|23-Jyotish in Ved-2|
See also Kalp and Yug in Ved; Vaidik Timeline
(2) Value of each year was different in ancient eras due to uncertain values of the Earth's axial rotation period which is the unit of measurement of year.
(3) Accuracy of measuring day and year lengths in each era and their revisions in each period.
Discussion about 3 Vishwaamitra and Pargiter in his Pauraanik chronology has devoted about 150 pages on it to show that Puraan are unreliable on this account and did arbitrary manipulations. Same authors have no hesitation in accepting 8 Edwards and 5 Georges within 300 years in much smaller area of England, or 2 George Bush as Presidents of USA in 10 years.
Finally, it comes down to the conclusion that Indian civilization started after the attack by Alexander in 326 BC and Vishwaamitra should be in 200 BC. But Megasthenese, Arian, Solinus have stated that in 6777 BC, April month Dyonisus had attacked India and carried his arms up to Pillar which stood at Palibothri on Yamunaa banks in time of Megasthenese. In that period, there was no king, but India had sufficient wealth for looting.
The third Vishwaamitra or Kalki are probably yet to be born and related parts will
be after rule of World Bank or Wal-mart.
1. 5 years x 365.24219 = 1826.2109 days
Thus, they were following the calculation of years in Mahaabhaarat era :
The question is what was the method adopted to commence a 5-year Yug cycle.
The Era of Vishwaamitra (24th Century BC)
1. Ingress of the Vernal Equinox into Krittikaa Nakshatra
"This verse says that the Shak Era commenced after a lapse of 2526 years from the commencement of the Yudhishthir Era. Thus we can draw the simple conclusion that the Mahaabhaarat Era was before 2448 BC (ie 2526 years before 78 AD, the year of the commencement of the Shak Era). Some authorities believe that the original Shak Era actually commenced in 550 BC. This would push the commencement of the Yudhishtra Era back to 3076 BC. In any case, the Rishi Vishwaamitra, to whom we are referring to lived after the Mahaabhaarat Era. (see many Samvatsar names here)
We quote this verse to prove that the sage Vishwaamitra and the sage Paraashar whose achievements I am discussing, lived after the Era of the Mahaabhaarat. The sage Vishwaamitra of the Era of Raam and the sage Paraashar of Mahaabhaarat fame were different Rishi.
The Astronomical hymn of Vishwaamitra (RV III, 9.9) reads as follows:
Vishwaamitra’s astronomy thus contains the mystic number 3339 which can be
factorized as follows: 3339 = 371 X 9 = 53 X 7 X 9
2. The Length of the Year
Hence 30 solar years
Thus one solar year = 371 Tithis = = 371 X 29.531/30 = 365.20 days
The modern values are:
Vishwaamitra's calculations are truly a wonderful achievement in so remote a period! (We should also remember that the duration of the rotation of the earth varies in different Eras and is not constant.)
Since ancient times, man has observed that day comes after night and night after day. Similarly, he has observed the phases of the Moon and the yearly cycle of seasons.
3. Eclipses – Cycle of Saros
It is believed that the Chaldean astronomers discovered that eclipses recur in
a cycle of 18 tropical years, 11 days and 8 hours, a period within which four
leap years are contained. If there are five leap years, then it is one day
shorter; and if there are three, then it is one day longer. The Indian Rishi
discovered that the corresponding cycle contained 223 Synodic lunar months.
This cycle is more appropriate and meaningful because the eclipses can take
place only at the full or New Moons. The Indian law is, therefore, integrally
If the above period is multiplied by two, the figure will come to 222 Synodic months plus 18 Tithis. This is only 12 Tithi shorter than the Saros cycle of 223 Synodic months. Thus, astronomers could predict the eclipse at the next full or new moon after the period arrived at by using the mystic number 3339. This establishes that the Vishwaamitra School knew about the cycle of eclipses.
4. Vishwaamitra Yug (Exeligmos)
From this initial period of 1080 years they evolved the concept of a Chatur-Yug of 4320 years (1080 X 4). From this, Aaryabhatt derived the concept of 4,320,000 years as comprising a Cosmic Yug for higher accuracy. (This is called one day of the creator, Brahmaa) And Brahmgupt conceived of 4,320,000,000 years for still higher accuracy.
Some authorities believe that the value of the Cosmic Yug mentioned above is the LCM of the sidereal periods of all the seven planets. It is not possible to verify such a claim mathematically based on the astronomical data available at present.
Vishwaamitra’s mystic number 3339 gives a better and a more scientific explanation for the adoption, by different authorities, of the time durations of the Yug.
I may mention that some astrologers recommend the use of the Savan year of 360 days for the calculation of Dashaa and for other predictive purposes. This is not correct. The solar year must be used for Dashaa calculations as is clear from the discussions above. UNQUOTE
Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/06
Updated on 04/02/13