Dictionary Of Hindu Religion | History
27-Indian History-AD-2 Islaam Dharm
India has a continuous civilization since 2500 BC. During the 2nd millennium, Aryan speaking tribes migrated from northwest into the Indian subcontinent. The following material has been taken from "A New History of India", by Stanley Wolpert. 2004.
Islaam means "submission to Allaah". They have five pillars of their faith. In addition to the belief that they have one God and Allaah is His prophet, there are four other obligatory requirements imposed on Muslims - 5 times daily prayers (at daybreak, noon, afternoon, sunset, and nightfall); they must give alms to the poor; they must observe a strict fast during the month of Ramaadaan; lastly, they should attempt the pilgrimage to the Kaabaa in Makkaa, known as Hajj - those who have gone to Hajj can use prefix to their name Haajee. They are strictly forbidden to drink alcohol, eating pork (pig's meat) or any meat from an animal not killed by draining its blood while alive. Meat appropriately prepared is called Halaal. Besides all this they should not charge interest on loans and not play games of chance. Ramaadaan period is their most holy period in their religion. Most Muslims do not eat between sunrise and sunset and food and drinks are not publicly available in Muslim states.
They believe that "There is no God but God"; One book, the Quraan; bodily resurrection after death; and in the reality of Heaven and Hell. The idea of Heaven as Paradise, is pre-Islaamic. Alexander the Great is believed to have brought the word into Greek from Persia where he used it to describe the walled Persian gardens (found there during 300 BC).
Islaam has no
priesthood The authority of Imaams derive from social custom and from
their authority to interpret scriptures. It prohibits discrimination on
the basis of race or color. It is inaccurately thought that this is from
Quraan but it is not so.
The first day of Muslim year is July 16, 622 AD. This was the date of Muhammad's migration from Makkaa to Madeenaa, the Hijra, from which the date's name is taken - Hijree year. Their year is divided in 12 Lunar months, consisting of 354 days (11 days short than the Solar year) that is why their festivals fall 11 days earlier each year, such as in Gregorian Calendar
1st month is Moharram,
India, Paakistaan and Jordan use the traditional method of calculating the start of the 1st day of the month. Each month has 29 or 30 days but with no order. Traditionally the 1st day of each month is beginning at sunset of the first sighting of the Lunar crescent (Hilaal) shortly after sunset. This traditional practice is followed only in these countries. However in most Muslim countries, astronomical rules are followed which allow the calendar to be determined in advance which is not possible by using traditional calendar.
Malaysia and Indonesia and a few others begin each month at sunset on the
1st day that the Moon sets after the sunset (when Moon sets after the sunset).
Their important dates are:--
For a rough calculation, multiply the Islaamik year number 0.97, then add 622 to get the Gregorian Calendar number. An Islaamik year will be entirely within a Gregorian Calendar of the same number in the year 20874. The Islaamik year of 1429 will be entirely within Gregorian Calendar of 2008.
Islaam in India
The victory of the Turkish ruler of Gazanee over the Raajpoots in 1192 AD established a 500 year period of Muslim power in India. By 1200 the Turkish Sultaans had annexed Bihaar in the East, in the process of wiping out Buddhism with the massacre of a Buddhist monastic order. And by 1311 AD a new Turkish Dynasty, the Khilajee Dynasty, had extended the power of Dehlee to the doors of Madurai.
Islaam and Hinduism
Daaraa Shikoh, Shaah Jahaan's eldest son, who died in 1659, even argued that the study of Hindu scriptures was necessary to obtain a complete understanding of the Quraan.
The 16th century Bangaalee poet Sayyad Sultaan wrote an epic in which the main Hindu gods were shown as prophets who preceded Adam, Noah, Abraaham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, and the idea of prophet was matched with the Hindu concept of Avataar.
On the contrary Aurangzeb, the last most known Emperor, was very hostile to Hinddos. This attitude became stronger in the 20th century, related to the growing sense of their minority position, and this fear led to the creation of a separate Muslim country, Paakistaan, in 1947.
Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/06
Updated on 03/15/12