Puraan | Notes

1-Brahm Puraan2-Padm Puraan3-Vishnu Puraan4-Shiv Puraan5-Bhaagvat Puraan,
6-Naarad Puraan7-Maarkandeya Puraan8-Agni Puraan9-Bhavishya Puraan,
10-Brahm Vaivart Puraan11-Ling Puraan12-Varaah Puraan13-Skand Puraan,
14-Vaaman Puraan15-Koorm Puraan16-Matsya Puraan17-Garud Puraan18-Brahmaand Puraan



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14 Ratn (Gems)
Dharm Sanhitaa describes 14 Ratn of a king like this - (1) Disc, (2) chariot, (3) gems, (4) sword, (5) shield, (6) banner (Dhwajaa) and (7) treasure - these seven are inanimate things; and (8) wife, (9) Purohit, (10) army chief, (11) chariot riders, (12) foot soldiers, (13) horse riders,  and (14) elephant riders - these seven are animate things which should be owned by all Chakravartee kings.

In all Hindi words A used as prefix means "without" or "no". Thus (1) Dharm and A-Dharm means which is not Dharm; (2) Vidyaa and A-Vidyaa means which is not Vidyaa (education), it is ignorance; (3) Paramaarth and A-Paramaarth means which is not Paramaarth. It is about seeing One in everybody, or seeing everybody like himself; (4) Viyogaa and A-Viyogaa means where there is no separation (Viyog means separation); (5) Dwait and A-Dwait means which is not Two but One. There are two paths - one of A-Dwait and another is of Dwait. Who believe in A-Dwait, they believe in One, that the Aatmaa (soul) and Paramaatmaa (God) are One, they are not two; while who believe in Dwait, they believe in Two - Paramaatmaa and Aatmaa (soul). They see them differently; (6) Par and A-Par; (7) Paraa and A-Paraa

A-Dwait Vaad    see also    Dwait Vaad
In A-Dwait Vaad Paramaatmaa (God) and Aatmaa (soul) are one - absolute monism. This philosophy is of Jagadguru Shankaraachaarya

Vishnu, Indra, Aryamaa, Dhaataa, Twashtaa, Pooshaa, Vivaswaan, Savitaa, Mitra, Varun, Anshu, and Bhag. Before Vaivaswat Manvantar, in Chaakshush Manvantar they were 12 Dev Gan named as Tushit Devtaa. In Vaivaswat Manvantar they took birth from Aditi and were called 12 Aaditya.
[Vishnu, Pratham, p 9]
Indra, Aryamaa, Dhaataa, Twashtaa, Pooshaa, Vivaswaan, Savitaa, Varun, Anshu, Bhag, Parjanya
[Padm, Srishti, p 49-50]

Aaditya Hridaya Stotra
This Stotra, found in Bhavishya Puraan, is very popular. It was so important in ancient times that Maharshi Paraashar has recommended it to pacify Soorya in his Dashaa and Antar-Dashaa times. The contents of Bhavishya Puraan given in Naarad Puraan also do not match with the contents of present Bhavishya Puraan. Although it is not found in present Bhavishya Puraan copies, but it may be found in almost all Stotra books. Aaditya Hridaya Stotra by Agastya Muni found in Vaalmeeki Raamaayan is different from Bhavishya Puraan Aaditya Hridaya Stotra.

Oblation offered to Agni (fire).

There are two meanings of Aashram --
(1) A place where saints, Rishi, Muni live in group building their huts.
(2) There are four Aashram in a person's life - (1) Brahmcharya - 5-25 years of age. In this Aashram a child studies in Guru's house. (2) Grihasth - 25-50 years of age. In this Aashram the child marries, and performs all duties of a Grihasth including paying back the three Rin - Brahm Rin, Pitra Rin and Dev Rin. (3) Vaanprasth - 50-75 years of age. In this Aashram, he may live in house or in forest but detaches himself from worldly things gradually to prepare to go to forest. (4) Sanyaas - 75-100 years of age. In this Aashram one goes to forest, and leaves everything which is worldly. Lives like a Muni and keeps no touch to world of any kind.

According to Bhaagvat Puraan six types of people come under the category of Aatataayee.

It is a process to make a thing successful by pronouncing Mantra. Sometimes this process accompanies water also in hand, or that water in hand is moved around that thing three times. This process transfers the power of Mantra to that thing through pronouncing the Mantra and water. For example in Raamaayan and Mahaabhaarat times the special arrows were not any special but they were Abhimantrit by Mantra only. So the arrow was filled with that power and did their job.

Ahankaar is of three types - Vaikaarik (Saatwik), Raajas (Taijas), and Taamas (in Bhoot form - elements).

Amrit Kalash
Here Vyaas Jee says that Amrit Kalash is kept on Soorya's chariot, but in MBH, 0/7 and MBH, 0/8 it is said that when Garud Jee went to take Amrit Kalash to free his mother, he went to some lake. There Amrit Kalash was surrounded by fire etc. So the descriptions of Amrit Kalash places do not match.

All living beings are born by four methods - Jaraayuj, Andaj, Swedaj, and Udbhij.

There are two meanings of Brahmcharya - (1) celibacy, or restraining oneself from sexual pleasure, (2) One of the four Aashram of a man's life in which the person is a student, learns from his Guru following the rules of Brahmcharya. See "Aashram" above. One who follows Brahmcharya is called Brahmchaaree.

Buddhi is the ability to discriminate between good and bad, or what to do and what not to do like issues. It may be compared to intellect.

Who rules the whole Prithvi, or country, he is called Chakravartee king. If somebody says that "Emperor Ashok was a Chakravartee king of India", it means that the whole India was under his control.

Daksh's Daughters
60 daughters.    see     Daksh


Dharm is not religion in Hinduism. It is the duties which should be performed by a person according to his Varn (see below) and Aashram. When one does not perform his duties according to his Aashram, he is called A-Dharmee or unreligious.

Dharm, Arth, Kaam, Moksh
Everybody has four types of desires in his life - Dharm, Arth, Kaam and Moksh. Dharm means related to religion. Arth means related to wealth. Kaam means related to satisfying Indriyaan's desires. And Moksh means salvation. One's all actions are related to achieve or fulfill only these four types of desires. Among them the Kaam is the lowest and Moksh is the highest type of desire.

Dwait Vaad    see also    A-Dwait Vaad
In this philosophy, there are two - Paramaatmaa (God) and Aatmaa (soul) - dualism. When Paramaatmaa comes to this world, He is under the bondage of Maayaa and sinful; otherwise as Paramaatmaa is absolute, Supreme, Gracious, Omnipresent, Pure. This philosophy is of Maadhavaachaarya.

Dwi-jaati People
Dwi means second time, and Jaati means caste, thus Dwi-jaati means those castes who have been born twice. In Hindu Dharm this is done by performing the Upanayan Sanskaar of a child. Since this Sanskaar is performed only for Braahman, Kshatriya and Vaishya, these three caste people are called Dwi-jaati people.

Elements  see  Tattwa

Who is father? There are five types of fathers - (1) who gives birth, (2) who performs Yagyopaveet, (3) who gives food, (4) who protects from fear, (5) who gives education - these five have been regarded as father.

Gangaa Saagar
It is an island at some distance from the place where Gangaa joins the sea - in Kolkata, on the shore of Bay of Bengal. The whole year it is submerged under the sea, but it comes out for three days at the time of Makar Sankraanti. At that time a great fair is organized there, people go there by boat, and a great care is taken to evacuate them before the island submerges again in water. Certainly whoever remains there is lost. It is believed that king Sagar's sons were burned by Kapil Jee here only, for whom this Gangaa was brought on Prithvi by Bhageerath Jee.

Gangaa Saagar Sangam Teerth
Where Gangaa meets sea.

There are three Gun - Sat or Sattwa or Sato Gun, Raj or Rajas or Rajo Gun, and Tam or Taamas or Tamo Gun. In Sat Gun all characteristics are good, in Rajo Gun some are good and some are bad, but in Tamo Gun all characteristics are bad. But Bhagavaan is beyond these Gun, that is why He is called Nir-gun (without attributes). But all creatures are the results of Gun. They all have one or two or all Gun in them.

Hiranyakashyap's Sons
These children were the sons of Kaalnemi, Hiranyakashyap's brother, that is why they are called here his sons. They disrespected Hiranyakashyap and devoted themselves to Shree Hari, that is why he gave them Shaap that they would be killed by their father only. This reference comes in Harivansh Puraan. Kans was the incarnation of Kaalnemi that is why he killed them.

Indriyaan (senses)
There are a total ten Indriyaan - five Gyaan Indriyaan and five Karm Indriyaan. From our Gyaan Indriyaan - Skin, eyes, nose, ears, tongue are five Gyaan Indriyaan by which we obtain knowledge. They obtain knowledge by touch, seeing, smelling, hearing, and tasting. There are five Karm Indriyaan by which we do our Karm - mouth, hands, feet, procreative parts, and excretion part. They help in eating and drinking, creating something, moving around, extending families, and excreting wastes. 

Jain Dharm    see also    Vane
Strangely enough, Jain Dharm's description is found in Padm Puraan, Bhoomi Khand, in the reference that "how Atri's son Ang's son Vane went astray from his own Dharm?" It is mentioned there that a man came in disguise there and preached him Jain Dharm. It shows that Jain Dharm is very old.

Kalp    see also   Kalp
A Kalp is measured on Earth as Brahmaa's one day only (not night, because his night is also of one Kalp). Brahmaa's one day is equal to 1,000 Chaturyug period (four Yug = Sat, Tretaa, Dwaapar and Kali). And this Chaturyug period is equal to roughly 4,320 million x 1000 Chaturyug = 4,320 billion human years. Brahmaa creates this Universe every day as he wakes up and destroys it in the evening before he sleeps.

Kalp Pralaya
This is Brahmaa's everyday dissolution of the Universe - Bhoo, Bhuvar and Swah (Prithvi Lok, Swarg Lok and Paataal Lok).

Krityaa is a Raakshas type male or female who is produced after doing a Yagya to kill someone. In Hindu religious literature several people have produced Krityaa.

1. Twashtaa produced a Krityaa to kill Indra because he killed his son. His name was Vritraasur. But he was killed by Indra through Vajra made by the bones of Dadheechi.
2. After Krishn killed fake Krishn and his friend Kaashee Raaj, Kaashee Raaj's son produced a Krityaa to kill his father's killer, but Krishn killed him

Kshar and A-Kshar
This concept is given in Geetaa also. Kshar means mortal and A-Kshar means immortal or eternal - means Bhagavaan.

Kshatropet Braahman
Whoever Kshatriya (by birth) have turned into Braahman work, such as Vishwaamitra who was born as a Kshatriya then did severe Tap and became Brahmarshi.

Kshetra and Kshetragya concepts have been described in Geetaa also.

Kshetraj Form
This concept is given in Geetaa also - see Kshetra and Kshetragya there..

Kush Grass
Kush grass is a special type of grass which is used to make an Aasan (mat for sitting) and for worshipping too.

Mahaabhoot Tattwa (Elements)
There are 5 elements - earth, fire, air, water and sky.

There are 14 Manvantar in one Kalp and so are 14 Manu. Every Manvantar has a Manu as its Lord.

Mool Prakriti
Maayaa in its original dormant form is called Mool Prakriti. Maayaa is the means to create this Universe.



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Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/05
Updated on 05/31/13