Glossary - A-M
These are 5 Tanmaatra, 5 Mahaa Bhoot, 5 Gyaan Indriyaan, 5 Karm
Indriyaan and their 5 Devtaa for both types of Indriya. These six groups are
indicated here as 5-Element classes.
Aachman is to wash mouth from inside. It is an integral part of Poojaa
to clean mouth as a part of Shauch (cleanliness). In this process one
just drinks some water (2-3 tablespoons). It is done after taking the
food too to clean mouth. In this process enough water is taken into
mouth, rolled inside the mouth and thrown away as dirty water. Two or
three times are enough to do this.
Aahuti is a kind of offering normally used in Yagya, it can be of
anything from Ghee (clarified butter) through fruit, dry fruits, grains
to any dry material. Sometimes this word is used for sacrificing
something also, such as "Gandhi gave the Aahuti of his life to bring the
independence to India".
Aakaashvaanee is said to be the Divine announcement about anything -
bad, good, future event, or guidance, just anything. In this one does
not see anybody speaking, just he hears.
Intense love. Intense attachment. Caring for somebody or something all
the tme. Krishn in Geetaa has delivered the message of doing Karm
(actions) without Aasakti (with detachment), then only one can attain
Aashram of Nar Naaraayan
Why Naarad Jee went to the Aashram of Nar-Naaraayan? Giving Shaap or
Var decreases the result of Tapasyaa, so maybe Naarad Jee thought after
giving this Shaap, I should restore my Tap OR maybe He wanted to tell
His action to Nar-Naaraayan.
Aastik see also Naastik
There are six types of Aatataayee: (1) who sets fire, (2) who gives
poison, (3) who takes up weapon with bad intentions, (4) who robs
wealth, (5) who takes somebody's farms, (6) who takes other's wife; all
are called Aatataayee and there is no sin to kill any of them.
Abhimantrit means to make something holy, or workable by using Mantra.
In this process a thing is given a super power to do a certain task by
taking water in hand and reading Mantra; or by reading only Mantra. Most
special weapons are used like this - by taking an ordinary arrow,
reading Mantra over it and given special power to it. In this way water
can also be Abhimantrit to cure a disease. In Hinduism normally all
alms, Baayanaa, Shaap etc. are Abhimantrit first. In the process of alms
and Baayanaa the things are kept aside and a little water, sometimes
with some money, is kept in right hand and the thing is circled with
that water three times. Then the thing becomes Abhimantrit and it cannot
be used by anybody else than the person or purpose for whom and which it
has been kept aside. For example, Baayanaa is given to some higher
status person (these status are defined), and alms are given to Braahman
or baggers or Dakaut (who accept alms for Shani). In the case of Shaap,
people used to take water in their right hand and utter some Mantra to
give Shaap and sprinkle that water on the person to whom they wanted to
When an idol is offered Jal or milk, it is called Abhishek. In Shiv
Jee's case, normally the milk is offered by pouring it on the Shiv Ling.
In other cases where idols are wearing clothes, Jal is sprinkled only
with the thumb and third finger only. Giving the idol a bath is
different than Abhishek. Abhishek is under the Poojaa process after
giving the idol bath and putting on clothes.
Apsaraa are nymphs. Some sources say that they came out from the sea
at the time of Saagar Manthan, some say they were the daughters of
Kashyap Jee and his wife Muni. They are beautiful, live in worlds above
Prithvi, entertain Devtaa and sometimes work according to the orders of
Indra. The main Apsaraa mentioned in scriptures are - Urvashee, Menakaa,
Pujikaasthalee, Vishwaachee, Pramlochaa etc.
Living in the society without being recognized. Incognito.
According to this ordinance, Dakshinaa should be a 100,000 animals, such
as cows or horses. In the case of this particular Shoodra, that
ordinance (without its Mantra) was followed, and a 100,000 Poorn-Paatra
were substituted for cows or horses of that number.
An army has four wings - Charioteers, elephant riders, infantry (who walk on
foot) and cavalry (who fight on horses). One Akshauhinee army contains 21,870
Rath (chariots), 21,870 elephants, 109,350 infantry (soldiers on foot), and
65,600 cavalry (horse riders). This makes up one Akshauhinee army - a total
of 218,690 heads. [from Mahaabhaarat] Paandav had 7 Akshauhinee army and
Kaurav had 11 Akshauhinee army. Kaurav's army included Shree Krishn's one
Akshauhinee Naaraayanee army also. (see also Senaa)
Ansh Means "part". Ansh Avataar means Bhagvaan's that incarnation who has
not appeared with His full powers, but only with partial powers. Normally
the Full Avataar is supposed to have 16 Kalaa (powers). Only Krishn Jee
is said be Poorn (complete) Avataar, means He came with all His 16 Kalaa
while other Avataar were only Ansh Avataar. They came with specific
purpose and went after completing that purpose.
As a Criminal
Krishn was standing in front of Yashodaa as if he has committed a
[Bhaagvat Puraan, 10/p4]
As Wood Burns in Fire
Natural power of anything does not wait for other's devotion, such as
fire or Amrit. Fire's nature is burning others, Amrit's nature is to make
a living being immortal. They do not wait for the intention of others.
His name does not only wash one's sins but also is the way to get Moksh.
Ashwamedh Yagya is done when a king is certain about his supremacy over
other rulers. In this Yagya a horse is released from the king to go
around all kingdoms. If somebody has accepted the sovereignty, he agrees
to pay tax, or if he challenges he will catch the horse and fight. After
the horse has successfully come back he is ceremonially killed as a sign
of victory. The four famous sovereigns who have performed this Yagya were
Raajaa Bharat (not Ram's brother, but Dushyant's son), Sudaas,
Yudhishthir and Janamejaya.
The vow of the Asur was (according to the Burdwan Pandit) never to drink
wine. It is more rational to suppose that Karn swears to give up the
refined manners and practices of the Aarya and adopt those of the Asur
till the consummation of his desire.
Atirathee is he who can fight with 10,000 people together alone.
Mahaarathee is he who can fight with 1,000 people together alone.
Saatyaki was Atirathee or Mahaarathee?
AUM or OM
When Brahmaa Jee was meditating to create the world, a sound came out of
His heart, and A, U and M (Aum) appeared from that sound. This Aum is the
root of all Mantra, Upanishad and Ved. These three letters are three Gun
- Sat, Raj and Tam; and are three names - Rig, Yaju, and Saam; and have
three meanings - Bhoo, Bhuvah and Swah, and are three situations -
conscious, subconscious and unconscious. After this Brahmaa Jee created
the alphabet. And with the help of that alphabet He created Ved to tell
people about their Dharm. Then He taught Ved to His sons Mareechi etc.
When they became expert of them, they taught them to their sons. They
found that in the end of Dwaapar Yug people's age, strength and wisdom
was deteriorating, then they divided them.
Ved Vyaas Jee has contributed a lot in this.
The person who has taken Sanyaas (see
Aashram) and lives in the world in the way as if he doesn't live in the world. These type
of people normally don't wear clothes, eat whatever they get without making any efforts for
food. They live like they don't belong to this world. They live alone and just pass time till they
leave this body.
Bahedaa is a fruit. It is one of the three ingredients of a famous Aayurvedic
medicine Triphalaa (Harad - Hareetakee, Bahedaa and Aamalaa - Amalaakee).
When Varaah Bhagavaan was bringing the Prithvi up from Rasaatal, His furs
fell at this place. After that the place was called Barhishmatee Nagaree.
The same fur were converted into evergreen Kush and Kaas. When Manu got
this Nagaree to live, he worshipped Shree Hari on the Aasan of this Kush
and Kaas. The great king Sahastraarjun was also the King of this place.
For without battle, he cannot extend his kingdom and acquire wealth to
give away and meet the expenses of sacrifices.
The same is true for Karn also. Karn of Mahaabhaarat, was very brave and
certainly have defeated Arjun. That is why Indra had to come to get his
Kavach through begging. There was no other way to secure Arjun's victory
Beyond Tr-Lok (Bhoo Lok, Swarg Lok, Paataal Lok) are four Lok - from
Mahar Lok, Tapah Lok, Janah Lok to Brahm Lok (Satya Lok). In Brahm Lok -
Brahmaa Jee's 1 Day = 1,000 4-Yug Period
= 1,000 x 4,320,000 (4-Yug years) = 4,320 million Human Years
Brahmaa Jee's 1 Night = 1,000 4-Yug Period (Brahmaa Jee sleeps in this
Brahmaa Jee's one day and night = 2,000 4-Yug period = 8,640 million
Bhaar means weight and it is a type of measure to weigh dry things:-----
4 Vreehi (raw rice with husk, Dhaan, = 1 Gunjaa
5 Gunjaa = 1 Pan
8 Pan = 1 Dharan
8 Dharan = 1 Karash
4 Karsh = 1 Pal
100 Pal = 1 Tulaa
20 Tulaa = 1 Bhaar
Bhakti and Moh
Bhakti is the name of being separated from self, and Moh (intense love)
is the name of collecting everything inside oneself or tied oneself to
something worldly. Dhritraashtra is tied with Putra-Moh (love of son),
Bheeshm is tied with Pitra-Bhakti and Sudeshnaa (Viraat's wife) is tied
in brother's (Keechak) Moh.
Divine voice. In olden days when Bhagavaan or Devtaa wanted to say
something or warn to a person or people they used to make a kind of
announcement from the sky. They were not seen to anybody. The person or
the people used to regard it as a prediction or order. This is what
happened in Dushyant's case, in Krishn's birth case.
Celibacy. Not getting married, not having sexual relationship with anybody.
Sanakaadi Muni, Hanumaan (Makaradhwaj is his son), Naarad, Bheeshm, Ved Vyaas' son Shuk Dev Jee,
(Saaraswat Muni is his son) all are Baal Brahmchaaree.
Brahmcharya see also
Abstinence. One of the four Aashram - Brahmcharya, Grihasth, Vaanprasth,
Sanyaas. In this Aashram a person gets his education and prepares
himself as a Grihasth for the world.
Chakra means circle and Vyooh means style of arranging something
complex. In warfare tactics, Chakra Vyooh was the most difficult system
of arrangement of the army. How to enter it and how to come out of it -
only three people knew it - Krishn, Arjun and Drone. Drone was Kaurav's
side so Drone used this to trap Yudhishthir with the idea that if
Yudhishthir was arrested, the King of Indra Prasth will be defeated. But
if Krishn and Arjun were there it was not possible, so for the same
reason he managed to keep Arjun away from the battlefield on that day.
Nobody knew that Abhimanyu knew entering it and not coming out of it.
This was just bad luck of Abhimanyu that he got trapped instead of
Yudhishthir. Only three people knew its tactics - Krishn, Arjun, and
Pradyumn. Abhimanyu knew only entering, not to come out.
Chakravartee Raajaa means Ek-Chhatra Raajaa, means the sole king of the whole Prithvi.
In loose sense this word is used when one controls most of the part of
the Earth. There have been many Chakravatee Raajaa in the history of
Shuk Dev Jee was A-sang, but when he went to forest he created a
Chhaayaa-Shuk (Chhaayaa = shadow, Shuk = Shuk Dev; means shadow of
himself) and left it at home. So that Chhaayaa Shuk performed all family
rites. Chhaayaa Shuk had a daughter Kritwee who was married to Neep
and had a son from him named Brahmdatt.
Chatu means four and Ranginee means color; so in a Chaturanginee
army there were four kinds o soldiers - horse riders, elephant riders,
chariot riders, and foot soldiers. Whoever King had Chaturanginee army,
he was supposed to be a rich king.
An ancient linear unit to measure the length, based on the length of
the forearm, from elbow to the tip of the middle finger, usually from 17
to 21 in. (43 to 53 cm).
Daashraaj's Daughter Satyavatee
This girl was born of Uparichar Vasu and a fish, but since she was
brought up by Daash people (Kevat=who rows boats) that is why she was
called Daash-Kanyaa. First she smelled like a fish, but after meeting
Parashar she started smelling very sweet and her smell spread miles
together. Shaantanu came to her after that smell only.
While revolving around the Sun, the Sun is towards north of Equator
during the period of January 23 to June 23 for six months; while he is
in south of Equator during the period of September 23 to December 23.
When the Sun is in the north of the Equator it is called Uttaraayan
(towards north) which is Devtaa's day; and when he is towards the south of the equator, it is
called Dakshinaayan (towards south) which is Devtaa's night. It is believed in Hindu Religion
that dying in Dakshinaayan is not good. That is why, although Bheeshm
fell in Dakshinaayan, because he had the Var of Ichchhaa Mrityu,
he could retain his soul till the Sun's position was Uttaraayan.
Darshan means to know something fully well. Darshan is not only seeing
an idol. When we go to temple and we do Darshan, we not only see the
idol but also try to understand the person whose idol we have gone to
see, hidden in that idol.
At the time of Draupadee's Swayamvar, one candidate for her was Duryodhan also. But he couldn't
even move the bow by which the eye of the fish was to be pierced, and Arjun took her.
Since then he was attracted to Draupadee.
This story is in
Vishnu Puraan, 1/2. Once Durvaasaa Rishi was coming back from Vaikunth. On
the way he met Raajaa Indra riding on his Airaavat. Considering him the Swaamee of
Tri-Lok he offered him a Maalaa (garland) as Bhagavaan's Prasaad, but Indra did not
respect it and threw it on the head of Airaavat. Airaavat took it off his head and
crushed it under his feet. Seeing the insult of Hari's Prasaad Durvaasaa Rishi gave
Shaap to Indra that "Soon you become poor along with losing Tri-Lok."
The follower of this line believe in two forms of Eeshwar - Paramaatmaa
It means that whatever rules are written in our Shaastra, they are there
only to control our natural and animal instincts and nature, so that we
control them and by doing so we can lead our lives according to Shaastra
and do good to us.
For example, a pot becomes clean by washing from water, and unclean by
touching with mouth. If you have doubt in cleanliness or uncleanliness
of anything, it becomes clean with Braahman's speech or remains unclean
without it. Flowers are considered clean by sprinkling water on them and
unclean by smelling them through nose. Whatever grains are cooked at the
same time when they are to be eaten are considered pure and clean and
kept food for some time, maybe overnight, is considered unclean. Water
of large ponds and rivers is considered clean and of small ponds and
rivers or streams is considered unclean.
Four Kinds of Arms
The science of arms (Dhanurved) classes arms under four heads - Mukt,
Amukt, Muktmukt and Yantramukt. A Mukt weapon is one that which is
hurled from the hand - as a Chakra (disc). An Amukt weapon is hurled not
from the hand - it is used as a sword. A Muktmukt weapon is that which
is sometimes is hurled and sometimes is not hurled - as a Gadaa (mace).
A Yantramukt weapon is shot from a machine as an arrow or a ball. All
Mukt weapons are called Astra, and all Amukt weapons are called Shastra.
[Taken from Mahabharata
Footnotes p m05181.htm]
In India it is a tradition that a girl asks the blessings of
Paarvatee Jee for her everlasting Suhaag (that her husband should live
more than her age) before her actual marriage ceremony. It is common in
some or the other way in almost all communities of India. This is called Gauree
Poojan. Seetaa's Gauree
Poojan is mentioned in Maanas; Subhadraa was abducted by
while she went for Gauree Poojan. Rukminee was also abducted after her Gauree Poojan.
It is Tamil word for circumambulation of a hill. Giri means hill, and
Valam means to go round, so Girivalam means to go round a hill.
A Braahman who is conversant with Ved, himself is God. A Shoodra
though incompetent to read Ved and utter Ved Mantra has Prajaapati for
his God whom he can worship with rites other than those that are laid
down in Ved. Braahman have Agni for their God and Kshatriya have Indra for their God.
Many Gopee were Bhagavaan's Siddhi. But there were many Gopee who were
Dev girls, Shruti, Tapaswee, Rishi and other devotees. Their stories can
be found in various Puraan. Shruti Roop Gopee who always describe
Paramaatmaa as "Neti, Neti" (not like this, not like that), but still
cannot get Him, then they worship Bhagvaan with Gopee and then take the
form of Gopee and get Him as their lovers. Main Shruti are Udgeetaa,
Sugeetaa, Kalgeetaa, Kalkanthikaa, Vipanchee etc. Siddh, Rishi who got
attracted to Raam, but could not get married Him because of His one-wife
Vrat, got the Var of being Gopee, so they were born as Gopee in Brij.
Besides, Gopee from Mithilaa, Koshal, Ayodhyaa; Pulind Gopee, Ramaa
vaikunth, Shwet Dweep Gopee and Jaalandharee Gopee etc were several
groups of Gopee who did a very difficult Tapasyaa and then became Gopee.
Many of such Rishi are described in Paataal Khand of Padm Puraan. They
did a lot of Tapasyaa and after several Kalp they were born as Gopee.
In olden days education was given in Gurukul in India. Here Guru used to live
and educate his Shishya (disciples). In those days Guru was also used to be very
respectable and an identifier of the quality of education. People used to take
the name of their Guru with very pride. Children used to go there after their
Yagyopaveet Sanskaar -
between 5-11 years of age normally and stayed there only up to the time their
education was finished. Then they gave
Guru Dakshinaa to their Guru and came to their parents and marry to enter
Grihasth Aashram. This period
was called Brahmcharya Aashram.
Wife of a cow-herd.
Hal and Moosal
Hal means plough, and Moosal is the pestle [in this case it was a big pestle]. Balaraam
Jee had only these two weapons. Wherever he is depicted in picture, shown with things.
Swan. It is said that if you give a Hans milk mixed with water, it has
the power of separating milk out from that mixture and it drinks only
milk and leaves the water.
Hari means who takes away all the distresses of the surrendered souls
Heaven and Paradise
These two words look like same in meaning, but there is difference
between them. Heaven is peaceful, everything stops at that place [rests
in peace]. While Heaven seeks prosperity and growth. Who live in Heaven
are always fearful and run after the prosperity. Indra and other Devtaa
live in Heaven that is why they are always worried about their lives,
kingdom, riches etc; while Parameshwar lives in Vaikunth which is
Paradise where everything comes to stop and nothing is desirable.
Sanyam (control of Indriyaan) is the homogeneity. This is the state
before creation, when there exists nothing except a homogenous mass or Brahm alone.
Means "death at will". This Var was given to
Pitaamah by his father. It meant that when he wanted then only he could
die. The death wouldn't come to him without his will.
Intentions ad Alternatives
There are five species of immobile - (1) trees (like banyan, Peepal);
(2) shrubs (growing from a clamp underneath); (3) creepers (plants that
grow on the soil but need some support to twine around); (4) Vallee
(plants that creep on earth and live for a year only (such as gourds,
pumpkin etc); and (5) Trin (such as grass, and all plants that are
stemless having only their barks and leaves).
Intention means to think about future, or to take up some project, and alternative means
in exchange of. Thus one should leave both the things - neither he should think about future,
nor he should think about alternatives, he should think about only Bhagavaan.
Jaraasandh was killed by Bheem. Jaraasandh was very powerful. It was not easy to
defeat him. So Shree Krishn planned thus that He went o him with Arjun and Bheem
and asked him to choose anybody for a dual fight. He considered Krishn as a boy,
because he was very handsome, Arjun was not of large frame so he considered him
not worthy for himself, the only option was Bheem. But Bheem was only equally as
powerful as him. That is why he could not defeat him. Then Krishn made a sign to
him to divide him in two pieces and throw them in opposite direction - right
piece in left direction and left piece in right direction. That is what Bheem
did and only thus he was able to kill him. Killing him was necessary because he
had collected 88 human beings to sacrifice in a Yagya (he needed 100). So he
needed only 12 people to complete his Yagya and as soon as he got them, by doing
that Yagya he could have got tremendous powers, so it was necessary to stop him.
After killing him Krishn released all the prisoners and declared his son Sahadev
Jaraasandh was a good friend of Kans (Raajaa
Ugrasen's son, Devakee's brother). To make their relationship stronger he
married his two daughters, Asti and Praapti, to Kans.
Later when Krishn killed Kans, and they became
widow, Jaraasandh got very angry with Krishn Jee, so he attacked Him 18 times
with his 23 Akshauhinee army each time. Krishn killed his army 17 times, but the
18th time He ran Himself and inhabited Dwaarakaa Puree for Mathuraa's people's
Five Kaamdhenu cows appeared from Saagar Manthan, One of them named
Susheelaa was with
"ka" is the name of Brahmaa Jee and since this body was divided from his,
this body is called "Kaayaa" (Shareer, body)
Jaraasandh was a very good friend of Kans. So when Kans wanted the
kingdom of Mathuraa from Ugrasen, he thought to strengthen himself and to
marry Jaraasandh's daughters was a way to strengthen himself, because at
that time Jaraasandh was the only mightiest king. That is why Kans
married Jaraasandh's two daughters, Asti and Praapti, to make his kingdom
strong. Thus Jaraasandh was his father-in-law as well as his an elderly
Karm or Dharm is those Karm which are prescribed by Ved or Shaastra according to one's Varn
and Aashram. A-Karm are those Karm which are prohibited by the Ved or Shaastra and Vi-Karm
are those Karm which are of other Varn and Aashram. Both must be avoied.
Raajaa Gadhi had a daughter named
Satyavatee who was
married to Rishi Richeek.
After giving birth to Maharshi Jamadagni she converted into Kaushikee
River to make Tri-Lok holy.
King's Six Qualities
The six acts of a king are peace, war, marching, halting, sowing
dissention, and seeking protection. In
G-4-Van/49 Jayadrath boasts for these qualities.
It was called Kurukshetra because Kuru, the common ancestor of Kaurav and Paandav,
did Tap here; and since then many ascetics have lived there.
Son born from will power. Or in another words "clone-like", or
brainchild. This power was with Brahmaa Jee and his sons only. They
produced some children like this but later on others were born by sexual
Mahaarathee is that warrior
Om namo bhagavate mahaapurushaaya sarv gun sankhyaanaayaantaaya
avyaktaaya nam iti
[one can transliterate in Hindi then read it for easier reading]
Twam Devyaa Div Rraahane Rasaayaah Sthaan Michchhtaa
Uddhritaasi Namastubhyam Paapmaanam mey Pranaashaaya
Mathuraa (UP) is one of the many holy places in India. It was inhabited by
Shatrughn in Tretaa Yug. [Bhaagvat
Puraan, 9/10] Mathuraa's previous name was Maduraa, because it was
inhabited by a Raakshas named Maduraa. Later its name became Mathuraa. And
before Maduraa, that place was called Madhuban. Naarad Jee sent Dhruv to
Madhuban for Tapasyaa. Naabhaag's son Ambareesh also took bath in Yamunaa
River and worshipped Bhagavaan in Madhuban during his Ekaadashee Vrat. Krishn was
born in Mathuraa, but He was taken to Nand Baabaa's house at Gokul, across
the Yamunaa River, for His protection from Kans. He passed His childhood there.
Moh means intense love, or an intense desire not to part from a certain thing, or to
desire for a thing which is inaccessible to a person.