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Nandan Van
Nandan Van is the garden in Indra Puree or Swarg and belongs to Indra. Supposed to be very beautiful.

Nine Idols
The nine idols which Vaishnav people worship are of : (1) Vaasudev, (2) Sankarshan, (3) Pradyumn, (4) Aniruddh, (5) Naaraayan, (6) Hayagreev, (7) Varaah, (8) Narasinh, and (9) Brahmaa.

These were killed by Arjun. When Arjun went to Swarg Lok to take Divine Astra from his father Indra, Indra asked him to kill Nivaatkavach Daitya, because he himself could not kill them because they were bestowed by Brahmaa Jee that they wouldn't be killed by Devtaa.

Restraining of mind, or discipline under some specific rules.

Note 1
Bhaagvat Puraan, 8/4 says that Maalee, Sumaalee and Maalyavaan were killed in this war, while V-Raamaayan says that Sumaalee was killed when Raavan went to win Indra. Maalyavaan ran away and became minister of Raavan.

This particular Ookhal, pestle, was very large, made of wood, to beat the rice or any other grain, to separate it from its husk.
[Bhaagvat Puraan, 10/p4]

Own Feelings
Here I remember Tulasee Daas Jee 's one couplet from his Maanas : "Jaakee rahee bhaavanaa jaisee, Prabhu moorat tin dekhee taisee". Means people saw Bhagvaan in the same Roop whatever feelings they had for Him i their hearts, for example if there was a mother, she saw Him as her child, if some woman wanted Him like her husband then she saw Him in that way, Yogee saw Him as Jagadeeshwar, Kans saw Him as his Kaal (Mrityu, or death) etc. These feelings are called Ras in Hindi Literature. There 10 Ras. So all feelings can be divided under those 10 Ras. For more explanation see " Ras".
[Bhaagvat Puraan, 10/p14]

Paak Yagya
Paak Yagya is a minor sacrifice, such as the propitiation of a planet foreboding evil, or worship offered to the inferior deities called Vishwaadev.

Panch Tattwa
Five Tattwa (elements) are Prithvi (Earth), Aakaash (Ether or Sky), Agni (Fire), Jal (Water) and Vaayu (Wind or Air). It is said that our body is made up of these five elements.

A Parigh is a thick club mounted with iron. The comparison is very feeble, for Bheem's mace, in the popular estimation, is much heavier and stouter than any Parigh manufactured for human combatants.

A woman who is faithful to her husband by her heart, speech and actions, is called Pativrataa. She is called Satee also. A Pativrataa woman has lots of powers. Even Devtaa cannot harm her or her husband. Read Jalandhar as how his wife's (Vrindaa) Paativrat protected him to be killed by even Bhagvaan.

Pind Daan
In Hindu Dharm after the death of somebody his son and descendents give Pind Daan through Braahman. It is believed that this goes to the ancestors. Gayaa Jee (in Bihar) is very famous and appropriate for this.

A Poorn-Paatra is literally a large dish or a basket full of rice. It should consist of 256 handfuls. Beyond a Poorn-Paatra, the Shoodra should not give any other Dakshinaa in any of his sacrifices.

Repentance. Praayashchit are done when somebody commits any kind of sin or crime or unwanted work. For example: Draupadee abused not only Duryodhan but also her great father-in-law Dhritraashtra, which she should have never done at any cost. They had to do its Praayashchit naturally by going Van for 13 years. Paandu did Brahm Hatyaa for which he did Praayashchit willingly by going to Van. Normally Praayshchit is the process to cleanse one's sinful mind.

Pushpak Vimaan
Pushpak Vimaan is an air plane which flies with wish. It has all kinds of luxuries in it. It can be made smaller and larger as needed. Brahmaa Jee gave this Vimaan to Kuber. Later when Raavan won Kuber, he brought it from there. Since then he was using it. When Vibheeshan was crowned king, he offered this Vimaan to Raam. When Raam had come to Ayodhyaa, He sent it back to Kuber until needed.

Putrikaa Dharm
In this kind of marriage, parents of the girl take the first son of their daughter and consider him as their own son. This is normally done when the girl is the only daughter of her parents, but it can happen in other cases also. Thus it is said - "This girl is married to this boy according to Putrikaa Dharm."

There are four types of Rishi - Brahmarshi, Maharshi, Raajarshi and Devarshi. Brahmarshi are those Rishi wh know Brahm. Maharshi are those people who are higher than ordinary Rishi because they are good at spiritual knowledge; Raajarshi are those kings who have attained Rishi like qualities, such as Raajaa Janak, Seetaa's father is a well known Raajarshi; and Devarshi are hose Devtaa who live like Rishi - Naarad Jee is one example.

Raajaa Raghu was a valorous king of Ikshwaaku Vansh. Raghu means "the fast one" derived from Raghu's chariot driving abilities. His descendants were called Raghuvanshee. The history of this dynasty is elaborated in Kaalidaas' "Raghuvansh" drama. He was a great donor, it is said that no one returned from his palace empty-handed. He is best known as great-grandfather of Raam. Raam Himself is known as "Raaghav", Raghu-nandan", "Raghukul Naayak" "Raghunaath", "Raghupati", Raaghavendra", indicating His belonging to Raghu Dynasty.
[Bhaagvat Puraan 9/6]

The king is entitled to a sixth part of the merits acquired by his subjects. The total merit of the king arising from renunciation is very great. Besides, the merit of every kind of renunciation belongs to him in that way.

There are three types of Rin a human being has to pay before he dies - 
1. Pitra Rin or Brahm Rin - Pitra Rin is of Brahmaa's Rin and is paid off by producing children.
2. Dev Rin - Dev Rin is of Bhagavaan Vishnu's Rin and is paid off by donations.
3. Rishi Rin - Rishi Rin is of Bhagavaan Shankar's Rin and is paid by acquiring and imparting knowledge.

They are eleven in number and all have three eyes Trishool their hands.

Who does Saadhanaa, who practices Praanaayaam and meditation.

Saadhanaa is the state of mind and body in which a man gets busy in austerity, controlling his or her Indriyaan (11 Indriyaan) in a great disciplined way.

Saam, Daam, Dand, Bhed
These are four policies which helps to a person to be successful in his job. Saam means influencing. One can take work by influencing somebody. Or Daam; Daam means money. One can take work by giving money. Or Dand, Dand means punishment. One can take work by punishing somebody. Or Bhed, Bhed means dividing. One can be successful in his work by dividing people - "Divide and rule".

Saamagree is a mixture of a few things which is used to offer Aahuti in Havan (in sacred fire). It may include - white sesame seeds, Ghee, sugar, rice, barley, some sweet smelling material.

Sacrifices are performed by the body, words and mind. A Braahman can perform sacrifice by all the three. Kshatriya and Vaishya cannot perform sacrifices by their bodies, they must employ some Braahman to do this. However they can utter Mantra and perform mental sacrifices The Shoodra alone cannot employ his body or utter mantra in sacrifices. The holy sacrifice in his case is the mental sacrifice only. A mental sacrifice is to resolve to give away in honor of the Devtaa or to Devtaa without the aid of the Vedic ritual. The resolve must follow the actual gifts.

Samaadhi is a state of mind and body in which a person sits without having a feeling of outside world. It is kind of meditation.

Sandhyaa word is originated from the word "Sandhi". Sandhi means joint. There are two Sandhyaa everyday - dusk and dawn when day and night meet. In Hindu Dharm these periods are very sacred. Several actions are prohibited at this time and some actions are prescribed Sandhyaa is a collection of some Mantra and actions, a Hindu should perform daily two times - at dawn and dusk times. Because in Hindi language these times are called "Sandhyaa" that is why that special worship is also called "Sandhyaa".

Sankalp simply means "firm intent to do something". When one does Sankalp of doing something, it becomes obligatory to do it. It is a kind of taking a vow. Often when some donation is given, it is said formally that "I give this to you" with some Mantra and rituals. That is also called Sankalp. Water, Kush grass, rice, and some other ingredients, depending upon the type of Sankalp, are an essential part of most rituals in Hindu Dharm.

Soldiers that have sworn to conquer or die. A full Akshauhinee army of such soldiers was owned by Krishn. He gave them to Duryodhan to fight for him. The story of Krishn's offering to Duryodhan the choice between these soldiers on the one side, and himself sworn not to fight but only to aid with his counsels on the other, is given in full in the Udyog Parv. Duryodhan, from folly, accepted the army and who were all slain by Arjun.

Once Pani named Daitya hid Prithvi in Rasaatal, Indra sent Saramaa named his bitch to look for her. Daitya expressed their desire to extend friendship with Saramaa, but Saramaa didn't agree for that and said to them praying Indra - "Hataa Indren Panayah Shaydhwam" (Hey Pani Gan, You sleep on Prithvi after being killed by Indra) That is why they were always afraid of Indra.

Sarp and Naag
Naag are different from Sarp (snakes) as they have a very broad head.

Sarp as a Gift
Garud's mother Vinataa and Sarp's mother Kadru had enmity with one another. So remembering mother's enmity, Garud Jee used to eat any Sarp whatever he saw. At this all Sarp went to Brahmaa Jee. Then Brahmaa Jee made this a rule that, the Sarp community will offer one Sarp to Garud every Amaavasyaa. And this Sarp will come from a separate family each time.

Sat and Asat
These two words must be understood very well because they occur often in Hindu philosophy. Sat is explained as "Real", such as "soul" or as real and permanent as soul. Asat is reverse of this - the unreal, or the non-soul, and is not permanent (is temporary). As unreal has no existence, the real can never have non-existence.

Satee   See also   Pativrataa
There was a tradition in olden India that after the death of the husband, his wife used to immolate herself by sitting with him on the pyre. That was called "to be Satee". Although it continued for quite enough time, but in British times it was stopped. Originally it was with the ill and wish of the woman, but after that the society used to force the woman to immolate herself. So it was considered necessary to stop it.

500 chariots, as many elephants, 1,500 elephants, 2,500 soldiers constitute a Senaa (army). Ten such Senaa constitute a Preetan, and ten such Preetan constitute a Vaahinee. In common usage, Senaa, Vaahinee, Pritan, Dhwajinee, Chamu, Akshauhinee, Varuhinee are used in the same sense.
[From MBH, Udyog Parv, Ch 157]

Shabd means "sound"; and Vedhee means "piercing"; so Shabd-Vedhee means "which can pierce the sound. Here the "Shabd-Vedhee" Baan (arrow) means whichever arrow is shot just by listening the sound. Only very few skilled archer could shoot the arrow at their aim just by listening the sound. Before Mahaabhaarat, King Dasharath (Raam's father) was one, in MBH times Paandu, Arjun and Karn were like this. Although Dasharath Paandu and arn shot their arrows at the wrong aims and they had to suffer for that.

Shankar Jee's Bow
It is said that Shankar Jee's this bow was very old and very heavy and it was kept in Janak Jee's palace for a long time. Once doing cleaning Seetaa Jee moved it from its original place. When Janak Jee came to know about this, at the same time he announced that whosoever will aim at that bow, he will marry Seetaa to him. Seetaa's mother tried to stop him taking such a vow but he didn't listen to it. When many very mighty kings, including Raavan, could not even move that bow, then Raajaa Janak and his wife got very worried and got scared too, that maybe their daughter remains unmarried. But at that time Vishwaamitra Jee came to rescue him and he ordered Raam to try it. Raam picked that bow like a flower bow and as soon as He aimed on the bow, it broke being so old.

Machines which can slay a century of warriors.

Shesh's Complexion
Vishnu Puraan 5/6 says that his complexion is as white as ivory. Since Lakshman and Balaraam were his incarnations and since both were of fair complexion, it seems true that Shesh Jee should also be of fair complexion.

Snake Behaved With Mouse
A snake charmer had a snake in his box, by chance a mouse also entered it. Mouse got scared. The snake said - "Don't be scared, you make a hole in the box then both of us will get out of this box." First mouse did not believe him but later he understood and he made a hole in the box. Snake immediately ate the mouse and got out of the box.

Soot Jee
When a Kshatriya boy marries a Braahman girl, their sons are known as Soot. In olden days Soot men were allowed only to serve kings: for example Raajaa Shaantanu's Saarathee (charioteer) Adhirath was a Soot. There are two people famous by the name of Soot Jee - one is Romharshan who was well known as Soot Jee, more than by his own name; the second is Ugrashravaa who is so much known for telling Puraan stories etc was also known as Soot Jee. Both were so much known by the name Soot Jee that very few people know their real name as Romharshan and Ugrashravaa respedctively.

According to Hindu Dharm there are four Varn in Hindu society - Braahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shoodra in the hierarchy as given here. According to Dharm, a Braahman boy can marry a Braahman, or Kshatriya or Vaishya girl. In the same way, a Kshatriya boy can marry only Kshatriya or a Vaishya girl. When a Kshatriya boy marries a Braahman girl, the son born from this wedlock is called "Soot-Putra". The whole Soot caste is born in this way. All Soot were supposed to work for Raajaa as their menial workers. Karn's father Adhirath was a Soot-Putra that is why he was only a charioteer of Raajaa Shaantanu and then of Dhritraashtra. In the same way Sanjaya was also a Soot-Putra.

To become a Soot is not considered good in the society. Karn was a Soot-Putra, that is why Drone didn't accept him as his student and Draupadee didn't marry him. There was a Muni who is called Soot Jee (he became famous with this name only). Almost nobody knows his real name but he is famous for telling religious stories and discourses. By the way his name is Ugrashravaa and he is the son of Romeharshan who himself is known by the name of Soot Jee.

Swan means Hans. Because Bhagavaan delivered the knowledge in the form of Hans (swan), that is why this Jeev (soul) is also referred to as Hans and Eeshwar as Param-Hans (higher swan, or Swaamee of swans). When a man dies, people say, "his Hans flew away", that means that his soul has left the body.
[Bhaagvat Puraan, 11/10;   11/14]

Three Gun
Three Gun are Sat Gun, Rajo Gun and Tamo Gun.

Tolerating pain through justice. Means when you have done something bad, crime, sin and if you are getting punishment for them, tolerating that punishment is called Titikshaa.

Two Finger Game
There are some good explanations for the rope being short only by two fingers. (1) Bhagvaan thought when I give my Darshan then it is only through Sat Gun, so only one Gun should see me, one should not see me with all three Gun. Since human beings have all Gun and they cannot be only Sato Gun, so they cannot control Him with three Gun. (2) He thought where there are names and forms, then there is a Bandhan (relationship, or connection, or bondage). I have no name, no form, then how can I be tied so rope fell short by two fingers. (3) Yashodaa used short, long, alone, together, all kinds of ropes to tie Him but all fell short, because Bhagvaan do not discriminate in short, long, small, big. To show these two concepts ropes fell short by two finger short.
[page 10/p4]

Uddhaar means uplifting somebody spiritually. In Hindi Language the Uddhaar word is used to free somebody from a Shaap, or to give Mukti (salvation) because of some other reason, or to uplift a human being from his present social or financial or psychological condition etc.

A human year is divided between two Ayan - Uttar+Ayan and Dakshin+Ayan (North and South) - January to June, and July to December respectively. In Hindu Religion Uttaraayan is considered an auspicious time to die. As Bheeshm had the Var of Ichchhaa Mrityu, he kept himself alive till Uttaraayan period came. To see the division of time on Earth read Time.

Vaaman Avataar is of Vishnu taken for the good of Devtaa. In this Avataar He was born as Aditi's youngest son. As He was very short, only 52 fingers tall, his name is Vaaman. Vaaman is the word for Hindi language number 52, that is why His Avataar is clled Vaaman Avataar.

Vaartaa Vritti
Vaishya's Vaartaa Vritti is of four types - agriculture, trade, cow protection and charging interest.

Vaaruee Devee
Vaarunee Devee is Varun Dev's daughter. She also came out of the Saagar Manthan as one of the Ratn. Se was taken by Daitya. Once he sent her to please Balaraam Jee in Brij when Balaraam Jee was there.

The name Vajra implies either a hard needle for boring diamonds and gems, or the thunder-bolt. In both cases it mans very very strong and hard. Indra's Vajra (thunder-bolt) was made by Rishi Dadheehi's bones.

In olden times when there was custom of Swayamvar, the girl was given a garland and was given a round of the royal court where all suitors were seated. She used to go to those boys one by one and was introduced to everybody. Then whoever she liked to be her husband, she put her that garland, called Varmaalaa or Jayamaalaa, in his neck. Then they got married.

Varn means "Hindu Varn", and Sankar means "by joining". In Hindu religion there are four Varn - Braahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shoodra. According to Manu Smriti there are some rules for marriage among these Varn. When these rules are broken, their descendents are called Varnsankar. For example when a Braahman girl marries a Vaishya boy then their descendents will be called Varnsankar. See also Soot-Putra above.

Vilom Caste
Vilom caste people are hose who are born out of Vilom Marriages.

Vilom Marriage
When a high caste woman marries a lower caste man, it is called Vilom marriage and their children are called Soot Putra or Putree or of Vilom caste. Soot Jee's mother was a Braahman and his father Romharshan was a Kshatriya, that is why he is called Soot Jee. In the same way Karn was also a Soot-Putra, because he was a son of a Soot caste Adhirath.

Virah Geet
There are nine Ras in Hindi literature: 
1. Veebhats Ras - which generates the feelings of hatred
2. Vaatsalya Ras - which generates motherly feelings
3. Shringaar Ras - which generates the feelings of sexual love. In this area there are two sides: when hero and heroine are meeting; and when any of them is alone and remembering him or her. This loneliness description when expressed in poetry is called Virah (=separation) Geet (=song) means a song which is sung
when hero and heroine are separated
4. Veer Ras - which generates or describes the feelings of bravery and fighting
5. Bhakti Ras - which generates the feelings of devotion to God
6. Raudra Ras - which generates the feelings of anger
7. Adbhut Ras - which describes wonderful things
8. Haasya Ras - which makes people laugh
9. Bhayaanak Ras - which describes horrid things

A sacrificial fire of the Shoodra. All sacrificial fires come from Vaishya's houses.

Vrishparvaa was the son of Kashyap and Danu. He was a Daitya as Danu gave birth to Daitya. Shukraachaarya Jee was Daitya's Kul Guru. he had a daughter named Sharmishthaa who went to Yayaati along with Devayaanee in marriage as per Devayaanee's condition.

Vyooh is an array of troops in a certain form, such as Chakra Vyooh, Garud Vyooh etc. This word has been used many times during Mahaabhaarat war.

There are three types of Yog through which one can attain Bhagavaan - Gyaan Yog, Karm Yog, and Bhakti Yog. There is one Yog Saadhanaa also to attain Brahm.

Yojan   see alo   Distance
1 Yojan = 4 Kos. 1 Kos = 2 and 1/4 miles.



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Created by Sushma Gupta On 5/27/04
Modified on 05/04/13