51-Indian History Kali Yug
Bhavishya Puraan, 3-Pratisarg-, p 276-278
India has a continuous
civilization since 2500 BC. During the 2nd millennium, Aryan speaking tribes migrated
from northwest into the Indian subcontinent.
c 1500-800 BC
Aaryan tribes from the Iraanian
plateau began to penetrate eastward, clearing forests and establishing
tribal settlements along Gangaa and Yamunaa rivers. Caste system as a
social order began to be formed. Aaryan and non-Aaryan cultures fused in
northern India whose language groups are the roots of 75% of Indian population
today, including Hindi, Panjaabee, Raajsthaanee, and Bangaalee. Meanwhile
Draavidian culture in southern India remained isolated from Aaryan culture
especially in its languages - Kannad, Telagoo, Tamil, and Malayaalam. Although
India never had a common language, but Sanskrit language remained the chief
language for long time.
By 600 BC, 16 such territorial
powers including Magadh, Koshal, Kuru, and Gaandhaar stretched across the
north Indian plains from modern day Afghanistan to Bangla Desh. The right
of a king to his throne, no matter how it was gained, was usually celebrated
through elaborated sacrificial rituals
By 500 BC, most of northern India
was inhabited and brought under cultivation. Gangaa River became center of
The political map
of ancient and medieval India of small kingdoms of fluctuating boundaries.
MAURYA DYNASTY - 240-180 BC
c 240-160 BC - Ashok
Ashok - Emperor Ashok was a very
famous king of India. His capital was Paataliputra (present Patanaa in Bihaar),
in Magadh. He was the grandson of Chandragupt Maurya who founded Maurya dynasty.
Ashok fought fierce Kaling war, in 260 BC, in which a 100,000 people died. He got
very sad seeing this great killing, he converted to Buddhism and became its greatest
proponent. He sent missionaries to Macedonia and Egypt in the west, to Shree Lankaa
in the south, and the far eastern borders of Asia in the east. He is said to have
erected 84,000 columns with inscriptions of moral laws on them. According to Al-Baroonee
at one time, people of Khoraashaan, Iraan, Iraaq, Mosal, and Syria were Buddhist.
(Aangiras, p 55-56)
Grand Trunk Road -
He gave the paving stones, watchtowers, and some of his pillars beside this road -
Grand Trunk Road (1,200 mile long, from Peshaavar on the Paakistaan-Afgaanistaan
border to Kalkattaa on the Bay of Bangaal.
carried out major maintenance work and built Saraaya (motels) along the road.
The Mugals added
wells; the British added asphalt and the present name GT Road. Now it is India's
"National Highway 1"
180-23 BC - SHUNG DYNASTY
C 110-30 BC - Kanishk
A king who was a great supporter
of Buddhism. The exact extent of this emperor is not known, but it is possible
that it included what later became Afganistaan, Iraan, Turkey, Uzbekistaan,
Greece and even territories going up to Rome (Italy) in the west. His capital
was Purushpur (present Peshaavar). Among the famous philosophers and theologians
who graced his court were Ashwaghosh and Naagaarjun.
(Aangiras, p 94)
100 BC (2,700 years of Kali Yug had passed)
Bhavishya Puraan 3/30
events took place at this time. Because it shows that Buddhism had settled very
well by then. The second important thing it mentions that by then almost 2,700
years of Kali Yug had passed. The third important thing it mentions that Buddha
was not an Avataar of Vishnu as Bhaagvat Puraan, or Vishnu Puraan say, but was
Maya named Asur who was sent by king Bali.
100 BC-200 AD - SHAK AND KUSHAAN DYNASTIES
200-550 AD - GUPT EMPIRE
In the 4th and 5th centuries India
was unified under the Gupta Empire.
5th Century AD - Kaalidaas
He was one of the nine gems of Chandragupt.
He wrote "Abhigyaan Shaakuntalam", "Raghuvansh", "Meghdoot" etc.
580-880 AD - PALLAV DYNASTY
Prabhaakar Vardhan -606 AD
After the downfall of Gupta Empire
in the middle of the 6th century, Hoon came to rule in Panjaab. The northern
and western India was passed on to many state kings. One of them was Prabhaakarvardhan.
He was the first king of Vardhan dynasty. His capital was Thanesar (located in
the vicinity of Kurukshetra) in Panjaab. He died in 606.
Raajya Vardhan - 606-606 AD
After the death of Prabhaakarvardhan
in 606, his eldest son Raajyavardhan ascended the throne. He was killed in a
battle with Devagupt. Devagupt had killed the husband of Raajyavardhan's sister
Raajyashree - Grihvarman also.
Harsh Vardhan - 606-647 AD (41 Years)
He was born in Thanesar, near Kurukshetra
in 590 AD. He was 16 years old when he sat on the throne, and he ruled for 41 years.
His kingdom was Kaanyakubj, Kannauj city being its capital. First he rescued his sister
as she was going to become Satee. He defeated Shashaank of Bengal, Dhruvsen of Gujaraat.
He was stopped by Pulakeshee II (the Chaalukya king of Vaataapi in Northern Mysore). He
had no son so his Empire died with him. He was the last Empire builder of ancient India.
He wrote three well known plays - Naagnand, Ratnaavalee, and Priyadarshikaa.
[Harsh Vardhan is famous for conducting a religious conference in which approximately
1,000 people participated including Chinese visitor to India - Huen Saang. Huen Saang's
lecture on Mahaayaan (a branch of Buddhism) annoyed a lot of followers of Heenyaan
Buddhism and they tried to physically harm him, but Harsh Vardhan protected him. This
conference lasted for 21 days. This conference annoyed Braahman also who tried to kill
the king but their attempt failed.]
(Aangiras, p 95)
In 647 AD, he fell victim to a murder plot organized by a Braahman minister and carried
out by the army. After Harsh Vardhan, the succeeding period is very obscure and badly
900-1700 AD - ISLAM -
Islam spread in India over a
period of 500 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries Turk and Afghaan invaded
and established their Saltanat in Delhi.
1193 AD - Qutub Meenaar was built by Qutubuddeen Aibaq.
800-1200 AD - CHANDELAA KINGS
Mahamood of Gazanee sacked Thaanesar in 1011 AD.
900-1150 AD - CHOLE DYNASTY
960-1240 AD - SOLANKEE DYNASTY
11th to 13th CENTURIES
1000-1026 AD - Mahamood Gazanavee
Mahamood of Gazanee raided Panjaab virtually every year between 1000 and 1026 AD.
The enormous wealth in cash, golden images and jewelry from north Indian temples
brought him back to India every year. He looted the wealth from Mathuraa (UP) in
1017; Thaanesar (Hariyaanaa) in 1011; Somnaath temple in Gujaraat in 1024; and
Kannauj (UP). He died in 1030 AD.
1180-1192 AD -
Chauhaan Vansh is said to rule in Raajsthaan, near Ajmer. Prithveeraaj Chauhaan,
the most famous ruler of Chauhaan Vansh ruled from 1180-1192. His father's name
was Someshwar (died in 1179) and his mother's name was Karpooree Devee.
[He was the last but one Hindu
ruler of India. The last Hindu ruler was Hemoo - Hemchandra Vikramaaditya
Bhaargav, Braahman by caste.]
He did Sanyogitaa Haran, as Sanyogitaa (daughter of Jayachand) wanted to marry
Prithveeraaj. When her Swayamvar was taking place, she put her Jayamaalaa in
the neck of Prithveeraaj Chauhaan's statue in the absence of Prithveeraaj.
"Prithveeraaj Vijaya" of Jayanak; and "Prithveeraaj Raaso"
of poet Bardaayee have immortalized the deeds of Prithveeraaj. He was the
last Hindoo king. At the same time, Jayachand ruled in Kaanyakubj Desh
Kannauj). He troubled Hindoo rulers, and strengthened foreign invaders, thus he
ended Hindu culture from there.
[Hemoo used to sell food,
gunpowder etc to Shershaah Sooree's army. After Shershaah's death, his son Islaam
Shaah who ruled from Delhi recognized his abilities and placed him in an important
position. After Islaam Shaah's death Aadil Shaah took control of most of Northern
India, but as he was not a good administrator, he sought advice from Hemoo. He made
him in-charge of his army. Hemoo fought some 22 battles from Panjaab to Bangaal. He
was very popular among Hindoos as well as Afgaans. This unity encouraged Hemoo to take
on Mugals. He easily won his 21st battle of Aagaraa and Mugals ran away. Similarly he
won Delhi on October 5, 1556. He became the King on October 6, 1556 of Delhi. He thus
re-established Hindu Kingdom and started Vikramaaditya Dynasty after centuries of foreign
rule. Later Hemoo was captured and beheaded by Baharaam Khaan on November 5, 1556, after
Akbar hesitated or refused to execute him himself. His head was sent to Kaabul, while his
body was placed in a gibbet. His army was chased down and destroyed by Iskander Khaan.
- from Wikipedia]
TURKISH SLAVE DYNASTY (1192-c 1290)
1192-1222 AD - Qutubuddeen Aibaq
As Muslims continued to trouble Hindu kings, Muizuddeen used to raid India. After
the Second Battle of Taraaee in 1192, Muizuddeen left his deputy Qutubuddeen Aibaq
at Indraprasth. Thus after Prithveeraaj Chauhaan, Qutubuddeen Aibaq came in India
and troubled kings here. He took Laahaur in 1206. His lieutenant and son-in-law
Iltumish, a Turkish slave, took Delhi in 1211 AD. Aibaq built a victory tower Qutub
Meenaar in Delhi.
1210-1236 AD - Iltumish
From 1222 AD, Iltumish ruled from Delhi completely and independently. He took Sindh
in 1228 AD and all the territory in East, up to Bangaal, by 1230. In 1230 he became
the Sultaan of Delhi.
Kabeer Daas - 1398-1518 AD (120 years)
Kabeer Daas, Raayadaas, Raamaanand, Shankaraachaarya, Sadan Kasaaee, Narasee Mehtaa,
Guru Naanak, Nityaanand Jee, Naam Dev, Raankaa-Baankaa were all in the same time.
Raamaanand's disciples were - Kabeer, Raankaa, Narasee Mehtaa, Guru Naanak, Raayadaas
(He defeated Kabeer, but got defeated from Shankaraachaarya), Tulasee Daas (in Akbar's
(Bhavishya Puraan, 3/28)
Chaitanya Mahaaprabhu - 14th Century
He also has a long list of disciples - Eeshwarpuree, Shreedhar, Raam Sharmaa, Jeevaanand,
Roopaanand, Vishnu Swaamee, Maadhavaachaarya, Varaahmihir (one of nine gems of Vikramaaditya's
(Bhavishya Puraan, 3/29)
When Sikandar was ruling in India - Naamdev was there. Sikandar gave him 50 Laakh coins.
(Bhavishya Puraan, 3/27)
13th - 16th CENTURIES
KHILAJEE AND TIGALAK DYNASTIES
1290 AD - JALAALUDDEEN KHILAJEE
1320-1324 AD - GAYAASUDDEEN TUGALAK
He made his capital Tugalakaabaad, near Delhi. He built a massive fort around
his capital. The fort is roughly octagonal in plan with a circumference of 6.5
kms with 10-15 m high rubble wall. It has 13 gates and 3 inner gates to citadel.
it is a magnificent fort comparable to Red Fort in Delhi. He was killed by his
son Muhammad Bin Tugalak. When he was returning from a victorious campaign to
his capital Tugalakaabaad, his son had erected a splendid pavilion to welcome
him, secretly designed by his engineer to collapse upon him at the first tread
of his elephant. Tugalakaabaad was inhibited only for a very short period, 5
years, then it was abandoned.
1324-1351 AD - MUHAMMAD BIN TUGALALK
He was Gayaasuddeen's son. Ibn Batootaa, a Moorish traveler, has described
him fond of making presents and shedding blood. When he was returning from
a victorious campaign to his capital Tugalakaabaad, he had erected a splendid
pavilion, secretly designed by his engineer to collapse upon the Sultaan at
the first tread of his elephant.
1351-1388 AD - FEEROZ SHAAH TUGALAK (37 years)
1398 - TAIMOOR LANG
Taimoor Lang came from Mongol in 1398. Taimoor was lame that is why he was called
"Lang". This self-styled \Scourage of God" was illiterate, a devout
Muslim, an outstanding chess player and a patron of arts. Five years before he came
to India, 1393, he had taken Bagadaad, and in 1396 he had ravaged Russia devastating
their land and pillaging their villages.
Taimoor came to Delhi shedding lots of blood, but a group of Indian troops beat Taimoor
and his troops. 50,000 prisoners in his cam were butchered within an hour. He did
not stay long in India, only less than six months, but left a carnage unprecedented
in India's long history. He is believed to be responsible for 5 million deaths.
Famine followed the destruction caused by him and plague resulted from the corpses
1398-1451 - 50 years in chaos
1451-1526 - LODEE KINGS (75 years)
After Taomoor, it took 50 years for the Delhi Kingdom to become an Indian headquarters.
After the last Tugalak king, some Saiyad came. They were Afgaan soldiers but later they
called themselves Sultaan - three Lodee kings (1451-1526).
Afgaan Lodee Dynasty established under Bahalool (1451-).
Sikandar Lodee (1506-).
Ibraaheem Lodee (-1526)
They moved their capital to Aagaraa.
IN THE END OF HE 16TH CENTURY
MUGALS TOOK OVER THE COUNTRY
c 1440-1518 AD - KABEER DAAS (78 years)
A great devotional poet, born in a house of Muslim cloth weaver in Benaaras, but
grew into one of the great contributors to Hindu religion and thought. He was a
revolutionary poet of all time. Some of his poems form the part of the "Aadi
Granth" (Guru Granth Saahib) - the sacred scripture of the Sikh religion.
1451 AD AFGAAN LODEE DYNASTY
Afgaan Lodee Dynasty established under Bahalool
1469 AD - GURU NAANAK
Guru Naanak was born in Panjaab
1500 AD - VASCO DA GAMA
Vasco da Gama reached India in 1500 AD.
1506 AD - SIKANDAR LODEE
Sikandar Lodee founds Aagaraa in 1506.
-1680 AD - SHIVAAJEE
Shivaajee was a son of a Hindu who served a small-scale Muslim chief in the
state of Beejaapur in southern India. The weakness of Beejaapur encouraged
Shivaajee to extend his father's area of control. Beejaapur's General Afzal
Khaan was sent to put it down and he agreed to meet him in private. During
that meeting, Shivaajee embraced him with steel claws attached to his fingers
and tore him apart. This incident is remembered by both Hindoo Maraathaa and
Muslims. It was the start of the campaign which took Maraathaa power to as far
as Maduraee (Madurai) in south and Delhi and Calcuttaa in north and east.
Shivaajee ttacked Mugals several times. Although Shivaajee died in 1680, but
Aurangzeb never fully came to terms with the rising power of Maraathaa.
When Shershaah Sooree came to India,
Chaitanya Mahaaprabhu was also there. There is a difference of 300 years between the
times of Chaitanya and Aurangzeb.
Naadir Shaah came from Persia in 1724 and went back to Iran. Later in 1739, he captured
Delhi and massacred thousands.
Maadhav took kingdom after killing Aalomaa and ruled for 10 years. After that 30 years
passed, there was no one single king during this period.
BRITISH RAAJ (1619-1947, 250 years)
1 - First British outpost was established at Soorat, on the northwestern coast
in 1619. Later in the century it opened permanent trading stations at Madras,
Bombay and Calcutta each under the protection of native rulers.
The Company established itself in Calcutta in 1690 and got the rights to collect
land revenue in Bangaal in just 11 years, in 1701.
1757-1774 - ROBERT CLIVE AND BATTLE OF PLAASEE
Battle of Plaasee - In June 1757, Robert Clive defeated Nawaab Siraajuddaulaa,
20 year old Nawaab, of Bangaal. The battlefield was Plaassee (modern Palaashee),
about 100 kms north of Calcuttaa. Although battle was not very big, but Clive took
eight years to take over the management of the revenues of the whole of Bangaal.
In 1788, after 100 years of Battle of Plaasee, Calcuttaa, which was just a collection
of villages became the chief city of east India with a population of a quarter of a
1774-1793 - HASTINGS AND CORNWALLIS
Warren Hastings, (Governor General, 1774-1785)
Lord Cornwallis (Governor General, 1786-1793) - He was responsible for
putting Europeans in charge of all the higher levels of reveniue collection and
administration and for introducing government by the rule of law, making even
government officers subject to the courts.
2 - By 1850s they controlled most parts of present India - India, Paakistaan, Banglaa
3 - In 1857, a rebellion (Mangal Paandey) in north India, led by mutinous Indian
soldiers, caused the British Parliament to transfer all political power from the
East India Company to the crown.
4 - Beginning in 1920, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi transformed the Indian National
Congress political party into a mass movement to campaign against British rule.
The Party used both parliamentary and nonviolent resistance and non-cooperation
to achieve independence.
1724 - NAADIR SHAAH
In 1724 a Persian, Naadir Shaah, came to India. In 1739, he captured Delhi and
INDIA AFTER INDEPENDENCE
1 - India got her independence on 15 August 1947, and became a dominion of Commonwealth.
Enmity between Hindu and Muslims led the British to partition British India creating
East and West Pakistan from it. India became Republic within the Commonwealth after
promulgating its constitution on 26 January 1950.
2 - Jawahar Lal Nehru (1950-1964) - After independence in 1947, Congress Party, Jawahar
Lal Nehru ruled India (1950-1964) for 14 years. He died in office.
3 - Lal Bahadur Shastri - He also died in office.
4 - Indira Gandhi (1966-1977) - Then came Jawahar Lal Nehru's daughter Indira Gandhi,
who also died in office.
5 - Morarji Desai - (1977-1979)
6 - Charan Singh - Interim Government
7 - Indira Gandhi (Jan 1980- Oct 31, 1984) - She was assassinated.
5. Rajiv Gandhi ruled as Prime Ministers (1984-1987) - Assassinated on May 27 1991.
9 - Followed by VP Singh and Chandra Shekhar
Some Sources for Indian History Information -
1. 1996 India Handbook. 5th ed. Passport Books.
2. Eyewitness Travel Guide: India: Festivals, palaces, wildlife, beaches, museums,
mythology, trekking. DK Publishing. 2002.
3. National Geographic Traveler: India. ISBN 0-7922-7898-4