see also Sa
In Hindi language, "Nir" is a prefix used to mean without, such as
"Nir-Gun" means without attributes; Nir-Jal means without water.
Gold coin used in those days.
see also Pravritti
It is the opposite of Pravritti - means to leave something. Learned people
advise to adopt this for Mukti (salvation).
This reference comes in Mahaabhaarat, Shaanti Parv, chapters 218 and 219
also. Up to the 28th Shlok of 219th chapter, this reference is the same as
it is here. After this, 15 Shlok are more in Mahaabhaarat, they are very
important in this context. After the 77th Shlok of Naarad Puraan,
their meaning is needed here, that is why their brief gist is given here.
Sound depends on ears and ears depend on space, thus it is another form of
space. The same situation is with skin, eyes, tongue, and nose. Touch, form,
taste, and smell depend on them and thus they are the form of five elements.
And all of them are governed by mind, that is why all are another form of
mind. Because when these Indriyaan start their work, then mind is necessary
to experience their subjects, that is why mind is considered the eleventh
Indriya and Buddhi as the 12th one. Thus all beings behave, in the way they
behave, because of A-Vidyaa (ignorance). In such situation only Gyaan or
Vidyaa (knowledge) can remove A-Vidyaa. And as A-Vidyaa is removed, there
remains only immortal Aatmaa (soul). As all rivers and riverlets lose their
existence after joining sea, in the same way all beings lose their names,
forms and existence after joining that immortal form. This is their Moksh.
[Naarad Puraan, 1/18]
The logic of rebirth is that unless a person is not
supposed to bear the fruits of his good or bad actions done in previous
life, he does not take birth another time. For the same reason when we
are engaged in good or bad actions in this life, certainly we will have
to take another birth to bear their fruits. And since we cannot escape
doing actions, we cannot escape taking birth again.
[Vishnu Puraan, 1/10]
see also Punya
Sin. Bad actions
The subtlest form of the Panch Mahaabhoot (five elements).
Panchbhoot are the five prime elements by which our physical body is made up of -
Prithvi, Vaayu, Jal, Agni, and Aakaash (means earth, air, water, fire, and sky)
Panchaagni means five types of fire. In this type of Tapasyaa one sits or
stand in the middle of the fire. He lights the fire around himself and
keeps it lighted till he is busy in Tapasyaa.
Paramaarth means treating all beings and creature alike like himself, because
God is One and that One exists in everybody. So no two people or creatures are
different. Only their physical appearance is different and that is only because
of their Karm (actions)
Pativrataa woman is she who serves her husband Manasaa (from heart), Vaachaa
(from words) and Karmanaa (from actions) and does not even dream other man.
The personality word has been originated from the root word "persona" -
a Greek word meaning "a mask" and the process of playing a role in a
theater. Thus the personality is a particular mask worn by an individual to play
a certain part on the stage.
There are three types of Pitar - Saumya, Barhishad, and Agni Shwaattaa.
The complete dissolution of the Brahmaand - planetary system and its celestial
bodies after the death of one Brahmaa.
There are two meanings of Praan.
(1) There are five types of Praan (air) in human body - Praan, Apaan, Vyaan, Udaan
and Samaan. In fact All are different types of air. (1) Praan Vaayu is inhaled air
which moves around inside our body in the form of breath and keeps us alive. If
Praan is there, we are alive, and when it is not there we are dead; (2) Apaan Vaayu
is exhaled air - goes out of our body after cleansing the body;
(2) According to Kath Upanishad, its other meaning is the balance of our all the
actions of all our previous lives. In fact we are here in the world only because
we have that balance in our account. We are born with this Praan (balance) and
it stays with us till our death.
Praayashchit is a kind of action to cleanse oneself
The equilibrium state of the three Gun (Sat Gun, Rajo Gun, and Tamo Gun) is
called Prakriti or Pradhaan.
see Praakrit Pralaya above, Kalp Pralaya,
see also Nivritti
Being indulged in. It means nature also, and in fact nature is composed of
both kinds of natures - Pravritti as well as Nivritti (to leave).
Prayaag means the place where two rivers meet. Thus any place where two rivers
meet is called Prayaag. Thus Allahaabaad is called Prayaag because Gangaa and
Yamunaa rivers meet there. There are other Prayaag also. For example, on the
way to Badree Naath, there are Karn Prayaag, Dev Prayaag, Rudra Prayaag.
All these Prayaag are located where two rivers or streams are meeting.
see also Paap
Fruits of auspicious actions.
God, or Bhagavaan.
Har, Bahuroop, Tryambak, Aparaajit, Vrishaakapi, Shambhu Kapardee, Raivat, Mrigvyaadh,
Sharv and Kapaalee are 11 Rudra. Hundreds of such Rudra are famous.
[Vishnu Puraan, 1/9]
Mrigvyaadh, Sharv, Nirriti, Ajaikpaad, Ahirbudhnya, Pinaakee, Aparaajit, Vishweshwarbhav,
Kapardee, Sthaanu, Bhag.
Padm Puraan, 1/13]
Rudraaksh is a seed of a fruit usually found at higher altitude. Rudraaksh has
from one to fourteen Mukh (faces) - thus they are called "Ek Mukhee, or
"Do Mukhee" etc...
see also Nir
In Hindi language, "Sa" is a prefix, which is attached to many words
to mean "with", such as "Sa-Gun" means with attributes;
"Sa-Beej" means with Beej (meditation and Mantra);
Saam, Daam, Dand, Bhed
According to Vishnu Puraan, Pratham Ansh, p 12, there are four kinds of policies to
deal with people :
Saam means counseling;
Daam means by giving money or weal;
Dand means punishment; and
Bhed means discrimination, or by divide and rule.
Samaadhi is a state of mind when a person sits quietly, with concentrated mind,
unaware of his external world. Sometimes this Samaadhi can be taken by Yogee for
Sankraanti is that day when Soorya (Sun) moves from one sign to another sign. Since
Prithvi revolves around the Sun in one year, and there are 12 signs, thus the Sun
goes through those 12 signs in one year, that is he stays in each sign for one month.
Thus each month when he moves to another sign that day is called Sankraanti. In Hindu
religion every Sankraanti is important, but Makar Sankraanti (Uttaraayan - northbound,
or Capricorn) day is celebrated with much pomp and show. People give many things in
charity to Braahman. This always falls on 14th January.
Saraswatee River flows in five streams in Pushkar Jee - Suprabhaa, Kaanchanaa, Praachee,
Nandaa, and Vishaalaa. Among them Praachee is more important.
[Padm Puraan, Srishti, 52]
There are two meanings of Satee - (1) A woman who is faithful to her husband
by her heart, speech and actions.
(2) When somebody's husband dies, the woman immolates herself with his body
and dies with him. This is called "to be Satee". This was an old
tradition in India, although not 100 per cent but many of them became Satee
with their husband. But British rulers stopped this.
Shauch rules are described in Matsya Puraan like this - The pregnant woman
should not eat food in the evening, should not go under trees, nor she should
stay there' nor she should quarrel with anybody, nor she should leave her hair
loose, nor she should be dirty anytime. Bhaagvat Puraan also says that one
should not kill any creature, nor one should abuse anybody or tell lie.
When a child is born to a Braahman man and a Kshatriya woman, he is called
Soot. Their job was only to serve kings. In Mahaabhaarat Adhirath, the
Saarathee (charioteer) of Raajaa Shantanu and Dhritraashtra was a Soot who
brought up Kuntee's son Karn whom he found in Gangaa River in a box while
taking bath in it. That is why Karn was called "Soot Putra" and
was disregarded all over. Even Sanjaya, the Saarathee of Dhritraashtra who
told the account of Mahaabhaarat war to blind Dhritraashtra, was also a Soot
But there was a Soot Putra, very famous with the name of Soot Jee only, used
to tell religious stories. Many people still do not know his real name -
Ugrashravaa (son of Lomharshan Jee). He was a great disciple of Maharshi Ved
Vyaas and pleased with him Vyaas Jee allowed him to tell religious stories to
Start of Sat Yug
Although every 12th year, when Jupiter goes in Kark Rashi (Cancer sign), then
on Amaavasyaa day (New Moon day) in Pushya Nakshatra (constellation), all these
three are together (Jupiter, Kark Raashi and Pushya Nakshatra), 'Sameshyanti'
does mean that they will come together, but that moment should be different not
this usual 12-year.
Subjects of Indriyaan
These subjects are of Gyaan Indriyaan - beautiful things for eyes,
melodious sounds for ears, tasty food for tongue, sweet smell for nose and
soft touch for skin.
Hindu Maalaa (rosary) always has 108 beads. But there is an extra bead
which is kept above the 108 bead rosary. This normally indicates that
one has finished 108 beads, or one has reached at the end of the rosary.
This extra bead is called as Sumeru. It is called Meru also.
Sumeru is a mountain also.
Swayam means self, and Var means husband, Swayamvar means to choose one's
husband herself. In olden times, girl's father used to call all suitable
candidates, and the girl used to go around taking a garland in her hand,
and to whom she wanted to be her husband, she put the garland in his neck.
There are three types of Taap - Adhyaatmik, Adhi-daivik, and Adhi-bhautik.
Tanmaatraa is the attribute of the Tattwa (element). As such there are five elements -
Prithvi (earth), Jal (water), Agni (fire), Vaayu (air), and Aakaash (sky). So are five
Prithvi's Tanmaatraa is smell,
Jal's Tanmaatraa is taste,
Agni's Tanmaatraa is Roop (beauty) or seeing,
Vaayu's Tanmaatraa is touch,
Aakaash's Tanmaatraa is sound.
There are 25 Tattwa - 10 Indriyaan, 5 Mahaabhoot Tattwa,
5 Tanmaatraa, Man, Ahankaar, Mahat-Tattwa, Prakriti and their witness
Ubatan is a kind of Indian traditional fragrant paste of herbs etc which
is used to rub on body before taking bath in place of soap. As it is
rubbed on the body, its water content is dried and the dry material falls
down along with dirt of the body. A very common Ubatan is made by mixing
some barley flour, a little turmeric powder, a little sandalwood powder,
a little some kind of oil (sesame oil, or mustard oil, or almond oil) and
a little water to form a paste.
Ushaa and Vyushti
They are the Vaidik names of night and day respectively.
There are five kinds of Vaayu in our body - (1) Praan - inhaled air -
Praan Vaayu moves inside our whole body and keeps us alive; (2)
Apaan - exhaled air - goes out of our body after cleansing the body
(3) Vyaan, (4) Udaan, (5) Samaan.
In Hindu religion the society is divided in four Varn - Braahman, Kshatriya,
Vaishya and Shoodra. Braahman's duty is to study and teaching and performing
Yagya etc for themselves and other three Varn people. Kshatriya's duty is to
protect society from ill behavior. Vaishya's duty is to provide food to
everybody and trading. Shoodra's duty is to serve everybody in the society
so that everybody can work well for the welfare of he society.
Varn-sankar children are those children who are born from a mother of different Varn
than of his father, such as Braahman father and Shoodra mother.
Country or a piece of land as Bhaarat Varsh
Means action, or Kaarya, or Karm.
Braahman's duty is to do Yagya for himself and for other Varn of the society -
Kshatriya, Vaishya etc. So the person who asks Braahman to do a Yagya for him,
is called Yajamaan. Normally Yagya are done to fulfill some desire, the Hotaa
(who does the Yagya) expresses the wish of the Yajamaan at the end of the Yagya.
All Yajamaan have the obligation to give Dakshinaa to Hotaa at the end of the
Yam, Niyam etc.
These are ten in number for self-control and preconditions for Yog. There
are five Yam (Brahmcharya, Ahinsaa (non-violence), Satya (truth), Asteya
(devotion to God), and Aparigrih); and five Niyam (Swaadhyaaya (self-study),
Shauch (cleanliness), Santosh (patience), Tap (penance), and meditation).