Notes - A-L
11 Rudra are sometimes called the brainchildren of Rudra and sometimes of
Brahmaa. Their names are: (1) Aj, (2) Ekpaad, (3) Ahirbudhni, (4) Har, (5)
Shambhoo, (6) Triyambak, (7) Aparaajit, (8) Eeshaan, (9) Tribhuvan, (10)
Twashtaa, (11) Rudra.
12 Months Time
If one king conquers another and lay seize to queens, a twelve month time
is given to the defeated king to regain his captivated queens, by making
another round of combat. If the defeated king is unable to do so, or
reluctant to do so, the captivated queens of the defeated king automatically
belong to the conquering king... Raaj Neeti - Shaanti Parv - Mahaabhaarat.
33 Devtaa were not the all
Devtaa who came to see Brahmaa Jee, there were many others also, but these
33 Devtaa are main. They are: 8 Vasu, 11 Rudra, 12 Aaditya, and 2 Ashwinee Kumaar
Aachman is a process to clean mouth before doing any religious activity.
It is done before and after taking the food also. When it is done before
any religious activity, normally it is done three times.
Aahuti is offered in Yagya, or Havan (in fire through Agni Dev). There are
two types of Aahuti, either some food, cooked or raw; and Ghee (clarified
butter). It is believed that these things when offered through fire go to
respective Devtaa for whom it is meant for. Agni's wife's name is Swaahaa,
so whenever any Aahuti is offered it is always followed by the name Agni's
wife's name 'Swaahaa'.
Abhimantrit means to bind something with a Mantra. In Hinduism normally all
alms, Baayanaa, Shaap etc. are Abhimantrit first. In the process of alms and
Baayanaa the things are kept aside and a little water, sometimes with some
money is kept in right hand and the thing is circled with that water three
times. Then the thing becomes Abhimantrit and it cannot be used by anybody
else than the person or for any other purpose for whom and which it has been
kept aside. For example, Baayanaa is given to some higher status person (these
statuses are defined), and alms are given to Braahman or beggars or Dakaut
(who accept alms for Shani). In the case of Shaap, people used to take water
in their right hand and utter some Mantra to give Shaap and sprinkle that water
on the person to whom they wanted to give Shaap.
Religious and sacred bath or sprinkling water over a person or an idol of Bhagvaan
or Devtaa as a part of performance of a religious ceremony.
see Chaturanginee Army
Raajaa Alark once bestowed a boon to a blind Braahman. So to fulfill
it he had to part with his own eyes as the Braahman asked for Raajaa's own
eyes in order to have his own eyesight restored.
Ashwamedh Yagya is done to please Shiv Jee. In Ashwamedh Yagya, Raajaa has
to send a decorated Yagya horse around to other countries with his trusted
people and possibly army. Whoever kings accept the doer of that Yagya as
their king, they leave the horse, but whoever do not accept his dependence
they capture the horse and fight. Normally this Yagya is done only when the
king is sure of his victory over all other kings. In Indian history some
Ashwamedh Yagya are famous.
Raajaa Sagar did it. Raajaa Raam did it. Indra did it to wash His sin
of Brahm Hatyaa of Vritraasur. Raajaa Dasharath did it. A group of Muni did it for
Raajaa Il to get him free from Shiv's Shaap [7/89-90].
Banyan tree is an Indian fig tree, Ficus benghalensis, the branches of which
hang down and root themselves in the soil individually thus making each branch
developing in a separate tree. Its simile to Raam says that: he is like an atom
in the atomic seed of that tree. On its growth, it spreads so wide and broad and
its every branch take its own root like the manifold growth of this universe. Hence,
every individual being is his offspring and progeny. And the whole universe is pervaded
by his 'tree-top' like shelter. Secondly, that tree gives shelter to innumerable
beings for it is so wide at its apex. Hence, anyone can take shelter under Raam,
because he is obliged to oblige all as said in an ancient saying: 'water in a well,
banyan tree shade, maiden's two breasts, will warm up in cold season and cool down
in hot season...
Who follows Brahmcharya or celibacy. There are only four lifelong Brahmchaaree -
Naarad Jee, Sanakaadi Muni (all four), Hanumaan Jee, Bheeshm Pitaamah.
Means celibacy. Living with a great discipline and without sensual pleasures. There are
two types of celibacy: one is when one lives with discipline and without sensual pleasures
from the beginning; the other one is when one does not enjoy his or her partner on forbidden
days, such as new moon, full moon etc. So it is not only that a person has to live without
marriage throughout his whole life, but as a married man also he can follow the Brahmcharya.
The one who lives like this is called Brahmchaaree. For example Arjun was a Bramchaaree even
being a Grihasth, while Ashwatthaama was not.
Chakor and Chakoree
There is a bird named Chakore and his female named Chakoree. The bird's specialty is this
that it always looks at the Moon.
Chanvar or Chamar
It is made of Chanvar named after cow's bushy tail's silver-white hair (Bos grunniens),
tied to a short or long size stick, or golden or silver handle to fly flies by shaking it
over a person. It is normally used for Bhagavaan's idols (in temples) and Raajaa.
Chaturanginee Army see also
An ancient army which had four kinds of warriors - (1) who fought on elephants, 21,870 elephants;
(2) who fought on horses, 65,600 horse riders; (3) who fought on chariots, 21,870 Rath (cavalry);
and (4) who fought on foot - infantry - 109,350 soldiers; made up one Akshauhinee Chaturanginee
army. Paandav had 7 Akshauhinee army and Kaurav had 11 Akshauhinee army in Kurukshetra war
in Mahaabhaarat. Kaurav army included Shree Krishn's Narayanee army also.
A row of army consists of 1 chariot, 1 elephant, 3 cavalry (Rath-riders) and 7 foot-soldiers.
Multiples of these is called Akshauhinee and since there are four types of warriors it is called
Chaturanginee (four colored or four types) army also.
Dakshinaa is a kind of fees, given in cash or kind, given to Braahman by other three
Varn for taking some religious work from him, for example after doing a Yagya for a
Kshatriya, the Kshatriya should give Dakshinaa to that Braahman. Without giving this
Dakshinaa the Kshatriya will not get the result of the Yagya.
There is one Guru Dakshinaa also.
This is also the same as above, given in cash and kind, but given to Guru at the time
of termination of education and learning. In this it does not depend on the student's
wish but the Guru asks for it, and the student has to pay it. In our history some Guru
Dakshinaa are very famous: Krishn and Balaraam brought their Guru's dead son back from
Yam Raaj's place. Eklavya gave his right hand thumb to Guru Dronaachaarya when he asked
Guru Dakshinaa from him. Paandav brought Raajaa Drupad tying with a rope behind their
chariot after defeating him as Guru Dakshinaa to their Guru Dronaachaarya Jee. Education is not believed to be complete until Guru Dakshinaa is paid.
Darshan means seeing. It is especially used for respectable person too. In religious
context it is much more than seeing. Darshan can be of one's deity Bhagvaan or of some
very great man (maybe Guru). When one goes to have a Darshan of Bhagavaan in a temple,
it is not only seeing the Bhagavaan's idol but it also includes seeing it with Bhakti
(devotion), Shrddhaa (politeness), love, faithfulness, a feeling of contentedness and
satisfaction, a feeling of slave and master. Bhakt daily goes to have Darshan of his
deity in temple or does this in his home, then what is in seeing the same idol again
and again daily? It cannot be only seeing, certainly it includes something else too.
They believe that by seeing that idol or that person their whole day will pass very
This bow belonged to Shiv Jee. Shiv Jee from which He destroyed the rituals of Raajaa
Daksh. Then gods pleased Shiv Jee and obtained this bow and gave it to Devaraataa, an
earlier king of Mithilaa, as a boon of Vaidik rituals. Nobody - gods, Gandharv, Asur,
Raakshas - could even lift it up. Many princes, including Raavan, came to lift it up
but nobody could lift it up. (It is said that since it was Shiv Jee's bow that is why
Raavan could not even dare to touch it. He was a great devotee of Shiv Jee.
It is also said that there were two such bows, one was given to Mithilaa kings and
the second one was given to Kans' family. Kans also arranged Dhanush Yagya and invited
Krishn to witness it. He knew that whoever will break that bow only he will be able to
kill him. Krishn came to Mathuraa with Akroor Jee and went to the place where that bow
was kept and broke it. When Kans came to know about this, he knew that Krishn is the one
who is his killer as well as Devakee's eighth son.
When one undergoes the process of Deekshaa, he undergoes some ceremony and
he has to abide with some rules. Like, after one has taken the Deekshaa for
a Yagya, he has to sleep on floor, or maybe eat food only once a day, not
to be angry with anybody, to feed everybody whoever comes to his house at
any time of the day, etc. etc. In the olden times when children used to go for
their education, they also took Deekshaa from their Guru Jee. This also
meant to abide with some rules.
The eastside is not the
eastside of Kishkindhaa, but to the East of Jamboo Dweep, that is "Indian subcontinent...
inclusive of South-East Asia...". The meridian of the Saraswatee Trivenee (confluence of
the rivers Ilaa, Bhaaratee, and Saraswatee) is still the prime meridian for Indian astronomers.
The first observatory, Ujjain Observatory, is on this meridian. Taking Ujjain, the place where
one ancient river flowed circuitously in Central India, named Sharaavatee, as the center of the
country, ancient astronomers have decided the quarters. So, Sugreeva said about the absolute east
of India but not about the east of his small kingdom.
The divine sweets was meant for only eligible queens and also in order to
maintain the divinity of Raam's birth. Dasharath gave 1/2 to Kaushalyaa, then the
1/2 of remaining part (i.e. only 1/4th) to Sumitraa, then the 1/2 of the
remaining part (now remains only 1/4th so only 1/8th) to Kaikeyee and the
last 1/8th part to Sumitraa again after thinking for a while. This resulted in
the birth of four princes - Raam to Kaushalyaa, Lakshman and Shatrughn to
Sumitraa and Bharat to Kaikeyee.
Shiv Jee enjoyed Umaa for 100 divine years thus: this prolonged act of
copulation is an act of Yog called Mahaa Maithun. The Shaaktaite Taantrik who
practice Panch Makaar (5 Ms): Madya (liquor), Maans (meat), Matsya (fish), Mudraa
(postures or loosely: calisthenics] ), Maithun (copulation) make use of these
things. In these practices, the Yogee use Mudraa's 'posture' 'calisthenics' at
the time of copulation even, so that there will be no ejaculation for a longer
period. This is their 'Five-element theory...'
Fifth state of life is death. There are four states in aone's life. (1)
Jaagrit Avasthaa (Waking state); (2) Swapn Avasthaa (dreaming state); (3)
Sushupt Avasthaa (sleeping state); and (4) Tureeya Avasthaa (above the previous
three states, in fact Yogee attain this state). The first three Avasthaa are for
everybody, and of course this fifth state is also for everybody.
To offer flowers, they should be plucked by the worshipper himself and from his own garden,
otherwise half of the Punya goes to the person who gives those flowers to him. Best are the
flowers which are plucked by himself, medium are the flowers which are forest-born, worse
than them are the purchased ones, and worse than them are the given by others.
When Brahmaa took a breath and the four Ved came out with His breath, two
Raakshas named Madhu and Kaitabh were waiting to take them, so they took them
and went to Rasaatal. Then Vishnu retrieved them in His Matsya Avataar. They
were again stolen by a Raakshas Somakaasur in the form of Hayagreev, a
horse-faced Divinity retrieved them from him.
A fox usually waits in a ditch until the lion or lioness finishes its food.
The lion will have its lion's share and go away. Then the lioness and her cubs
have their share and go away. Then it is the day of the fox-in-the-ditch. So
Seetaa says "Like a fox-in-the-ditch, how you dare to come to an
inaccessible lioness, when the lion has departed..." Next, Sun's wife is
Prabhaa or Shine and she is non-figural resplendent entity. She is perceivable
but untouchable. If anyone can lay his hands on her by the dint of his yogic or
ascetic practices, and if he baskets that Shine for use in night, that night
becomes a day, for it will be shining with sunshine, and thus his pleasurable
night is vanished. Thereby he looses his minimal personal comfort of a night and
thus it will be self-ruinous to experiment with such ideas.
Gangaa on Prithvi as Tri-Pathagaa
Gangaa is called Tri-Pathagaa. Tri-Pathagaa means "with three paths". Her
three paths can be interpreted in several ways - (1) She flows in Dev Lok as
Aakaash Gangaa or Dev Gangaa, then on Prithvi as Mandaakinee, and in Paataal Lok
as Jaahnavee. (2) She came from Heaven to Shiv's head, from Shiv's head to
Prithvi and then followed Bhageerath's chariot. (3) She has three streams - one
towards West is Sindhu; one towards East is Brahmputra, and one to South behind
Bhageerath, that is Gangaa.
Gold is called Jaat Roop also. Even its etymological name is Jaat Roop. Jaat
means from the birth, and Roop means form; means "birth time form".
The sizes of Raavan's arrows are calculated differently. This "Rath
Aksh Maatraa" is taken as the length of chariot's wheel and thus it is said
to be 400" or some 33 feet, which is perhaps unusual as Raavan did not
travel in his chariot with a mega body. In another way Aksh is taken as the 'eye
of the axle...' and it is then said, 'as thick as an axle...' Some others said
the size of those arrows was as thick as 84" according to Shilp Shaastra
'science of chariot making...' Here the thickness alone is taken as criterion.
Here, there are two explanations for Raam being attracted to golden Mrig.(1) Even after
telling by Lakshman, He couldn't recognize the Maayaavee Mrig and got attracted to him,
and went after him to catch or kill him. Yudhishthir also says to Draupadee in Mahaabhaarat
(Sabhaa Parv) as why he put his four brothers and wife on stake in game, that "Even Raam
was unable to recognize that Maayaa Mrig. That even the good people loose their brains in bad
times. (2) Or He did know that he was a Maayaavee Mrig, because he could not be a natural Mrig,
there is no such Mrig like a golden Mrig in the world, because it was impossible to have a golden
Mrig, still He followed him to please His wife.
Hree, Shree and Keerti
These three - Hree, Shree, and Keerti - are the daughters of Daksh Prajaapati in their earlier
births. Hree is Hrillekh, means virtuous disposition - which Queen Kaushalyaa has, and who begot
Raam. Shree is Shreekaar, means the affluence of everything, which Queen Sumitraa has, by which
alone she magnificently and unhesitatingly advises her son Lakshman to go along with Raam to forest.
And the third, Keerti, means glory, and the glory of Kaikeyee is well known. The importance of this
epic minus Kaikeyee can be just imagined what it would have been, thereby her glory, may it be negative,
can well be imagined easily.
[From Valmiki Ramayan, 1/15]
I will kill Taadakaa
When Vishwaamitra Jee asked Raam to kill Taadakaa, Raam was in the same dilemma to kill Taadakaa
because of being a woman, as Arjun was in Mahaabhaarat to kill his own relatives. But Vishwaamitra
Jee also said the same thing as Krishn said to Arjun in Geetaa to eradicate the vice as the duty of
a Kshatriya whether it is in form of woman or relative.
Ichchhaa means by wish, and Mrityu means death. So Ichchhaa Mrityu means when one can die only
when he wishes. This Vardaan was given to one other person - Bheeshm Pitaamah (Devavrat), by his
Isheekaa is dried blade of grass, which by invoking with hymns will become a
projectile weapon, which Raam uses on Kaak (Indra's son Jayant), and Ashwatthaamaa also uses
it in Mahaabhaarat, which Krishn nullifies
According to Hindu Mythology Jamboo Dweep is a continent where the
following seven Dweep (continents) are there: Jamboo, Plaksh, Shaalmali, Kush,
Kraunch, Shaak and Pushkar. Jamboo Dweep is one of them.
Janasthaan is the castle-gateway to Lankaa. Lankaa is a city built within its zastle-walls
and it has no countryside or villages at least, annexing it. If Janasthaan is ruined, Lanka
is also going to be ruined soon, because none could crossover the bulwark-like-Janasthaan
so far. "Hey Raajan, when Raakshas in Janasthaan are ruined, your kingship is also
in danger...' 'many...not one or two, many Raakshas that are guarding Lanka from Janasthaan
are now dead...' Then Raavan
might ask "what is it Khar
doing then?" 'Khar is also dead...' including
Dooshan and Trishiraa. In fact Lankaa was
built on the mountain with an escarpment.
Kaamdhenu, the sacred cow deity is considered to grant all wishes and desires. It is believed
that she emerged from Samudra Manthan (the churning of the ocean) and taken by
seven gods, who compose the constellation of the Great Bear in the sky. She is
also called Surabhi, Shaval, Aditi and Kaamduh. She is the mother of all cows.
She had a daughter named Kapilaa who was with Vashishth Jee.
Kamalinee flower is like lotus flower but it is opposite to lotus' nature.
Lotus flower blooms in the morning seeing the Sun and closes in the evening
at sunset; while Kamalinee blooms in the night seeing the Moon and closes in
the morning before sunrise.
Kanyaa Daan see also
Kanyaa means girl, and Daan means donation; so it means to donate the girl
which is performed in Hindu religion at the time of daughter's marriage.
The father donates his daughter to the groom. Out of many important Daan
(kind of donations) like wealth, education, cattle etc Kanyaa Daan is
supposed to be an essential part of life of a Hindu. It is believed, that
who do not have their own daughters, donate other's daughters.
Kapilaa cow was the daughter of Kaamdhenu cow who came out from Saagar
Manthan. Kaamdhenu was given to Rishi to help them get anything they
wished for themselves, their worship and Yagya, and for their guests.
Kapilaa cow had the same qualities as of her mother. Vashishth Jee had
her in his Aashram.
This tree is found in India as well as in Malayasia too. There it is called
Kapok tree. Its seeds are covered with silk cotton. Because it is found on
Shaalmalee island, one among Jaavaa, Sumaatraa etc islands, it is called
Kootshaalmalee tree. The Red Ocean is also called Madhu Samudra (Wine Ocean).
The chamber of wrath. In olden days, in king's palaces there used to be a small
room where a queen went to show her anger to Raajaa when she wanted Raajaa to
fulfill her any wish. She wore only old torn clothes, with loose hair and sat
or lie down on bare floor. Since all this was not proper for a queen to be like
this, Raajaa usually had to fulfill her wish. That is why Kaikeyee adopted this
way and got succeeded.
Lokpaal means the caretaker of Lok (worlds). There are four Lokpaal appointed by Brahmaa
Jee - Indra, Varun, Yam and Kuber - for the four directions.