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Glossary A-M

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Glossary - A-M

5-Element Classes
These are 5 Tanmaatra, 5 Mahaa Bhoot, 5 Gyaan Indriyaan, 5 Karm Indriyaan and their 5 Devtaa for both types of Indriya. These six groups are indicated here as 5-Element classes.

64 Kalaa

Aachman is to wash mouth from inside. It is an integral part of Poojaa to clean mouth as a part of Shauch (cleanliness). In this process one just drinks some water (2-3 tablespoons). It is done after taking the food too to clean mouth. In this process enough water is taken into mouth, rolled inside the mouth and thrown away as dirty water. Two or three times are enough to do this.

Aahuti is a kind of offering normally used in Yagya, it can be of anything from Ghee (clarified butter) through fruit, dry fruits, grains to any dry material. Sometimes this word is used for sacrificing something also, such as "Gandhi gave the Aahuti of his life to bring the independence to India".

Aakaashvaanee is said to be the Divine announcement about anything - bad, good, future event, or guidance, just anything. In this one does not see anybody speaking, just he hears.

Intense love. Intense attachment. Caring for somebody or something all the tme. Krishn in Geetaa has delivered the message of doing Karm (actions) without Aasakti (with detachment), then only one can attain salvation.

Aashram of Nar Naaraayan
Why Naarad Jee went to the Aashram of Nar-Naaraayan? Giving Shaap or Var decreases the result of Tapasyaa, so maybe Naarad Jee thought after giving this Shaap, I should restore my Tap OR maybe He wanted to tell His action to Nar-Naaraayan. 
[Bhaagvat Puraan, 10/p4]

Aastik    see also     Naastik

There are six types of Aatataayee: (1) who sets fire, (2) who gives poison, (3) who takes up weapon with bad intentions, (4) who robs wealth, (5) who takes somebody's farms, (6) who takes other's wife; all are called Aatataayee and there is no sin to kill any of them.

Abhimantrit means to make something holy, or workable by using Mantra. In this process a thing is given a super power to do a certain task by taking water in hand and reading Mantra; or by reading only Mantra. Most special weapons are used like this - by taking an ordinary arrow, reading Mantra over it and given special power to it. In this way water can also be Abhimantrit to cure a disease. In Hinduism normally all alms, Baayanaa, Shaap etc. are Abhimantrit first. In the process of alms and Baayanaa the things are kept aside and a little water, sometimes with some money, is kept in right hand and the thing is circled with that water three times. Then the thing becomes Abhimantrit and it cannot be used by anybody else than the person or purpose for whom and which it has been kept aside. For example, Baayanaa is given to some higher status person (these status are defined), and alms are given to Braahman or baggers or Dakaut (who accept alms for Shani). In the case of Shaap, people used to take water in their right hand and utter some Mantra to give Shaap and sprinkle that water on the person to whom they wanted to give Shaap.
[Bhaagvat Puraan, 9/3]

When an idol is offered Jal or milk, it is called Abhishek. In Shiv Jee's case, normally the milk is offered by pouring it on the Shiv Ling. In other cases where idols are wearing clothes, Jal is sprinkled only with the thumb and third finger only. Giving the idol a bath is different than Abhishek. Abhishek is under the Poojaa process after giving the idol bath and putting on clothes.
[Bhaagvat Puraan 10/p10]

Apsaraa are nymphs. Some sources say that they came out from the sea at the time of Saagar Manthan, some say they were the daughters of Kashyap Jee and his wife Muni. They are beautiful, live in worlds above Prithvi, entertain Devtaa and sometimes work according to the orders of Indra. The main Apsaraa mentioned in scriptures are - Urvashee, Menakaa, Pujikaasthalee, Vishwaachee, Pramlochaa etc.

Living in the society without being recognized. Incognito.

According to this ordinance, Dakshinaa should be a 100,000 animals, such as cows or horses. In the case of this particular Shoodra, that ordinance (without its Mantra) was followed, and a 100,000 Poorn-Paatra were substituted for cows or horses of that number.

An army has four wings - Charioteers, elephant riders, infantry (who walk on foot) and cavalry (who fight on horses). One Akshauhinee army contains 21,870 Rath (chariots), 21,870 elephants, 109,350 infantry (soldiers on foot), and 65,600 cavalry (horse riders). This makes up one Akshauhinee army - a total of 218,690 heads. [from Mahaabhaarat] Paandav had 7 Akshauhinee army and Kaurav had 11 Akshauhinee army. Kaurav's army included Shree Krishn's one Akshauhinee Naaraayanee army also.  (see also Senaa)

Ansh Avataar
Ansh Means "part". Ansh Avataar means Bhagvaan's that incarnation who has not appeared with His full powers, but only with partial powers. Normally the Full Avataar is supposed to have 16 Kalaa (powers). Only Krishn Jee is said be Poorn (complete) Avataar, means He came with all His 16 Kalaa while other Avataar were only Ansh Avataar. They came with specific purpose and went after completing that purpose.

As a Criminal
Krishn was standing in front of Yashodaa as if he has committed a crime.
[Bhaagvat Puraan, 10/p4]

As Wood Burns in Fire
Natural power of anything does not wait for other's devotion, such as fire or Amrit. Fire's nature is burning others, Amrit's nature is to make a living being immortal. They do not wait for the intention of others. His name does not only wash one's sins but also is the way to get Moksh.

Ashwamedh Yagya
Ashwamedh Yagya is done when a king is certain about his supremacy over other rulers. In this Yagya a horse is released from the king to go around all kingdoms. If somebody has accepted the sovereignty, he agrees to pay tax, or if he challenges he will catch the horse and fight. After the horse has successfully come back he is ceremonially killed as a sign of victory. The four famous sovereigns who have performed this Yagya were Raajaa Bharat (not Ram's brother, but Dushyant's son), Sudaas, Yudhishthir and Janamejaya.

Asur Vow
The vow of the Asur was (according to the Burdwan Pandit) never to drink wine. It is more rational to suppose that Karn swears to give up the refined manners and practices of the Aarya and adopt those of the Asur till the consummation of his desire.

Atirathee is he who can fight with 10,000 people together alone.
Mahaarathee is he who can fight with 1,000 people together alone.
Saatyaki was Atirathee or Mahaarathee?

When Brahmaa Jee was meditating to create the world, a sound came out of His heart, and A, U and M (Aum) appeared from that sound. This Aum is the root of all Mantra, Upanishad and Ved. These three letters are three Gun - Sat, Raj and Tam; and are three names - Rig, Yaju, and Saam; and have three meanings - Bhoo, Bhuvah and Swah, and are three situations - conscious, subconscious and unconscious. After this Brahmaa Jee created the alphabet. And with the help of that alphabet He created Ved to tell people about their Dharm. Then He taught Ved to His sons Mareechi etc. When they became expert of them, they taught them to their sons. They found that in the end of Dwaapar Yug people's age, strength and wisdom was deteriorating, then they divided them. Ved Vyaas Jee has contributed a lot in this.

The person who has taken Sanyaas (see Aashram) and lives in the world in the way as if he doesn't live in the world. These type of people normally don't wear clothes, eat whatever they get without making any  efforts for food. They live like they don't belong to this world. They live alone and just pass time till they leave this body.

Bahedaa is a fruit. It is one of the three ingredients of a famous Aayurvedic medicine Triphalaa (Harad - Hareetakee, Bahedaa and Aamalaa - Amalaakee).

Barhishmatee Nagaree
When Varaah Bhagavaan was bringing the Prithvi up from Rasaatal, His furs fell at this place. After that the place was called Barhishmatee Nagaree. The same fur were converted into evergreen Kush and Kaas. When Manu got this Nagaree to live, he worshipped Shree Hari on the Aasan of this Kush and Kaas. The great king Sahastraarjun was also the King of this place.

For without battle, he cannot extend his kingdom and acquire wealth to give away and meet the expenses of sacrifices.

The same is true for Karn also. Karn of Mahaabhaarat, was very brave and certainly have defeated Arjun. That is why Indra had to come to get his Kavach through begging. There was no other way to secure Arjun's victory over Karn.

Beyond Tri-Lok
Beyond Tr-Lok (Bhoo Lok, Swarg Lok, Paataal Lok) are four Lok - from Mahar Lok, Tapah Lok, Janah Lok to Brahm Lok (Satya Lok). In Brahm Lok -
Brahmaa Jee's 1 Day = 1,000 4-Yug Period 
= 1,000 x 4,320,000 (4-Yug years) = 4,320 million Human Years
Brahmaa Jee's 1 Night = 1,000 4-Yug Period (Brahmaa Jee sleeps in this period)
Brahmaa Jee's one day and night = 2,000 4-Yug period = 8,640 million human years

Bhaar means weight and it is a type of measure to weigh dry things:-----
4 Vreehi (raw rice with husk, Dhaan, = 1 Gunjaa
5 Gunjaa = 1 Pan
8 Pan = 1 Dharan
8 Dharan = 1 Karash
4 Karsh = 1 Pal
100 Pal = 1 Tulaa
20 Tulaa = 1 Bhaar
[Bhaagvat Puraan, 10/u6]

Bhakti and Moh
Bhakti is the name of being separated from self, and Moh (intense love) is the name of collecting everything inside oneself or tied oneself to something worldly. Dhritraashtra is tied with Putra-Moh (love of son), Bheeshm is tied with Pitra-Bhakti and Sudeshnaa (Viraat's wife) is tied in brother's (Keechak) Moh.

Bhavishya Vaanee
Divine voice. In olden days when Bhagavaan or Devtaa wanted to say something or warn to a person or people they used to make a kind of announcement from the sky. They were not seen to anybody. The person or the people used to regard it as a prediction or order. This is what happened in Dushyant's case, in Krishn's birth case.

Celibacy. Not getting married, not having sexual relationship with anybody. Sanakaadi Muni, Hanumaan (Makaradhwaj is his son), Naarad, Bheeshm, Ved Vyaas' son Shuk Dev Jee, Dadheechi (Saaraswat Muni is his son) all are Baal Brahmchaaree.

Brahmcharya   see also   Aashram
Abstinence. One of the four Aashram - Brahmcharya, Grihasth, Vaanprasth, Sanyaas. In this Aashram a person gets his education and prepares himself as a Grihasth for the world.

Chakra Vyooh
Chakra means circle and Vyooh means style of arranging something complex. In warfare tactics, Chakra Vyooh was the most difficult system of arrangement of the army. How to enter it and how to come out of it - only three people knew it - Krishn, Arjun and Drone. Drone was Kaurav's side so Drone used this to trap Yudhishthir with the idea that if Yudhishthir was arrested, the King of Indra Prasth will be defeated. But if Krishn and Arjun were there it was not possible, so for the same reason he managed to keep Arjun away from the battlefield on that day. Nobody knew that Abhimanyu knew entering it and not coming out of it. This was just bad luck of Abhimanyu that he got trapped instead of Yudhishthir. Only three people knew its tactics - Krishn, Arjun, and Pradyumn. Abhimanyu knew only entering, not to come out.

Chakravartee Raajaa
Chakravartee Raajaa means Ek-Chhatra Raajaa, means the sole king of the whole Prithvi. In loose sense this word is used when one controls most of the part of the Earth. There have been many Chakravatee Raajaa in the history of Bhaarat.

Chhaayaa Shuk
Shuk Dev Jee was A-sang, but when he went to forest he created a Chhaayaa-Shuk (Chhaayaa = shadow, Shuk = Shuk Dev; means shadow of himself) and left it at home. So that Chhaayaa Shuk performed all family rites. Chhaayaa Shuk had a daughter Kritwee who was married to Neep and had a son from him named Brahmdatt.
[Bhaagvat Puraan, 9/12]

Chaturanginee Army
Chatu means four and Ranginee means color; so in a Chaturanginee army there were four kinds o soldiers - horse riders, elephant riders, chariot riders, and foot soldiers. Whoever King had Chaturanginee army, he was supposed to be a rich king.

An ancient linear unit to measure the length, based on the length of the forearm, from elbow to the tip of the middle finger, usually from 17 to 21 in. (43 to 53 cm).

Daashraaj's Daughter Satyavatee
This girl was born of Uparichar Vasu and a fish, but since she was brought up by Daash people (Kevat=who rows boats) that is why she was called Daash-Kanyaa. First she smelled like a fish, but after meeting Parashar she started smelling very sweet and her smell spread miles together. Shaantanu came to her after that smell only.

While revolving around the Sun, the Sun is towards north of Equator during the period of January 23 to June 23 for six months; while he is in south of Equator during the period of September 23 to December 23.  When the Sun is in the north of the Equator it is called Uttaraayan (towards north) which is Devtaa's day; and when he is towards the south of the equator, it is called Dakshinaayan (towards south) which is Devtaa's night. It is believed in Hindu Religion that dying in Dakshinaayan is not good. That is why, although Bheeshm fell in Dakshinaayan, because he had the Var of Ichchhaa Mrityu, he could retain his soul till the Sun's position was Uttaraayan.

Darshan means to know something fully well. Darshan is not only seeing an idol. When we go to temple and we do Darshan, we not only see the idol but also try to understand the person whose idol we have gone to see, hidden in that idol.

At the time of Draupadee's Swayamvar, one candidate for her was Duryodhan also. But he couldn't even move the bow by which the eye of the fish was to be pierced, and Arjun took her. Since then he was attracted to Draupadee.
[Bhaagvat Puraan 10/u17]

Durvaasaa's Shaap
This story is in Vishnu Puraan, 1/2. Once Durvaasaa Rishi was coming back from Vaikunth. On the way he met Raajaa Indra riding on his Airaavat. Considering him the Swaamee of Tri-Lok he offered him a Maalaa (garland) as Bhagavaan's Prasaad, but Indra did not respect it and threw it on the head of Airaavat. Airaavat took it off his head and crushed it under his feet. Seeing the insult of Hari's Prasaad Durvaasaa Rishi gave Shaap to Indra that "Soon you become poor along with losing Tri-Lok."

Dwait Vaad
The follower of this line believe in two forms of Eeshwar - Paramaatmaa and Aatmaa.

It means that whatever rules are written in our Shaastra, they are there only to control our natural and animal instincts and nature, so that we control them and by doing so we can lead our lives according to Shaastra and do good to us.
[Bhaagvat Puraan, 11/18]

For example, a pot becomes clean by washing from water, and unclean by touching with mouth. If you have doubt in cleanliness or uncleanliness of anything, it becomes clean with Braahman's speech or remains unclean without it. Flowers are considered clean by sprinkling water on them and unclean by smelling them through nose. Whatever grains are cooked at the same time when they are to be eaten are considered pure and clean and kept food for some time, maybe overnight, is considered unclean. Water of large ponds and rivers is considered clean and of small ponds and rivers or streams is considered unclean.
[Bhaagvat Puraan, 11/18]

Four Kinds of Arms
The science of arms (Dhanurved) classes arms under four heads - Mukt, Amukt, Muktmukt and Yantramukt. A Mukt weapon is one that which is hurled from the hand - as a Chakra (disc). An Amukt weapon is hurled not from the hand - it is used as a sword. A Muktmukt weapon is that which is sometimes is hurled and sometimes is not hurled - as a Gadaa (mace). A Yantramukt weapon is shot from a machine as an arrow or a ball. All Mukt weapons are called Astra, and all Amukt weapons are called Shastra.
[Taken from Mahabharata Footnotes p m05181.htm]

Gauree Poojan
In India it is a tradition that a girl asks the blessings of Paarvatee Jee for her everlasting Suhaag (that her husband should live more than her age) before her actual marriage ceremony. It is common in some or the other way in almost all communities of India. This is called Gauree Poojan. Seetaa's Gauree Poojan is mentioned in Maanas; Subhadraa was abducted by Arjun while she went for Gauree Poojan. Rukminee was also abducted after her Gauree Poojan.

Ghadee    see     Time

It is Tamil word for circumambulation of a hill. Giri means hill, and Valam means to go round, so Girivalam means to go round a hill.

A Braahman who is conversant with Ved, himself is God. A Shoodra though incompetent to read Ved and utter Ved Mantra has Prajaapati for his God whom he can worship with rites other than those that are laid down in Ved. Braahman have Agni for their God and Kshatriya have Indra for their God.

Many Gopee were Bhagavaan's Siddhi. But there were many Gopee who were Dev girls, Shruti, Tapaswee, Rishi and other devotees. Their stories can be found in various Puraan. Shruti Roop Gopee who always describe Paramaatmaa as "Neti, Neti" (not like this, not like that), but still cannot get Him, then they worship Bhagvaan with Gopee and then take the form of Gopee and get Him as their lovers. Main Shruti are Udgeetaa, Sugeetaa, Kalgeetaa, Kalkanthikaa, Vipanchee etc. Siddh, Rishi who got attracted to Raam, but could not get married Him because of His one-wife Vrat, got the Var of being Gopee, so they were born as Gopee in Brij. Besides, Gopee from Mithilaa, Koshal, Ayodhyaa; Pulind Gopee, Ramaa vaikunth, Shwet Dweep Gopee and Jaalandharee Gopee etc were several groups of Gopee who did a very difficult Tapasyaa and then became Gopee. Many of such Rishi are described in Paataal Khand of Padm Puraan. They did a lot of Tapasyaa and after several Kalp they were born as Gopee.

In olden days education was given in Gurukul in India. Here Guru used to live and educate his Shishya (disciples). In those days Guru was also used to be very respectable and an identifier of the quality of education. People used to take the name of their Guru with very pride. Children used to go there after their Yagyopaveet Sanskaar - between 5-11 years of age normally and stayed there only up to the time their education was finished. Then they gave Guru Dakshinaa to their Guru and came to their parents and marry to enter Grihasth Aashram. This period was called Brahmcharya Aashram.
[Bhaagvat Puraan, 11/14]

Wife of a cow-herd.

Hal and Moosal
Hal means plough, and Moosal is the pestle [in this case it was a big pestle]. Balaraam Jee had only these two weapons. Wherever he is depicted in picture, shown with things.

Swan. It is said that if you give a Hans milk mixed with water, it has the power of separating milk out from that mixture and it drinks only milk and leaves the water.

Hari means who takes away all the distresses of the surrendered souls

Heaven and Paradise
These two words look like same in meaning, but there is difference between them. Heaven is peaceful, everything stops at that place [rests in peace]. While Heaven seeks prosperity and growth. Who live in Heaven are always fearful and run after the prosperity. Indra and other Devtaa live in Heaven that is why they are always worried about their lives, kingdom, riches etc; while Parameshwar lives in Vaikunth which is Paradise where everything comes to stop and nothing is desirable.

Sanyam (control of Indriyaan) is the homogeneity. This is the state before creation, when there exists nothing except a homogenous mass or Brahm alone.

Ichchhaa Mrityu
Means "death at will". This Var was given to Bheeshm Pitaamah by his father. It meant that when he wanted then only he could die. The death wouldn't come to him without his will.

Immobile Creatures
There are five species of immobile - (1) trees (like banyan, Peepal); (2) shrubs (growing from a clamp underneath); (3) creepers (plants that grow on the soil but need some support to twine around); (4) Vallee (plants that creep on earth and live for a year only (such as gourds, pumpkin etc); and (5) Trin (such as grass, and all plants that are stemless having only their barks and leaves).

Intentions ad Alternatives
Intention means to think about future, or to take up some project, and alternative means in exchange of. Thus one should leave both the things - neither he should think about future, nor he should think about alternatives, he should think about only Bhagavaan.

Jaraasandh was killed by Bheem. Jaraasandh was very powerful. It was not easy to defeat him. So Shree Krishn planned thus that He went o him with Arjun and Bheem and asked him to choose anybody for a dual fight. He considered Krishn as a boy, because he was very handsome, Arjun was not of large frame so he considered him not worthy for himself, the only option was Bheem. But Bheem was only equally as powerful as him. That is why he could not defeat him. Then Krishn made a sign to him to divide him in two pieces and throw them in opposite direction - right piece in left direction and left piece in right direction. That is what Bheem did and only thus he was able to kill him. Killing him was necessary because he had collected 88 human beings to sacrifice in a Yagya (he needed 100). So he needed only 12 people to complete his Yagya and as soon as he got them, by doing that Yagya he could have got tremendous powers, so it was necessary to stop him. After killing him Krishn released all the prisoners and declared his son Sahadev as king.

Jaraasandh was a good friend of Kans (Raajaa Ugrasen's son, Devakee's brother). To make their relationship stronger he married his two daughters, Asti and Praapti, to Kans.

Later when Krishn killed Kans, and they became widow, Jaraasandh got very angry with Krishn Jee, so he attacked Him 18 times with his 23 Akshauhinee army each time. Krishn killed his army 17 times, but the 18th time He ran Himself and inhabited Dwaarakaa Puree for Mathuraa's people's safety.

Jayamaalaa    see    Varmaalaa

Five Kaamdhenu cows appeared from Saagar Manthan, One of them named Susheelaa was with Jamadagni Rishi.

"ka" is the name of Brahmaa Jee and since this body was divided from his, this body is called "Kaayaa" (Shareer, body)

Kalp   see   Time

Kans' Wives
Jaraasandh was a very good friend of Kans. So when Kans wanted the kingdom of Mathuraa from Ugrasen, he thought to strengthen himself and to marry Jaraasandh's daughters was a way to strengthen himself, because at that time Jaraasandh was the only mightiest king. That is why Kans married Jaraasandh's two daughters, Asti and Praapti, to make his kingdom strong. Thus Jaraasandh was his father-in-law as well as his an elderly good friend.

Karm or Dharm is those Karm which are prescribed by Ved or Shaastra according to one's Varn and Aashram. A-Karm are those Karm which are prohibited by the Ved or Shaastra and Vi-Karm are those Karm which are of other Varn and Aashram. Both must be avoied.
[Bhaagvat Puraan, 11/7]

Kaushikee River
Raajaa Gadhi had a daughter named Satyavatee who was married to Rishi Richeek. After giving birth to Maharshi Jamadagni she converted into Kaushikee River to make Tri-Lok holy.

King's Six Qualities
The six acts of a king are peace, war, marching, halting, sowing dissention, and seeking protection. In MBH, G-4-Van/49 Jayadrath boasts for these qualities.

Kos    see   Distance

It was called Kurukshetra because Kuru, the common ancestor of Kaurav and Paandav, did Tap here; and since then many ascetics have lived there.

Maanas Putra
Son born from will power. Or in another words "clone-like", or brainchild. This power was with Brahmaa Jee and his sons only. They produced some children like this but later on others were born by sexual method.

Mahaarathee is that warrior

Om namo bhagavate mahaapurushaaya sarv gun sankhyaanaayaantaaya avyaktaaya nam iti 
[one can transliterate in Hindi then read it for easier reading]

Twam Devyaa Div Rraahane Rasaayaah Sthaan Michchhtaa
Uddhritaasi Namastubhyam Paapmaanam mey Pranaashaaya

Manvantar   see   Time

Mathuraa (UP) is one of the many holy places in India. It was inhabited by Shatrughn in Tretaa Yug. [Bhaagvat Puraan, 9/10] Mathuraa's previous name was Maduraa, because it was inhabited by a Raakshas named Maduraa. Later its name became Mathuraa. And before Maduraa, that place was called Madhuban. Naarad Jee sent Dhruv to Madhuban for Tapasyaa. Naabhaag's son Ambareesh also took bath in Yamunaa River and worshipped Bhagavaan in Madhuban during his Ekaadashee Vrat.  Krishn was born in Mathuraa, but He was taken to Nand Baabaa's house at Gokul, across the Yamunaa River, for His protection from Kans. He passed His childhood there.

Moh means intense love, or an intense desire not to part from a certain thing, or to desire for a thing which is inaccessible to a person.



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Created by Sushma Gupta On 5/27/04
Modified on 10/24/13