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Read it in detail  Panchaang

Panchaang word is compound word, made up of two words - Panch and Ang. Panch means five and Ang means part, so Panchaang means which deals with five parts. So this Panchaang deals with five parts of Jyotish (astrology), they are

(1) Tithi or Lunar Day :
The first element of the Panchaang is Tithi or Lunar day. The Tithi correspondences to the phases of the Moon, which in turn is called Moon's progress along the Zodiacal belt after he leaves the cozy embrace of the Sun at the New Moon. When the two luminaries (the Sun and the Moon) are on the same longitude, that time is called Amaavasyaa. When the Moon is 12 degrees far from the Sun, the first Lunar day of the Bright half ends and the 2nd Tithi begins. At the rate of 12 deg per Tithi (day) the Full Moon or Poornimaa ends when the Moon is 180 deg away from the Sun's longitude. They are not aligned with planets or with zodiac signs. Their link with planets again depend on the reference and purpose.

There are two fortnights in each month - one ends with Amaavasyaa and another with Poornmaas or Poornamaasee or Poornimaa. The Tithi go in sequence - (1)  Pratipadaa (Padavaa or Prathamaa),  (2) Dwiteeyaa (Doyaj or Dooj),  (3) Triteeyaa (Teej),  (4) Chaturrhee (Chauth),  (5) Panchamee (Paanch),  (6) Shashthee (Chhat),  (7) Saptamee (Saatai),  (8) Ashtamee (Aathai),  (9) Navamee (Naumee),  (10) Dashamee (Dasamee),  (11) Ekaadashee (Gyaaras), List of Ekaadashee (12) Dwaadashee (Baaras), List of Dwaadashee  (13) Trayodashee (Teras),  (14) Chaturdashee (Chaudas),  (15) Amaavasyaa (Amaavas or Maavas) OR Poornmaasee (Poornimaa, Pooranmaashee) Poornimaa and Anaavasyaa.

A Tithi may be Dagdh (Combust Tithi), Ghatak or Ghaatak, or Shoonya (Zero effect Tithi).

There are 5 types of Tithi -
(1) Nandaa - 1, 6 and 11,
(2) Bhadraa - 2, 7 and 12,
(3) Jayaa - 3, 8 and 13,
(4) Rikt - 4, 9 and 14, and
(5) Poornaa - 5, 10 and 15.

Good and Bad Tithi
The 8th Tithi is good for manufacturing arms, digging moats tunnels etc.
The 9th Tithi is to kill enemies, capturing, and removal of poisons etc.
The 10th Tithi is for stable works leading to fame, sinking wells, laying gardens, holy places etc.
The 11th Tithi is stable and good for kitchen construction performing sacrifices and convening an assembly of Vaidik scholars.
The 12th Tithi is good for keeping treasures and store houses.
The 13th Tithi is good for ornamental works, clothes, making women attractive, shaving etc.
The 14th Tithi is good for cruel deeds.
The Poornimaa is good for worshipping gods,
The Amaavasyaa is good to worship ancestors, construction of mangers

One should not massage oil on 6th, 8th and 12th Tithi.
Chhinna (cut) Tithi to be avoided for auspicious activities are = 6th, 8th, and 12th
Rikt Tithi are also like Chinna Tithi, they are = 4th, 9th, and 14th. Some include New Moon day (Amaavasyaa) also in this list.
Poornaa Tithi
Nandaa Tithi

(2) Vaar or Week Day
The second element of the Panchaang is Vaar or week day. There are seven days in a week. The names of these seven days are - (1) Ravi Vaar or Aaditya Vaar (Sunday),  (2) Som Vaar or Chandra Vaar (Monday),  (3) Mangal Vaar or Bhaum Vaar (Tuesday),  (4) Budh Vaar (Wednesday),  (5) Brihaspati Vaar or Guru Vaar (Thursday),  (6) Shujra Vaar (Friday),  (7) Shani Vaar (Saturday).

These are named based on seven planets . The order of days is based on 24 Horaa and motion of planets . This system was adopted and followed all over the world, but it is not sure, since when this system was put to use, but it is well sure that the system was in use from the Vaidik period itself, evident from the fact that even Atharv Vedaang Jyotish mentions and uses them. Now these week days are firmly linked with astrological Planets. The mean duration of one pair of day and night is 24 hours This laid the foundation of another four limbs of Panchaang. It is not clear, what methodology could have been adopted to fix the first day of the week after the name of planet Sun.

Those are presided by the Benefics are auspicious days - Monday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday. As the weak Moon becomes a malefic, even Monday will be inauspicious during that period.
--Sunday marriage leads to separation, Monday confers happiness, Tuesday widowhood and bad character, Wednesday good progeny, Thursday piety, wealth and children, Friday personal attractiveness and love of kinsmen, Saturday to penury and rheumatic trouble;
--According to sage Gaargya, marriage on Sunday leads in poverty, on Tuesday the death of bride, and on Saturday the death of the bridegroom.
--Certain foods are prescribed on each weekday before starting a journey - (1) Ghee, (2) Milk, (3) Jaggery, (4) sesame seeds, (5) yogurt, (6) barley, and (7) black gram.

--Vaar Shool (Dishaa Shool or weekday spike)
See also  Panchaang Information-1   and  Panchaang Information-2
Avoiding journey on a particular weekday.
Monday and Saturday to East (after 8 Ghatee one can travel);
Thursday to South (after 22 Ghatee one can travel);
Sunday and Friday to West (after 15 Ghatee one can travel);
Tuesday and Wednesday to North (after 12 Ghatee one can travel).

(3) Nakshatra:
See also     Nakshatra
The third part of a Panchaang is Nakshatra. There are 27 Nakshatra, excluding Abhijit which is placed in Capricorn, which are made use of for all kinds of auspicious rituals, travels, litigation, treatments of ailments, marketing commodities and the like. Once, the duration of a day (not Vaar) was fixed, obviously ancient seers adopted 27 Nakshatra(s) as Moon takes a round of the earth in 27.32 days. 

Vaar are based on the movement of the Sun which moves approximately 1 degree in about 24 hrs, Moon moves about one Nakshatra in one day. In Niraayan system, Ashwinee is presently considered as the 1st Nakshatra, but it is a matter of dispute till date. Even more so, where the zero point of 1st Nakshtra should be fixed on the zodiac (this is an open question till date and still no unanimity is reached). It is not clear, in which era week days were adopted and Vaar were firmly linked with planets, but this is not the case with Nakshatra. There are many Nakshatra Dashaa, in which Nakshatra are assigned to different planets (unlike zodiacal sign which are ruled by planets and all Saavant agree on this). As such it is not correct to say that Ashwinee is ruled by Ketu or Pushya by Saturn etc. This depends on reference and context. These Nakshatra are given with their starting or ending time of that day, depending on an individual Panchaang system.

In astrology, the Zodiac belt is considered as the body of Kaal Purush which is divided into 12 Signs or Raashi (Signs), which in turn are divided in 27 Nakshatra. These Nakshatra are equally divided among the 12 Raashi as 2 1/4 Nakshatra (or 9 Pad as each Raashi is divided in 4 Pad or Charan or parts) for each Raashi (30 deg). This circle of constellations is said to be stationary and to have independent status, hence this is regarded as a separate deity - Nakshatra Purush (Stellar Deity).

As the description of gods is given from foot upwards, we start from the feet of Stellar Deity. Worship of the Stellar Deity with Vishnu is done on a day ruled by the star Mool synchronizing with the 8th Lunar Day of the dark fortnight of the month of Chaitra. The worship must be conducted strictly in the order of limbs - from Mool onwards. The second day the worship is to be done on the day ruled by Rohinee; and so on. Its order is -
Mool (feet) > Rohinee (shanks) > Ashwinees (knees) > both Ashaadha (thighs) > both Phaalgunees (Privities) > Krittikaa (hips) >
both Bhaadrapad (two sides) > Revatee (stomach) > Anuraadhaa (breasts) > Dhanishthaa (back) > Vishaakhaa (arms) > Hast (hands) >
Punarvasu (fingers) > Aashleshaa (nails) > Jyeshthaa (neck) > Shravan (ears) > Pushya (mouth) > Swaati (teeth) > Shatabhishaa (laughter) >
Maghaa (nose) > Mrigshiraa (eyes) > Chitraa (forhead) > Bharanee (head) > Aardraa (hair).

Sage Gaargya declares that by worshipping the Stellar Purush, one attains sound health, happiness and personal charm. Normally South Indian Pandit do it.

(4) Yog or Nitya Yog:
See   Yog-Introduction
When the sum of longitudes of Sun and Moon becomes zero or 360 degrees, 1st Yog starts which is named as Vishwa-kumbh. These Yog are also 27 in number, as each Yog takes a period of about 24 hrs. Nakshatra have physical existence and are represented by an arc in the sky, but this is not the case with Yog. It looks like that seers had decided that each Yog will represent an arc of 13 degree 20 minutes equivalent to a Nakshatra. Some assign 1st Yog to Vishwa-kumbh to Ashwinee and some to Pushya etc. But one thing is clear that there is no direct rulership of planets on Yog and it will depend on reference to context (as it is in the case of Nakshatra). Nakshatra and Yog do have their independent characteristics which are not directly influenced by planets.

But one thing is clear that there is no direct rulership of planets on Yog and it will depend on reference to context (as in the case of Nakshatra). Nakshatra and Yog do have their independent characteristics which are not directly influenced by planets.

(5) Karan (Half Tithi) :
See   Karan
The fifth element of Panchaang is Karan. The day is divided in a day and night. In Vaidik era , seers were following Divaa (day) and Raatri (night) Karn. Thus each Tithi has two Karn. As Karn represents two parts \ of the day, they are controller of the Karm.

The Movable group contains 7 Karan - Bava, Baalav, Kaulav, Taitil, Gar or Garaj, Vanik, and Bhadra or Vishti
The Fixed group contains 4 Karan - Shakuni, Chatushpad, Naag, Kinstughna.

The Fixed ones can easily be recognized because they are permanently allotted to four half Tithi. Shakuni is assigned to latter half of the 14th Tithi of the dark fortnight; Chatushpad and Naag to the two halves of the New Moon (Amaavasyaa), and lastly Kinstughna to the first half of the first Lunar Day (Pratipadaa) of the bright half. What remains of the 60 halves of the New Moon is 56. These are to be shared among the Movable Karans, that are 7 in number. So they will be repeated 8 times.

In this scheme, Bava is assigned to the latter half of the 1st Lunar Day of the bright fortnight.
Then Baalav and Kaulav are assigned to the both halves of the 2nd Tithi.
Taitil and Garaj go to both halves of the 3rd Tithi.
Vanik and Vishti (Bhadraa) go to two halves of the 45th Tithi.
This process is repeated until you reach the first half of the 14th of the dark half.
The YONIs, or the animal origins of Karan, the Movable ones, are in order.

Karan Name Type Yoni
(animal origin of Karan
(1) Bava              Shubh Movable Lion Vishnu  
(2) Baalav           Shubh Movabe Tiger Prajaapati  
(3) Kaulav           Shubh Movable Boar Moon  
(4) Taitil              Shubh Movable Donkey Jupiter  
(5) Gar or Garaj    Shubh Movable Elephant Vasus  
(6) Vanik            Shubh Movable Cow Manibhara  
(7) Bhadra or Vishti A-Shubh Movable Dog Yam  
(8) Shakuni          Madhyam Fixed Dog Kali  
(9) Chatushpat     Madhyam Fixed Bull Vrish  
(10) Naag            Madhyam Fixed Serpent Phani  
(11) Kinstughn      Madhyam Fixed Cock Maarut  

Five limbs of Panchaang (day) have their independent characteristics and may not be directly linked either with signs, or planets.

Panchaang Lords
Tithi - resources available in Life
Vaar - longevity and general happiness (for example -- Vaar Lord exalted is good indication in Prashn )
Nakshatra - Sum total of our merits and demerits (we see it through Dashaa)
Yog - in Rog Prashn to know about the Rog otherwise status in birth charts
Karan  - our wishes in mind and their fulfillment - this is applied in Prashn, Jaatak and even Muhoort
Daivagya Kaamdhenu speaks about this subject.
you must get a Guru to learn all this



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Created and Maintained by Sushma Gupta
Created on 05/18/2008 and Updated on 07/09/2012