (4) Tureeya Avasthaa (above the previous three states, in fact Yogee attain this state). The first three Avasthaa are for everybody, and of course this fifth state is also for everybody.

To offer flowers, they should be plucked by the worshipper himself and from his own garden, otherwise half of the Punya goes to the person who gives those flowers to him. Best are the flowers which are plucked by himself, medium are the flowers which are forest-born, worse than them are the purchased ones, and worse than them are the given by others.

Four Ved
When Brahmaa took a breath and the four Ved came out with His breath, two Raakshas named Madhu and Kaitabh were waiting to take them, so they took them and went to Rasaatal. Then Vishnu retrieved them in His Matsya Avataar. They were again stolen by a Raakshas Somakaasur in the form of Hayagreev, a horse-faced Divinity retrieved them from him.

A fox usually waits in a ditch until the lion or lioness finishes its food. The lion will have its lion's share and go away. Then the lioness and her cubs have their share and go away. Then it is the day of the fox-in-the-ditch. So Seetaa says "Like a fox-in-the-ditch, how you dare to come to an inaccessible lioness, when the lion has departed..." Next, Sun's wife is Prabhaa or Shine and she is non-figural resplendent entity. She is perceivable but untouchable. If anyone can lay his hands on her by the dint of his yogic or ascetic practices, and if he baskets that Shine for use in night, that night becomes a day, for it will be shining with sunshine, and thus his pleasurable night is vanished. Thereby he looses his minimal personal comfort of a night and thus it will be self-ruinous to experiment with such ideas.

Gangaa on Prithvi as Tri-Pathagaa
Gangaa is called Tri-Pathagaa. Tri-Pathagaa means "with three paths". Her three paths can be interpreted in several ways - (1) She flows in Dev Lok as Aakaash Gangaa or Dev Gangaa, then on Prithvi as Mandaakinee, and in Paataal Lok as Jaahnavee. (2) She came from Heaven to Shiv's head, from Shiv's head to Prithvi and then followed Bhageerath's chariot. (3) She has three streams - one towards West is Sindhu; one towards East is Brahmputra, and one to South behind Bhageerath, that is Gangaa.

Gold is called Jaat Roop also. Even its etymological name is Jaat Roop. Jaat means from the birth, and Roop means form; means "birth time form".

Golden Arrows
The sizes of Raavan's arrows are calculated differently. This "Rath Aksh Maatraa" is taken as the length of chariot's wheel and thus it is said to be 400" or some 33 feet, which is perhaps unusual as Raavan did not travel in his chariot with a mega body. In another way Aksh is taken as the 'eye of the axle...' and it is then said, 'as thick as an axle...' Some others said the size of those arrows was as thick as 84" according to Shilp Shaastra 'science of chariot making...' Here the thickness alone is taken as criterion.

Golden Mrig
Here, there are two explanations for Raam being attracted to golden Mrig.(1) Even after telling by Lakshman, He couldn't recognize the Maayaavee Mrig and got attracted to him, and went after him to catch or kill him. Yudhishthir also says to Draupadee in Mahaabhaarat (Sabhaa Parv) as why he put his four brothers and wife on stake in game, that "Even Raam was unable to recognize that Maayaa Mrig. That even the good people loose their brains in bad times. (2) Or He did know that he was a Maayaavee Mrig, because he could not be a natural Mrig, there is no such Mrig like a golden Mrig in the world, because it was impossible to have a golden Mrig, still He followed him to please His wife.

Hree, Shree and Keerti
These three - Hree, Shree, and Keerti - are the daughters of Daksh Prajaapati in their earlier births. Hree is Hrillekh, means virtuous disposition - which Queen Kaushalyaa has, and who begot Raam. Shree is Shreekaar, means the affluence of everything, which Queen Sumitraa has, by which alone she magnificently and unhesitatingly advises her son Lakshman to go along with Raam to forest. And the third, Keerti, means glory, and the glory of Kaikeyee is well known. The importance of this epic minus Kaikeyee can be just imagined what it would have been, thereby her glory, may it be negative, can well be imagined easily.
[From Valmiki Ramayan, 1/15]

I will kill Taadakaa
When Vishwaamitra Jee asked Raam to kill Taadakaa, Raam was in the same dilemma to kill Taadakaa because of being a woman, as Arjun was in Mahaabhaarat to kill his own relatives. But Vishwaamitra Jee also said the same thing as Krishn said to Arjun in Geetaa to eradicate the vice as the duty of a Kshatriya whether it is in form of woman or relative.

Ichchhaa Mrityu
Ichchhaa means by wish, and Mrityu means death. So Ichchhaa Mrityu means when one can die only when he wishes. This Vardaan was given to one other person - Bheeshm Pitaamah (Devavrat), by his father Shaantanu.

Isheekaa Missile
Isheekaa is dried blade of grass, which by invoking with hymns will become a projectile weapon, which Raam uses on Kaak (Indra's son Jayant), and Ashwatthaamaa also uses it in Mahaabhaarat, which Krishn nullifies

Jamboo Dweep
According to Hindu Mythology Jamboo Dweep is a continent where the following seven Dweep (continents) are there: Jamboo, Plaksh, Shaalmali, Kush, Kraunch, Shaak and Pushkar. Jamboo Dweep is one of them.

Janasthaan is the castle-gateway to Lankaa. Lankaa is a city built within its zastle-walls and it has no countryside or villages at least, annexing it. If Janasthaan is ruined, Lanka is also going to be ruined soon, because none could crossover the bulwark-like-Janasthaan so far. "Hey Raajan, when Raakshas in Janasthaan are ruined, your kingship is also in danger...' 'many...not one or two, many Raakshas that are guarding Lanka from Janasthaan are now dead...' Then Raavan might ask "what is it Khar doing then?"  'Khar is also dead...' including Dooshan and Trishiraa. In fact Lankaa was built on the mountain with an escarpment.

Kaamdhenu, the sacred cow deity is considered to grant all wishes and desires. It is believed that she emerged from Samudra Manthan (the churning of the ocean) and taken by seven gods, who compose the constellation of the Great Bear in the sky. She is also called Surabhi, Shaval, Aditi and Kaamduh. She is the mother of all cows. She had a daughter named Kapilaa who was with Vashishth Jee.

Kamalinee Flower
Kamalinee flower is like lotus flower but it is opposite to lotus' nature. Lotus flower blooms in the morning seeing the Sun and closes in the evening at sunset; while Kamalinee blooms in the night seeing the Moon and closes in the morning before sunrise.

Kanyaa Daan    see also      Daan
Kanyaa means girl, and Daan means donation; so it means to donate the girl which is performed in Hindu religion at the time of daughter's marriage. The father donates his daughter to the groom. Out of many important Daan (kind of donations) like wealth, education, cattle etc Kanyaa Daan is supposed to be an essential part of life of a Hindu. It is believed, that who do not have their own daughters, donate other's daughters.

Kapilaa Cow
Kapilaa cow was the daughter of Kaamdhenu cow who came out from Saagar Manthan. Kaamdhenu was given to Rishi to help them get anything they wished for themselves, their worship and Yagya, and for their guests. Kapilaa cow had the same qualities as of her mother. Vashishth Jee had her in his Aashram.
[1/16/52,  5/5]

Kootshaalmalee Tree
This tree is found in India as well as in Malayasia too. There it is called Kapok tree. Its seeds are covered with silk cotton. Because it is found on Shaalmalee island, one among Jaavaa, Sumaatraa etc islands, it is called Kootshaalmalee tree. The Red Ocean is also called Madhu Samudra (Wine Ocean).

Kop Bhavan
The chamber of wrath. In olden days, in king's palaces there used to be a small room where a queen went to show her anger to Raajaa when she wanted Raajaa to fulfill her any wish. She wore only old torn clothes, with loose hair and sat or lie down on bare floor. Since all this was not proper for a queen to be like this, Raajaa usually had to fulfill her wish. That is why Kaikeyee adopted this way and got succeeded.

Lokpaal means the caretaker of Lok (worlds). There are four Lokpaal appointed by Brahmaa Jee - Indra, Varun, Yam and Kuber - for the four directions.
[1/  ]



Home | V-Raamaayan | Notes


Previous | Next

Created by Sushma Gupta on 5/27/03
Updated on 06/15/13