Agni Vanshee Kings - 4
Agni Vanshee or Brahmkshatra Kings
Pramar or Panvaar Dynasty
Chapahaani or Chauhaan Dynasty - Tomar, Samaldev are its branches
Shukla or Chaalukya Dynasty - Solankee in Gujaraat, Raajasthaan, Salunkhe
in Mahaaraaashtra, Karnaatak
Parihaar or Pratihaar Dynasty
Paramaar Dynasty - 392 BC - 377 BC - 85 yrs
1. 392 - 386 BC - Pramar
2. 386 - 383 BC - Mahaamar
3. 383 - 380 BC - Devaapi ,
4. 380 - 377 BC - Devadatt
195 years from 377 - 195 BC, Shak kings captured Ujjain and they went to
6. 182 - 132
BC - Gandharvsen
7. 132 - 102 BC - Shankharaaj went to
forest from meditation and died issueless.
8. 102 - 82 BC - Gandharvsen
returned from forest and had second son named Vikramāditya.
9. 82 - 19 AD -
10. 19 - 29 AD - Devabhakt
Anarchy from 29 - 78 AD
78 - 138 AD
- Shaalivaahan - settled Jesus Christ in Kashmeer.
Kings for 500 years (138-638 AD)
AD - Bhojaraaj - Met Prophet Mohammad.
28. Bhoomipaal or Veer Sinh
Kings for 300 years (693-994 AD)
30. Kalp Sinh,
31. Gangaa Sinh (issueless)
years (993-1192 AD)
The last king
died in war on side of Prithvee Raaj Chauhaan in 1192 AD at Taraeadi,
called Kuru Kshetra here.
6. Sudhanvaa - He set up 4 Peeth of Shankaraachaaryas for which an
was issued on copper plate dated 2663 Yudhishthir Shak (485 BC)
on Aashwin Shukla 15.
13. Maanikya Raaj,
17. Bhaanu Raaj,
18. Maan Sinh,
41. Vaasudev (king in 551 AD) - his 2 branches started kingdoms. One
branch ended with last king of Delhi-Prithveeraaj-3 killed in 1192 AD.
The other branch had Veera Gogaadev who fought with Mahmood Gazanavee
in desert. Delhi-Ajmer branch
43. Naradev or Nrip,
Raaj or Gopendrak,
47. Durlabha Raaj,
48. Govind Raaj or Guvak-1-in time of Pratihaar King Naagabhatta-2.
49. Chandra Raaj-2 (843-868 AD),
50. Govind Raj or Guvaka-2 (868-893 AD),
51. Chandan - Govind Raaj (893-918 AD),
52. Vaakpati Raaj-1 (Vappayarai) (918-943 AD),
53A. Vindhya Raaj - very short period followed by his brother.
53B. Sinh Raaj. He had 4 sons - Vigraha Raaj-2, Durlabh Raaj-2, Chandra
Raaj, Govind Raaj.
54A. Vigraha Raaj-2 (from 973 AD) - He had defeated Mool Raaj of
Gujaraat and made Aashaapuraa Temple in Bhrigu-Kachchha. He had sent
army in 997 AD to help Lahore King against Subuktagin.
54B. Durlabh Raaj-2 (998 AD),
55. Govind Raaj-3 (999 AD),
56A. Vaakpati Raaj-2 (999-1018 AD),
56B. Veerya Raaj (1018-1038),
56C. Chaamund Raaj (1038-1063 AD) - these 2 were brothers of 56A -
57A. Sinhal - eldest son of 56C - Chaamund raaj.
57B. Durlabh Raaj-3 (1063-1079 AD) - son of 56C - Chaamund Raaj.
57C. Vigraha Raaj-3 (1079-1098 AD) - brother of 57B - Durlabh Raaj-3
58. Pŗthvee Raaj-1 (1098-1105 AD),
59. Ajaya Raaj (Ajaya Dev or Salhan) - (1105-1132 AD) - built Ajmer.
60. Arno Raaj (Anal Dev, Anna, Anak) - (1132-1151 AD),
(1151 AD) - He had killed his father Arno Raaj for which he was killed
by his brother Vigraha Raaj-4
61B. Vigraha Raaj-4 (Vishaal Dev) - (1151-1167 AD) - he had defeated
61C. Someshwar Dev (1169-1177 AD) - Brother of 61B (Vigraha Raaj-4), as
Prithvee Raaj-2 - son of 61A (Jagadev) had no son.
62A. Apar Gaangeya or Amar Gaangeya - son of 61B (Vigraha Raaj-4).
62B. Prithvee Raaj-2 - son of 61A (Jagadev). He defeated 61A and died
issueless in 1169 AD.
62C. Prithvee Raaj-3 (1177-1192 AD) - last Hindu King of Delhi. He
defeated Mohammad Gauree in 1191, but was defeated in 1192 AD due to
Jayachand of Kannauj.
or Chaalukya (at Dwaarakaa Raashtra) - 27 kings (392 BC-1192 AD)
1. Shukla or Chaalukya,
25. Kumbhpaal or Vaishyapaal,
26. Devpaal - Son-in-law of Anagapaal, Tomaa king of Delhi.
27. Jayachandra - His daughter Sanyuktaa married to Prithveeraaj
Chauhaan, last Hindu king of Delhi. He died in war with Gauree in
Pratihaar Dynasty (Kalinjar) 35 kings (392 BC-1193 AD).
26. Nadivarmaa (conquered Gaud and ruled there),
29. Anang Bhoopati,
35. Maheepati - Died in Kurukshetra
war with Gauree in 1193.
- 1700 AD Mugal Dynasty
In early 16th century
Genghis Khan (Changez Khaan) came through Khaibar pass and established Mugal Dynasty
which lasted for 200 years.
Baabar (1526 AD - 1531 AD) defeats Ibraaheem
Lodee to establish Mugal Empire.
Paaneepat Battles - 1526, 1556, 1761
First Paaneepat Battle - 1526
On April 21, 1526, Baabar, the first Mugal emperor, fought with Ibraaheem Lodee.
He came with 12,000 people. By the time he came to Panjaab, his force increased
to 25,000 men. Ibraaheem Lodee's army was said to number 100,000 men and 1,000
elephants. Baabar's army defeated him. When the battle ceased, about 20,000 men
of Baabar were killed including their leader Ranjit Sinh of Maalavaa.
Second Paaneepat Battle - 1556
On November 5, 1556, Akbar who had just succeeded his father Humaayoon's throne,
and his General-cum guardian Baharaam Khaan defeated
Hemoo the General of the Afgaan Sher Shaah). This battle was bad for Akbar
until Hemoo was badly wounded in his eye. He got unconscious and was brought to
Akbar. Baharaam Khaan beheaded his head and sent to Kaabul; and his body to Dehlee
to be hung on a gibbet. There was a mass slaughter of the captives, and in the
tradition of Changez Khaan and Taimoor Lang, a victory pillar was built with their
heads plastered in.
Third Paaneepat Battle - 1761
On January 13, 1761, the remaining Mugal people were threatened from the
west by the Raajpoot and Afgaan from the northwest. They sacked Delhi in
1756-57. The Mugal minister called in the Maraathaas and thus the struggle
started between the three - Mugal, Maraathaas, and Afgaans. The Maraathaa
army numbered 15,000 infantry, 55,000 cavalry and 200 guns. These were
supported by 200,000 Pindaarees. The Afgaans comprised 38,000 infantry,
42,000 cavalry and 70 guns. Despite their numbers Maraathaas lost and
their soldiers fled.
Afgaan leader Ahmad shaah Durraanee was unable to take advantage of his
victory as his followers mutinied for the 2-years' arrears of pay he
owed them. Thus the former Mugal Empire was denied both the Afgaans and
Maraathaas, leaving North India in a political vacuum which adventurers
tried to fill during the next 40 years.
Baabar - 1526-1530 AD - 4 years
Baabar was born in 1482. He founded Mugal
dynasty on April 21, 1526 AD by defeating Ibraaheem Lodee. It was not until
Baabar, that dynamite was used in warfare. He was used to the delights of Persian
gardens and the cool of the Afgaan hills. He was not happy when he first came to
India. His first impression about India was - in his autobiography he has written -
"Hindustaan is a country that has few pleasures to recommend it. The people
are not handsome. They have no idea of charms of friendly society, of frankly mixing
together, or of familiar intercourse. They have no genius, no comprehensions of mind,
no politeness of manner, no kindness or fellow-feeling, no ingenuity or mechanical
invention in planning, or executing their handicraft works, no skill or knowledge in
design or architecture; they have no horses, no good flesh, no grapes or musk melons,
no good fruits, no ice or cold water, no good food or bread in their bazaars, no baths
or colleges, no candles, no torches, not a candlestick."
In three victories,
Baabar secured all of North India, but little more than a year later,
following the last battle, on December 26, 1530, he died in Aagaraa, after
calling upon Allaah to take his life in exchange for the recovery of his
son Humaayoon (1508-1556) who was deadly ill at that time.
Humaayoon - (1530-1540 AD) - 10 years
He ruled for 10 years but was overpowered by one
of his father's Afgaan
Generals Shershaah Sooree in 1540.
Shershaah Sooree - (1540-1545 AD) - 5 years
After Baabar's death, his son
Humaayoon could not manage the kingdom, so Baabar's lieutenant Shershaah
Sooree and two of Hummaayoon's brothers sent Humaayoon back to
Delhi in 1540.
Humaayoon - (1555-1556 AD) - 1 year
After Baabar's death, Baabar's lieutenant
Shershaah Sooree and two of Hummaayoon's brothers sent Humaayoon back to Persia
from Delhi. So he fled away with his pregnant wife through Sindh. Akbar was born in
Umarkot, Sindh, during the period of exile, on November 23, 1542.
In 1545, Humaayoon
recaptured Kaabul and Kandhaar with the help of Eeraanians from his brother
Kaamaraan. Initially Humaayoon forgave his brother but ultimately he had to
blind him. (Shakespeare's "King Lear" was written some 50 years later).
Humaayoon got Delhi back in 1555 AD. For the remaining year of his life, he spent
much of his time in the octagonal building "Sher Mandal" in "Puraanaa
Kilaa". One year after his final return to Delhi, in 1556, Humaayoon died
from the effects of a fall on the stairs of his library in. His tomb was built in
Puraanaa Kilaa by his senior widow, Akbar's mother Hameedaa Begam during
Akbar - (1556-1605 AD) - 49 yrs
One year after his final return
to Delhi, Humaayoon died. [Queen Elizabeth I ruled 1558-1603] Akbar was only
13 years old when he took charge of the throne. Although he inherited the
throne but it was he who really created the Empire. From 1556 to 1560, until
his 18th birthday, he was served by a prince regent named Baharaam Khaan. He
incorporated Raajpoot princes into his administrative structure. He had a
splendid library on biography, theology, comparative religion, history, astrology,
medicine, zoology. He was always hyperactive throughout his life, so he required
very little sleep.
admired artists. Baasavaan (Basawan) and Miskin captured animal life.
Examples of their works can be seen not only in India, but also at major
museums in Europe. He had nine gems in his court - Taansen (singer),
Maan Sinh, Abul Fazal, Beerbal.
(1605-1628) - 23 yrs
Akbar died of a stomach illness
in 1605. He was succeeded by his son Jahaangeer. His real name was Saleem,
but when he sat on the throne, he was named as Jahaangeer. In his early period,
he showed some artistic temperament, but soon he became alcohol addicted and
then to opium. According to his autobiography he started drinking from the age
of 18, from a glass of wine gradually increasing up to 20 cups a day. When he
cut back on alcohol on doctor's advice, he became addicted to opium.
dearest wife was Noorjahaan, the daughter of an Iranian nobleman Giyaas
Beg. She came to Mugal court as a child with her father and moved to
Bengal as a wife of Sher Afagan. Sher Afagan died in 1607, so she moved
to Delhi as a waiting woman in the service of one of Akbar's widows.
Early in 1611, she was playing with her mates at a bazaar, then she met
Jahaangeer. Mutually agreed, she married him in May. Jahaangeer gave her
the title "Noor Mahal". Aged 34, she was strikingly beautiful
and was physically skilled and intellectually intelligent. By 1622, she
was effectively participating in all kingdom related works of Jahaangeer.
Throughout her life, Jahaangeer was captive of her beauty, so much so that
he minted coins bearing her image. She herself was also an artist.
Shaah Jahaan - (1628-1658 AD) - 30 yrs
His real name was Khurram. When
he became king he was named as Shaahjahaan. When he took over the kingdom
from his father Jahaangeer, it was bankrupt. He moved from Aagaraa to Delhi
in 1638. The huge city of Shaajahaanbaad, now known as old Delhi, was built
in 10 years. Much of the building materials was taken from the ruins of
Firozaabaad and Shergarh. its principal street was Chaandanee Chauk. It
was protected by rubble wall with 14 gates; some of them are still in existence -
Ajameree Gate, Kashmeeree Gate, Delhi Gate, Turkmaan Gate, Laahoree Gate.
Between this city and Yamunaa River he built the Red Fort (started in 1639
and completed in 1648), based on the model of Aagaraa Fort.
He was much more
successful in pushing in south, rather than consolidating the Empire in
Afagaanistaan. He also admired art and literature and above all architectural
monuments on an unparallel scale. Taaj Mahal built during 1632-1653 (in 21
years) is the most striking building of his period. His other buildings include
Red Fort, mosques, in Dehlee, Aagaraa and Laahaur, not only in scale but also
in details. He loved his wife Mumtaaz Mahal so much that he built Taaj Mahal
to pay his tribute to her. She died in 1631 while giving birth to her 14th
During his last
days of life, 1657-1666, he was imprisoned by his own son Aurangzeb for the
sake of throne. At that time he was living in Agaraa so he was imprisoned
there only - in Aagaraa fort. There he again fell ill (in June 1658) and
died in February 1666.
Aurangzeb - (1658-1707 AD) - 49 yrs
See also Shivaajee (-1680)
When Shaajahaan got terminally ill in 1657, his all four sons claimed the throne.
(1) Daaraa Shikoh (1615-1657) (2) Aurangzeb ruled in Daccan (3) Shujaa (4) Muraad.
Aurangzeb, who finally succeeded him, was his 2nd son and 6th child - a tough and
cruel but highly intelligent strategist. Soon he found that his father had recovered,
so instead of taking any risk of being deposed, he defeated his elder brother Daaraa
Shikoh and imprisoned his own father who was living in Agaraa, in Aagaraa fort. There
he again fell ill and died in 1666. Daaraa was condemned to death on the night of 30th
August 1659. Aurangzeb knew that if he had to survive, he had to expand his kingdom,
so he pushed to south. He was mainly opposed by Maraathaa born Shivaajee (died in the
age of 53, in 1680). Aurangzeb's full name was "Abu Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad
Aurangzeb Aalamgeer". He was a Persian. The last 39 years of his life, he had to
struggle to sustain his power. Although
Shivaajee died in 1680, Aurangzeb never came fully came to terms to
Maraathaa, though he allowed them to form the kingdom of their own.
all the kings of Mugal Dynasty from
1707 to 1858 when they had to hand over India to British.
Naasiruddeen Muhammad Shaah - (1719-1748 AD) - 29 years
Bahaadur Shaah Zafar - 5 yrs
At the age of 63, Aurangzeb's son Bahaadur
Shaah took the last Guru of Sikh in his service.
Bahaadur Shaah II - the last Mugal Emperor (-1858)
During the 1857 mutiny
Bahaadur Shaah took shelter in Humaayoon's Tomb with his three sons. Over
80, he was seen as a figurehead by Muslims opposing the British. When captured,
he was transferred to Rangoon (Burmaa) for the remaining four years of his
continued from Delhi until 1858 when its last ruler went to exile to
Rangoon in 1858.
MUGAL RULERS CONTINUED TO RULE FROM DELHI UNTIL 1858
After Aurangzeb, Mugal power was fading like a "magnificent flower
slowly wilting and occasionally dropping a petal, its brilliance fading,
its stalk bending ever lower and lower". Nine emperors succeeded
Aurangzeb, between the death of Aurangzeb and the exile of its last
emperor to Rangoon in 1858. It was no accident, that the British ended
the rule of its East India Company and decreed India to be its Indian