Puraan | 13-Skand Puraan

1-Brahm Puraan,   2-Padm Puraan3-Vishnu Puraan4-Shiv Puraan5-Bhaagvat Puraan,
6-Naarad Puraan7-Maarkandeya Puraan8-Agni Puraan9-Bhavishya Puraan,
10-Brahm Vaivart Puraan11-Ling Puraan,   12-Varaah Puraan, 13-Skand Puraan,
14-Vaaman Puraan15-Koorm Puraan16-Matsya Puraan17-Garud Puraan18-Brahmaand Puraan


1-Maaheshwar Khand

Home | Puraan | 13-Skand | 1-Maaheshwar

4-Naarad and Dharmvarmaa

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4-Naarad and Dharmvarmaa

(p 77) Naarad Jee said - "O Arjun, Wandering around on Prithvi, I came to Bhrigu Rishi's Aashram. There flows holy Narmadaa River which give Punya for 7 lives even just by remembering it. Hey Kuntee Nandan, Whoever takes bath in Narmadaa River, frees from all sins. As Pinglaa Naadee is located in the center of he body, in the same way this Narmadaa also exists in the center of he Universe. It is such a Teerth that even Brahm Hatyaa sin is cleaned away  by bathing in this river. Bhrigu's Aashram is situated on its Northern bank. Many other Rishi alo live there.

Seeing me coming, Bhrigu etc all Rishi welcomed me and sat around me. Bhrigu Jee asked me - "Muni, Are you coming from somewhere or going to somewhere?" I said - O Maharshi, I have wandered the whole Prithvi with the purpose to .look for good land and to donate it to Braahman. I was looking for such a land which is completely faultless, has sacred Teerth on it and is green, but I could not find such a land."

Bhrigu Jee said - "I also did the same in olden days and I found such land at that time. There is a famous sacred river named "Mahee". It has many Teerth on it and that is why it is very good. Naarad, Whatever visible and invisible Teerth are on Prithvi, they all reside here. It is mixed Teerth in the sea and whre it falls in the sea. there is a Teerth named Stambh. It is famous three Lok - whoever takes bath in this Teerth, his all sins are washed away." I said - "Hey Bhrigu Jee, We both will go to Mahee River, and will have Darshan of that sacred place." So Bhrigu Jee came to that river with me. I was very happy to see that place, and I said to Bhrigu Jee - "Braahman, I will make this place very good with your blessings. Now you may go to your Aashram and I will plan for my new action." Thus I sent Bhrigu Jee back to his Aashram and started thinking how to own that place, because that land always belonged to kings.

If I went to Dharmvarmaa and begged for this land, he would surely give it to me, but Muni have told that three types of money - Shukla, Shabal, and Krishn. Among them Shukla money is of the best kind, Shabal is of medium kind and the Krishn money is of the lowest kind. Whatever money is earned by teaching Ved to disciples in Dakshinaa is Shukla money. Whatever money is taken from the daughter, or from the interest, or from the trading, or from the farming, or from begging, is called Shabal money. And whatever money is earned by deceiving others, gambling, stealing, and cheating is called as krishn money. And these Shukla, Shabal and Krishn money have been regarded as Saatwik, Raajas and Taamas money respectively. Whoever does Dharm with Shukla money in any good Teerth, he enjoys its fruits in Dev Yoni. Who gives alms with Raajas feelings, he enjoys its fruits in human form; and gives alms with Taamasik feelings, he enjoys its fruits in Tiryak Yoni (lower Yoni).

According to this division, if I beg this land from the king, it will be Shabal kind of wealth. If I will beg from the King as a Braahman then also I don't feel comfortable, I don't want that. Which means I should adopt to get this land as Daan by asking from the King. I started pondering over this matter. At that time many Rishi and Muni came there to take bath in that Teerth. I asked them - "Mahaatmaa, Where have you come from?" They greeted me and said - "Hey Muni, We have come here from Sauraashtra Desh. Its king is Dharmvarmaa. he did lots of Tapasyaa to know the Tattwa of Daan (donation), that one day a Divine voice told him -
"Dwi-hetu Shadadhishthaanam Shandang ch Dwishaakayuk,  Chatushkaaram Trividham Trinaasham Daan Muchyate"
Means - "Daan has 2 reasons (Hetu), 6 Adhishthaan, 6 Ang (parts), and 2 types of results; are of 4 types, with 3 Bhed and 3 means of destruction (Vinaash Saadhan)."

After having said this Shlok, the Divine voice got quiet. Naarad Jee, In spite of asking by the King, the Divine voice did not tell him the meaning of this Shlok. Then Dharmvarmaa made an announcement in his kingdom - "Whoever will explain me the meaning of this Shlok, which I have heard after a severe Tapasyaa, I will give 700,000 (7 Lakh) cows, as much gold coins and 7 villages to him. Hearing this announcement many learned and wise people came to him from far and near countries. Naarad Jee, We also went there with the desire to have wealth, but the Shlok was very difficult so we came back without explaining its meaning and now we are going for pilgrimage."

So Hey Arjun, Hearing those Braahman I got very happy and thought - "This is a very good opportunity for me. I will explain the meaning of this Shlokand obtain both the place and the wealth from the King, then I need not to ask Daan from him. Although this Shlok is quite difficult, still I will explain it to him." I greeted that Mahee Saagar Sangam respectfully, assumed the form of an old Braahman and came to the King Dharmvarmaa. I said to the King - "Please listen to the meaning and explanation of this Shlok from me and whatever you have promised to give in exchange of this, tell me about that."

The King replied - "Many Braahman have said this but nobody has has been able to to tell its real meaning - what are the two Hetu (reasons) of the Daan? What are its 6 Ang (parts)? Which are the two fruits or results (Phal); and what are those 4 types and 3 kinds, and what are the three means of destruction of the Daan? Please explain all this clearly. Hey Vipra, If you can provide me with the answers of these 7 questions, I will give you 700,000 (7 Lakh) cows, as much gold coins and 7 villages to you. if you could not tell them, you may go back to your home empty handed."

Naarad Answers the Questions

Two Types of Hetu

"Hey Arjun," I said - "O King, Listen to the 2 Hetu of Daan - Less amount of Daan or more amount of Daan, is not the reason of Daan, but Shraddhaa and Shakti (capacity) is the reason of increasing or decreasing Daan's effects. There is a Shlok about Shraddhaa - that by giving lots of pain and affliction to the body and by the amount of the wealth are not able to give Sookshm Dharm. Shraddhaa is Dharm and wonderful Tap; Shraddhaa is Swarg and Moksh; and only Shraddhaa is this whole world. . If somebody donates his everything, or even his life without Shraddhaa, then also he does not get the fruits of this kind of donation. That is why everybody should have Shraddhaa in his heart. Shraddhaa is the means of Dharm, not the amount of the wealth. For the same reason whoever are full of Shraddhaa, but are poor, go to Swarg. This Shraddhaa is of three types in all living beings - Saatwik, Rajas and Tamas. Listen to about them - the people who have Saatwik Shraddhaa in their hearts worship Devtaa; the people who have Raajasik Shraddhaa, they worship Yaksh and Raakshas and the people Taamasik Shraddhaa worship Pret, Pishaach etc. That is why if the people with Saatwik Shraddhaa donate even a little, that donation pleases Bhagvaan.

(p 80) There is a Shlok about Shakti (capacity) - After fulfilling the need of one's family, only the remaining wealth is worthy to be donated, The same is as sweet as the honey and the same gives the benefit of Dharm. If a person does opposite to this, it becomes like a poison in the future and it turns into A-Dharm, because if a person donates something to the people and the family members are living in shortage or in poverty, that kind of donation is not good. he does not follow Dharm. Who does Shraaddh for dead people instead of giving food to his dependent people, his Shraaddh becomes the cause of sorrow even after reaching to the dead.

9 Types of Wealth

(1) Whatever thing is very cheap and which is available to general people, it is called "General thing".
(2) If something is obtained by asking it from somebody, that is called "Yaachit" (got by asking).
(3) Some things are kept with somebody, that is called "Dharohar" or "Nyaas".
(4) The things which are kept in exchange of something, they are called "Bandhak" or "Aadhi".
(5) The thing which has been given to somebody [without any condition] is called Daan.
(6) The things which are obtained in donation are called "Daan Dhan" or donated wealth.
(7) Whatever wealth has been kept with any other person as Dharohar, if he keeps it with any other person as Dharohar, it is called "Anvaahit".
(8) When some wealth is left with somebody on his trust, it is called "Nikshipt".
(9) When one gives all the wealth to others, in spite of having his own children, that is called "Saanvaya Sarvaswa Daan".

Learned and wise people should not donate above mentioned nine types of wealth even in emergency. Who donates such wealth, he needs to do Praayashchit. So Hey Raajan, These are the two Hetu of Daan.

6 Adhishthaan

Now you listen to Adhishthaan. Daan Adhishthaan are of 6 types - Dharm, Arth, Kaam, Lajjaa, Harsh (happiness) and Bhaya (fear).
Some people donate without any desire, just with Dhaarmik (religious) mind to appropriate people, that is called "Dharm Daan".
Whatever is donated with some purpose in mind, that is called "Arth Daan". This gives the result in this Lok only.
Whatever is given to have a woman, to drink, for hunting or for gambling to an inappropriate person, that is called "Kaam Daan".
Whatever is given to people by promising them in a court or in front of many people, that is called "Lajjaa Daan".
Whatever is given hearing some good news or after doing some auspicious work, that is called "Harsh Daan".
Whatever is given to save oneself from defame, harm, or violence to inappropriate people, that is called "Bhaya Daan".
Thus there are 6 Adhishthaan (types) of Daan.

6 Ang of Daan

Now you listen to its 6 Ang (parts) - Daataa (donor), Pratigraheetaa, Shuddhi (cleanliness), givable thing with Dharm, Desh (place) and Kaal (Time). The Daataa should be without disease, should be religious, should be desirous to donate, with no vice, holy and earn without doing any bad Karm. These 6 characteristics are of good Daataa. A Daataa, who is not simple, does not have Shraddhaa, is evil, has vices, promises falsely and sleeps a lot, has been considered Tamo Gunee and of low quality. Whose family, education, and conduct, all three are good, who earns money with honesty, is kind, is free from other faults, that Braahman is said to be the worthiest person for Daan - [the best man for Pratigraha].

Who is always happy to see a beggar, who is always respectful to them and who does not seek any fault in them - all these qualities have been regarded good in a donor. The wealth which is not earned by afflicting other people, or by very hard labor that wealth, even though it is very less, is much better than other types of wealth. If something is given with the religious aim that is called "Dharm Daan". The same thing, if it is without the abve qualities, it does not give any fruit. In whichever country, in whichever Time, whichever things are rare; giving the same thing in the same Time, in the same country is the best Daan. Thus these are Daan's 6 Ang.

2 Results of Daan

(p 81) Now you listen to 2 Phal (results) of Daan. Mahaatmaa have told Daan's 2 types of results for this Lok. Whatever is given to good people their result is got in the other Lok and whatever is given to A-Sat people, that Daan's result is to be enjoyed here in this Lok only. These are the Daan's two results.

4 Types of Daan

Now you listen to 4 types of Daan - Vaidik Braaahman have told 4 types of Daan - Dhruv, Trik, Kaamya (with some desire), and Naimittik (given for some purpose).
(1) Whatever money is spent in digging the wells, planting the gardens etc, which are used by everybody, is called Dhruv Daan.
(2) Whatever donation or alms is given daily is called Trik Daan.
(4) Whatever is given to fulfill some desire, such as woman, children, victory, wealth or power, that is called Naimittik Daan. Naimittik Daan is also 3 types - it is without Hom (Yagya). Whatever is given because of specific time, such as on Sankraanti, or Grahan period. that is called Kaalaapeksh Naimittik Daan. Whatever is donated in Shraaddh etc activities, that is called Kriyaapeksh Naimittik Daan. Whatever is given during any Sanskaar or study period that is called Gunaapeksh Naimittik Daan. Thus there are 4 types of Daan.

3 Divisions of Daan

(p 82) Now you listen to its 3 Bhed (divisions) of Daan. Daan of 8 things has been considered the best. Whatever is given methodically is called Madhyam (medium) rype of Daan; the rest are considered are called the ,lowest type of Daan. These are the characteristic of Daan which wise people know about. House, Temple, education, land, cow, well, life and gold - donation of these 8 things are better than any of the other things. Anna (grains and food), garden, clothes, or horse or any other Vaahan (ride or conveyance) - these things are considered as medium class Daan. Shoes, umbrella, pots and vessels, yogurt, honey, Aasan (material for sitting), Deepak (lamp), wood and stone etc are considered of the low quality. So these are the 3 types of Daan.

3 Causes of Daan Destruction

Now you listen to the 3 causes of Daan destruction. After giving whichever thing, one feels bad, whatever is given to any inappropriate person and what is given without Shraddhaa - the fruit of these kinds of donation is destructed. Thus Pashchaataap (repentance), inappropriateness and non-Shraddhaa are the destroyer of Daan results, If somebody repents after the donation, it is called "Aasuree Daan" which is without results. Whatever is given with non-Shraddhaa is called "Raakshas Daan". This Daan is also unfruitful. Whatever is given to Braahman by scolding him or abusing him, or if they are abused after giving the donation, that is called "Pishaach Daan". This shouls also be considered unfruitful. All these 3 destroy the fruits of Daan. Thus I told you about the greatness of Daan which is divided in 7 steps."

Dharmvarmaa said - "Today my life has become successful. Today I have got the results of my Tapasyaa. Hey Tapaswee, You have gratified me greatly. Whoever had adopted bad conduct after being learned his whole life has gone waste. Whoever wife is obtained after lots of trouble, if she has harsh speech, she is useless. If any well's water came out to be salty, it is useless, in the same if this human life passed without doing any Dharm Karm, then this life is also useless. I greet you and I greet you all Braahman. In the days of yore, Bhagvaan Vishnu also said the same to Sanakaadi Muni - "I do not get so much satisfaction even from the Ghee offering poured in Yagya through Fire what I get from that food eaten by that Braahman who has offered all his Karm to me." Therefore if I have ever done anything bad to any Braahman, please forgive me. Hey Muni, You don't seem to be an ordinary Braahman, who are you? I wish to appease you by putting my head on your feet. Please introduce yourself to me."

I said - "O Good King, I am Naarad, and I have come to you to get some land. You have given me the wealth already according to your promise, now you give me the land. O King, Although this land and wealth all belong to Devtaa, but at whichever time they belong to whoever king, one should ask them from him only. Because that King is the master of the land and the wealth at that time."

The King replied - "Hey Vipravar, If you are Devarshi Naarad, then this whole kingdom is yours. I will only serve you and all Braahman." Naarad Jee said - "Arjun, Then I told Dharmvarmaa that you may keep your wealth, whenever I will need it I will take it. After that I went to Raivatak Parvat. There I sat on a large rock. Fragrant, cool, slow air was moving around. I thought, "I have obtained the place, now I should make efforts to get some good Braahman. I need the best Braahman. Ved knower tell about them thus - as no boat can take the passenger across without the boatman, in the same way if a Braahman is even of higher caste but of bad conduct, he cannot uplift anybody."



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Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/05
Updated on 06/16/13