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Vaalmeeki Raamaayan

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List of Other Raamaayan

1. Introduction to V-Raamaayan
2. About V-Raamaayan
3. How to Read V-Raamaayan
4. How to Read Sundar Kaand
5. Links to Other Sites
6. List of Other Raamaayan  /  See Also  List of Raamaayan

List of Other Raamaayan
Shivshankar Rao, 7/9/2012 US Braahman Group

Again, regarding the various versions of Raamaayan, it is important to note that Vaalmeeki was the only contemporary to Raam. The other versions are only modifications of the Vaalmeeki's version and are all imaginary. I have gone through some of the different versions available and find that there are large differences between them. As you know, Kuvempu's Raamaayan Darshan tries to justify Mantharaa and even Raavan. It says that Raam was entirely wrong in meddling with the internal administration of Raavan's territory - the Dandakaaranya. The Ramkien of Thailand has an entirely different story. If you are interested, I could present details of my study of the different versions of Raamaayan. Some of the details are as below--

In Sanskrit|
(1) Aanand Raamaayan
(2) Adbhut Raamaayan
(3) Adhyaatm Raamaayan
(4) Tattwa Sangraha Raamaayan
(5) Yog Vaashishth Raamaayan

In Other Indian Languages

In Asaamee
(21) Kathaa Raamaayan by Raghunatha,
(22) Geeti Raamaayan by Durgavara and
(23) Madhava Kandaliya's translation of Vaalmeeki

In Bangaalee
(8) Krittivaasee Raamaayan - by Kritttibas Ojha
(9) Chanravatee Raamaayan -
The Bangaalee work by Madhusoodan Dutta rejects the Hindu principles and picturizes Raam in derogatory manner. Raavan is glorified here.

In Gujaraatee
(15) Raam Charitra,
(16) Balana's Rama Vivaah and
(17) GiridharDas' Raamaayan

In Hindi -
(6) Raam Charit Maanas - by Tulasee Daas
(7) Shree Aanand Ramayan - by Ramlagna Pandey
(8) Ghanshyam Daas Kee Raamaayan

In Kannad
(24) Narahari's Torave Raamaayan,
(25) Raamaayan Darshan of Kuvempu,
(26) Raamachandra Charit Puranam - by Abhinavapamp Nagachandra (in Jain tradition) in Kannad.

In Malayaalam
(10) Raamacharitam by Rama, Kannasi Panikkar's translation of Vaalmeeki and Vallattol's translation
(11) Adhyatama Ramayanam - by Tujat Eluchan

In Maraathee
(27) Eknath's Bhaavaarth Raamaayan
(28) Sreedhar's Raam Vijaya

In Panjaabee
(11) Raamaavataar

In Tamil
(7) Kamban Raamaayan and Uttar Kaand by Ottakuthan

In Telugu
(12) Ranganatha Raamaayan - by Gona Budda Reddy
(13) Molla's Ramayan
(14) Bhaskara's Ramayana

In Udiyaa
(18) Saptakaand Raamaayan,
(19) Balaram Dasa's Dandee Raamaayan and
(20) Saraladas's Vilanka Raamaayan

There are some more too --
Pampaa Raamaayan - Jain Version

In Other Countries
In addition to the above, there are several versions of Raamaayan in different countries. A few of them are more important in influencing the culture of these countries. Thailand, Canada, Nepal, Mauritius, Belgium, Indonesia, Holland, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Malaya, Indochina, South Africa, Surinam, Trinidad, Guyana etc, are some countries where Raamaayan is existing albeit in different versions. Some of these could be mentioned -

Hobutsushu in Japanese
Ramayana Kakawin in Javanese.
Pha lak pha lam in Laosian
Raam Ashwamedh in Nepali
Jaanakee Haran in Sinhalese

Raamkien in Thai - In Thailand.
It is called Raamkein which means King Raam. In Sanskrit it is called Raam Keerti.
This book has been translated by Satyavrata Sastry to Sanskrit.
This Sanskrit version has been translated into Kannad by Dr S Ranganath of Bangalore.
The story in this version is different from that of Vaalmeeki in many episodes. The stone inscriptions found near the Sukhuthai town speak of Raam's cave and Seetaa's cave. The name 'Raam : has been held in deep respect and reverence in that country from more than a thousand years. In Cambodia and Malaysia, even now, dance dramas etc are in existence with stories from Raamaayan. Raaakien was derived from the Sanskrit version from Bangaal, the Vishnu Puraan and Hanumaan Naatak and some indigenous sources. Folk versions are still available and these are well received by the local people there.

King Rama I, the first king of the present dynasty (AD 1782-1809) compiled the first poetic form. King Rama II (1809-1824) gave a much smaller version suitable for theater performance. King Rama VI (1910-1925) traced its origin and developments. Shadow play and masked dance are exclusively used. Its outline is like this --

Canto I - deals with Introduction dealing with the introduction of Thailand and Bangkok and how Raam’s story was owned up by Thais.

Canto 2 - deals with the episode of Anomatan, the first king of Thai Raamaayan. Gods approached Eeshwar complaining against demon Hirantayaaksha. Eeshwar thinks of Naaraayan Naaraayan goes to the milk ocean and sees a child lying on a lotus, presents it to Eeshwar who names it as Anomatan. This child was the first king on earth. Because of his desire, Indra builds the city of Ayodhyaa. Dasharath is the son of this first king and Raam is his son.

Canto 3 - Dasharath desires to perform Putreshti sacrifice with help from sage Kalaikoti - The sage wants to consult Eeshwar and request him to send Naaraayan in the form of a son to Dasharath. Eeshwar thinks of Naarawyan who agrees to the request. The conch shell, the disc, the mace and Lakshmee also accompany him in human form. At the sacrifice a person appears from the fire with four balls of rice but someone snatches away half the balls. The queens of Dasharath conceive after taking the remaining balls of rice and Raam, Lakshman, Bharat and Shatrughn are born.

Canto 4 - This deals with the episodes of Nandak, Seeta’s birth, Seeta’s marriage and that of Raamaasur.

Canto 5 - deals with the episode of Raam’s exile and of Jihvaa

Canto 6 - deals with the episode of abduction of Seetaa and killing of Jataayu.

Canto 7 - Episode of contact with Hanumaan.

Canto 8 - Episode of Darabhi (Thorapi), Murder of Vaalin, Burning of Lankaa.

Canto 9 - Raavan’s dream and sending a spy to the camp of Raam.

Canto 10 - Episode of Benjakayi.

Canto 11 - Episode of hostility of Neel and Hanumaan.

Canto 12 - Episode of Suvarn Matsyaa.

Canto 13 and 14 - Episode of Maiyaraaba.

Canto 15 - Kumbhakarna killed

Canto 16 - Episode of Mallivagga Brahmaa.

Canto 17 - Episode of Raavana’s soul.

Canto 18 - Episode of Maheepaal Devaasur.

Canto 19 - Calamity of Lankaa.

Canto 20 - Seetaa’s exile.

Canto 21 - Meeting of Lav and Mankut with Raam.

Canto 22 and 23 - Seetaa enters the nether regions.

Canto 24 - Union of Seetaa and Raam.

This in brief is the Raamaayan of that land.

Hikayat Seri Raam in Malaysia
Keletan Raamaayan of Malaysia is regrettably getting marginalized slowly. The Malay Hikayat Seri Raam does not consider Raam as an incarnation of Vishnu. However, the principles of Truth, Dharm, Dedication to the husband and keeping the interests of citizens etc, are retained. In the western Malaysian towns of Parlas, Kedha, Krenganu, Johad and Salemgoth etc, even now the shadow puppet shows depicting the stories from Raamaayan are common.

In Singapore
Raam is treated synonymous with Dharm (Dhamma of Buddhism), Seetaa as Truth, Hanumaan as dedication, Raavan's ten heads as ten vices, Shoorpanakhaa as desire etc.

The Indonesian Islands of Jaavaa, Baali and Others
have the rivers Sarayoo and Praag (derived from Prayaag). There are towns like Situbanda (Setubandh), Yogyakartaa (derived from Ayodhyaa) etc, (In the Javanese language, the nasal 'ng' is used in the beginning and ends of words. It means 'in that place'. So, Ayodhyaa becomes Ngayogya and Ayogya. It is expressed as 'Ngayogyakartaa'. Kartaa means grand. Hence the word means the 'the grand Ayodhyaa'.

Here, the male names end with 'a' and the female names with 'i'. So, the name 'Taaraa' is a male name and 'Maaruti' is the name for a female. Even now, it is said that these names are common there among the richer classes. The other common names are Suraana, Sulakshanaa, Suvrati, Subaali, Sutaara etc., There are roads with names like Hanumaan Road, Panchavatee Road, Trijataa room, Raam billiards centre, Raamaayan Hotel etc. The puppet players who depict the stories of Raamaayan and Mahaabhaarat are paid heavily even now in these islands.

There is a temple for Vaalmeeki in Indochina constructed more than 700 years ago. The Sanskrit verse found on a wall in this temple reads as follows:
Yasya Shokat Samutpannam Shlok Brahmaabhi Poojati
Vishnoh Punsah Puraanasya Unsah Puraanasya Maanushasyaatm Roopinam

In Persia
(1) Raamaayan has been translated into Persian language also by Abdul Khader Badouni who was a scholar in the court of emperor Akbar.
(2) There is another translation also by Mulla Saadulla.
Giridhardas, another Hindu scholar who was in the court of Jahaangeer has also translated Raamaayan to Persian. There is another work in Persian on Raammayan by one Amarnath Rai which contains 40,000 verses.

In the United States
there is interest in the great epic and professor Robert P Goldman of California University has translated Vaalmeeki Raamaayan recently. He was an honorary member of the Washington's University Academy of Arts and Science.

In Jain Tradition
There are Raamaayan where Raavan has been glorified too. The works in Jain tradition do not mention that Raavan was killed by Raam. It is Lakshman who killed him. Here, Hanumaan is married and Raam has several wives.



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Created by Sushma Gupta on 5/27/03
Updated on 11/03/19