Puraan | 3-Vishnu Puraan | 2-Dwiteeya Ansh
3-Vishnu Puraan, 2-Dwiteeya Ansh, p 129-139
see also 5-Bhaagvat Puraan, 5/6
Soorya (The Sun) Contd... Next Page
Paraashar Muni said - "I told you about Brahmaand, now you listen to About Soorya (Sun) etc. The chariot of Soorya Dev is 9,000 Yojan long and 18,000 Yojan is its Jooaa and the middle part of the chariot. 700,000 Yojan long is its axle in which its wheel is fixed. It has morning, afternoon and evening three navels; Parivatsar etc five Arey and six seasons as six Nemi all located in Time wheel. Seven Chhand (a style of Hindi poetry) are its seven horses. The other axle of Soory's chariot is 45,000 Yojan long. Equal to the measurement of its both axles is the measurement of its Jooaa. The shorter axle, along with Jooaa is based on Dhruv Taaraa (Polar star) and the other axle's wheel is based on Maanasottar Parvat.
In the east of this Maanasottar Parvat is Indra Puree, in the south is Yam Putree, in the west is Varun Puree and in the north is Chandramaa Puree. Indra's Puree's name is Vaswauksaraa, Yam's Puree's name is Sanyamanee Puree, Varun's Puree's name is Sukhaa, and Chandramaa's Puree's name is Vibhaavaree. Bhaanu (Soorya) starts his journey by entering from south. He is the single cause of day and night.
Soorya is always located in the center of the sky, in all the Dweep at the time of mid-day and mid-night. In the same way he rises and sets also in the opposite direction, that is why where Soorya is seen it is called morning and where he is not seen, it is called evening. Where Soorya rises, it is called east and where Soorya sets, it is called west. The two directions of east and west are only because of Soorya rising and setting. Soorya Dev sheds light at all the places except Brahmaa's Puree located at Sumeru Parvat, because the rays of Soorya which go to Brahmaa's Puree come back because of being less lighted than his own light.
Because Sumeru Parvat is in the north most side of all Dweep, therefore there is always day on one side of Meru Parvat and night on other side of Meru Parvat. At night when Soorya has set, his light enters Agni, therefore Agni is seen lighted from a distance. In the same way at day time Agni's light enters Soorya Dev and that is why Soorya Dev is more lighted in day time.
On the southern and northern sides of Meru, at the time of Sunrise, dark night and lighted day enter the water. That is why in day time the color of water is seen of the color of bronze; but after Soorya has set, the day enters the water, so the water is seen of white color at the time of night.
Constellations and Signs
Thus when Soorya has crossed the 1/30th part of the earth and arrives in the middle of Pushkar Dweep, then his that time period is called one Muhoort. Thus moving like a man on a potter's wheel, this Soorya crosses all the 30 parts of the earth in one day and night. When Soorya is Uttaraayan (northbound), he starts from Makar Raashi (Capricorn sign), then he goes in Kumbh Raashi (Aquarius), and then in Meen Raashi (Pisces). when he has crossed these three Raashi, he makes the day and night of equal length and moves with the Equator. After that the duration of night becomes shorter and the day becomes longer.
Then he enters Mesh Raashi (Aries), then Vrish (Taurus), then Mithun (Gemini). After crossing these three Raashi, when he comes to Kark Raashi Cancer), he becomes Dakshinaayan (southbound).
As a thing placed on the edge of potter's wheel revolves fast, in the same way Soorya also moves faster to cross Dakshinaayan. Therefore he crosses his path Sooner than ever. Thus while he is in Dakshinaayan, he crosses 13 and 1/2 Nakshatra (constellations) in 12 Muhoort, but at night, he crosses the same distance (13 and 1/2 Nakshatra) in 18 Muhoort [30 Muhoort = 1 Day = 24 hours].
As anything placed in the center of the potter's wheel moves slowly, in the same way, during Uttaraayan period, he moves slowly. That is why he crosses a little distance in more time - or he takes more time to cross even a little distance. The last day of Uttaraayan is of 18 Muhoort. He moves slowly on that day and crosses 13 and 1/2 Nakshatra in day time, but he crosses the same distance (13 and 1/2 Nakshatra) in 12 Muhoort in night time.
Therefore as the wheel moves slowly in the center, there the men also move move slowly. In the same way Dhruv Taaraa (Polar star) located in the center of the sky, also moves slowly. As the central point of the wheel revolves only on its own point, Dhruv Taaraa also revolves on its own point.
Thus because Soorya revolves between Northern and Southern limits, his day and night speeds become slow or fast. Hey Braahman, Soorya's path is certain (distance wise), so he crosses all the 12 Raashi (signs) in one day and night - 6 Raashi in day time and 6 Raashi in night time. Increase and decrease in day and night time occurs due to the measurement of Raashi. Soorya moves faster in night time during Uttaraayan and slower in day time; while it is vice versa in Dakshinaayan.
Night is called Ushaa and day is called Vyushti (Prabhaat) and the period between them is called Sandhyaa (twilight and dusk). At the time of Sandhyaa very terrible and fierce Sandehaa named Raakshas want to eat Soorya. Those Raakshas have a Shaap of Brahmaa that in spite of being immortal they will born and die every human day. Therefore in sandhyaa time a fierce battle takes place between them and Soorya. That is why at that time whoever Braahman offer water Abhimantrit by Gayatri Mantra and Omkaar, that strong water burns those Raakshas.
The first Aahuti offered by "Soorya Jyotih" etc Mantra in Agnihotra, helps Soorya to regain its light. Those Raakshas get destroyed by the effect of "Omkaar". That is why one should always do Sandhyaa Karm. Who do not do Sandhyaa Karm, they are the killers of Soorya. After killing those Raakshas, Soorya Dev resumes his journey.
15 Nimesh comprise of 1
Duration of the day and night changes but Sandhyaa is always of 1 Muhoort. From Sunrise to 3 Muhoort is called morning. This is 1/5th part of the whole day. Next 3 Muhoort are called "Sangav", the next 3 Muhoort are called afternoon. This afternoon is also 3 Muhoort only. After this comes Sandhyaa. Thus in the whole day there are 15 Muhoort and there are 3 Muhoort in each part of the day.
The equatorial day (at the time when the Sun is at Equator), is of 15 Muhoort, but in Uttaraayan or Dakshinaayan its time increases or decreases. In Uttaraayan, day eats night (day is longer than the night as a result); and in Dakshinaayan, night eats day (so the night is longer than the day). When the Sun is in Tulaa Raashi (Libra sign) and Mesh Raashi (Aries), day and night are of equal length. When the Sun is in Kark Raashi (Cancer), it is called Dakshinaayan and when the Sun is in Makar Raashi (Capricorn) it is said to be Uttaraayan.
Similar to 30 Muhoort in day and night, 15 days and nights are called a fortnight. Two fortnights make a Maas (month). Two Maas make a Ritu (season), three Ritu make one Ayan (Uttar Ayan or Dakshin Ayan), and two Ayan make a year.
According to four types of Maas (month - Solar, Lunar, Saavan and constellations) there are five types of years - Samvatsar etc which are called Yug. First is called "Samvatsar"; second is "Parivatsar"; third is "Idvatsar"; fourth is "Parivatsar"; and the fifth is "Vatsar". Thus time period is known is Yug.
There is a Shrigvaan mountain in the north of Shwet Varsh. It has three peaks - one in north, another in south and the third one in in the middle. Its middle peak is Vaishuvat and this where, when the Sun is there, day and night are equal. At the time when the Sun is in the first part of Krittikaa Nakshatra, in the end of Mesh Raashi (Aries), and the Moon is in the first part of Vishaakhaa Nakshatra - in the beginning of Vrishchik Raashi (Scorpio); OR when the Sun is in the third part of Vishaakhaa Nakshatra - the last part of Tulaa Raashi (Libra), and the Moon is in the first part of Krittikaa - in the end of Mesh Raashi (Aries); this Vishuv period is called very holy. One should give donations to Braahman, Devtaa, or Pitar Gan. To ascertain Yaag etc Kaal, one should know the day, night, Paksh, Kalaa, Kaashthaa and Khan (moment) etc very well.
There are two types of Poornimaa (full Moon day) - Raakaa and Anumati; and the two types of Amaavasyaa (new Moon day) - Sineevaalee and Kuhoo. In the same way Poornimaa is also of two types - the Poornimaa which has Full Moon with all his Kalaa is called Raakaa; while the Poornimaa which has the Moon with one Kalaa less is called Anumati.
Maagh, Phalagun, Chaitra, Vaishaakh, Jyeshth and Aashaadh Maas are of Uttaraayan; and Shraavan, Bhaadrapad, Aashwin, Kaartik, Margsheersh, and Paush Maas are of Dakshinaayan.
On the Lokaalok Parvat, which I mentioned to you before, live four Lords of directions (Lokpaal) - Sudhaamaa, Shankhpaad (son of Kardam Rishi), Hiranyaromaa and Ketumaan. What path is in the north of Agastya and south of Aj Veethi is different from Vaishwaanar Maarg (Mrig Veethi) and is called Pitrayaan path. Muni live on this path. These Muni walk on this path till their stars exist.
In the North of Naag Veethi, and in the South of Saptarshi is the North path of Soorya. It is called Devayaan Maarg. Here live Brahmchaaree. They do not desire for children, so they have conquered Death. In the North Maarg of Soorya, Oordhwaretaa Muni live till Pralaya (Deluge). They have become immortal by controlling their Indriyaan. When a living being lives up to Pralaya, that is called immortality. Immortality is when a living being does not reborn or die. Whatever sins or Punya (good works) are attached because Braahman's killing or Ashwamedh Yagya, their fruits continue till Pralaya.
From Prithvi till where Dhruv (Polar star) is located , that region is destroyed in Pralaya Kaal. That area where Dhruv is located, is the Vishnu's third Param Pad. When somebody's all sins and Punya are destroyed - all the causes of taking birth are over, thy live in that region. On Dhruv are dependent all Nakshatra, on Nakshatra are dependent Megh (clouds) and on clouds is dependent rains. This rains is the means to feed all living beings of Trilok.
Gangaa is also born from Vishnupad (foot of Vishnu). Dhruv always keeps her on its head. After that she goes to Moon and then falls on Meru Parvat and goes in four direction to make the world holy. She divides herself in four streams - Seetaa, Alaknandaa, Chakshu, and Bhadraa. Among them Alaknandaa which goes to south was on the head of Shiv for more than 100 years. Later she gave Mukti (salvation) to Raajaa Sagar's sons.
Paraashar Muni said - There is a constellation type chameleon Dhruv, that is located in the tail part of the chameleon This Dhruv revolves on its own axis and make the Moon , the Sun etc planets move around. Thus all the other planets move around along with Dhruv. The Sun, the Moon stars, constellations and all other planets - all are tied with with Dhruv. In fact Naaraayan Himself live is based in that Shishumaar Chakra (wheel). Dhruv, son of Raajaa Uttaanpaad, has got this position in the tail of chameleon by doing very severe Tap. Thus Dhruv is based in Shishumaar Chakra and in Dhruv is based Sun.
Soorya sucks water with six characteristics in eight months and then pours it in four months. This rains produces grains and grains feed the whole world. Soorya gives some water to Moon also. Moon in turn gives it to Megh (clouds). Soorya sucks water from rivers, seas, Prithvi and living beings and Aakaash Gangaa (Milky Way) and give it back to them through its rays This bath, in Soorya's rays, is called Divine bath. When Soorya is in sight and there are no clouds that is the water from Aakaash Gangaa through his rays.
When it rains in Krittikaa etc odd-numbered constellations and Soorya are out, it should be treated as Aakaash Gangaa's water poured through elephants. When it rains in Rohinee, Aardraa etc even-numbered Nakshatra that is of Aakaash Gangaa's water through Soorya's rays. The rains which comes down through Megh (clouds), is like Amrit for living beings and nourishes herbs. Soorya'a base is Dhruv, Dhruv's base is Shishumaar Chakra and Shishumaar Chakra has the base at Shree Hari.
Contd... on Next Page
Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/05
Updated on 05/15/13