14-Indian History-AD-2 (622-1526 AD)
India has a continuous civilization
since 2500 BC. During the 2nd millennium, Aryan speaking tribes migrated from northwest into
the Indian subcontinent. The following material has been taken from "A New History of India", by
Stanley Wolpert. 2004.
The Impact of Islam (711-1526 AD) - 815 years
Birth of Islaam - 622 AD
Islaam rose in Saudee Arabia in 622.
It certainly changed the course of history of India as Aarya's dispersion did
more than 2000 years ago. It is difficult to imagine two religious ways of life,
more different than Islaam and Hinduism. When Muhammad (570-632) was about 40
years old (c 610), the Prophet started to receive revelations. Then he fled to
North of Makkaa, Madeenaa and after that the city invited him to become its
temporal and spiritual leader in 622, which is regarded as the first year of
Muslim calendar. For the love of Allaah, all Muslim were obliged to give alms
to the poor, to pray five times a day facing Makkaa, to fast over the 9th lunar
month (Ramaadaan), and to make at least one pilgrimage (Haj) to Makkaa. Holy war
was vigorously waged against those who failed peacefully to submit to God's will.
Never before in world history had an idea proved so contagious and politically
Islaam in India - 711 AD
India remained untouched to Islaam's
existence during the first two decades. An Arab commander of the first Islaamic
force to reach India reported from Sindh to his Caliph in 644, that "water
is scarce, the fruits are poor, and the robbers are bold,, if a few troops are
sent they will be slain, if many they will starve." This pessimistic report
postponed Muslim conquest until 711 AD; when an Arab ship launched an expedition
of Syrian horses and Eeraaquee (Iraqi) camels, 6,000 each, against the kings of
Sindh. They either converted people to Islaam or killed them. By the 10th century,
Islaam had changed into an empire embellished by Persian and protected by Turkish
slaves. It soon became too vast, too diverse for any one Caliph to control; so
independent kingdoms emerged under regional rulers rule, who by the 11th century
assumed the title Sultaan.
Mahamood Gaznavee of Gazanee (Afgaanistaan) (b/d 971-1030 AD)
The first independent Turkish
Islamik kingdom was founded by a warrior slave named Alptigin who seized
the Afgaan fortress of Gazanee in 962, and from there he established a
dynasty that continued to about 200 years. It was his grandson Mahamood
Gaznavee (971-1030) who came to India annually to loot it 17 times. Gazanavee
were the first in a series of of Tuko-Afgaan Muslims to invade. Mahamood
Gazanavee of Gazanee began his raids in 997, every winter, and looted its
all kinds of wealth - temple idols, jewels, women etc. Looting Thaaneshwar,
Mathuraa, Kannauj, Raajkot, Somnaath were his targets, and he converted his
Gazanee into one of the world's greatest centers of Islaamik culture by this
loot in the 11th century.
The brilliant physician, astronomer, philosopher and historian al Baroonee (b 973)
and the great Persian poet Firdaus, author of the "Shaah Naamaa" were
two luminaries brought to Gazanee. The court chronicler Utabee claimed that his
Sultaan destroyed 10,000 temples in Kannauj alone. Even if it is an exaggeration,
it is not difficult to estimate the destruction done by him. In 1025, people of
Somnaath just stood calmly watching his army to loot the temple in the hope that
Bhagavaan Shiv himself will do something for their protection. The chronicler has
reported that "50,000 Hindu were slain on that day, and more than 2 million
Deenaar's worth gold and jewels were taken away from the hollow Lingam shattered
by Mahamood's sword. Before his death, Mahamood annexed the Panjaab as
the Easternmost province of his empire. His raids were the first
Slave Dynasty (Daas Vansh) (1175-1290
AD) - 115 years
Muhammad Gauree (1175-1206 AD) and His Slave Qutubuddeen Aibaq in India - 1175-1210
For a century and a half, after the
death of Mahamood, Gazanee itself was seized by Turkish Sultaan Muhammad
(was he Khurd?). Muhammad Gauree and his slave lieutenant Qutubuddeen Aibaq first
raided India in 1175 AD. Destroying the Gazanee's kingship in Peshaavar in 1179,
capturing Lahaur (Lahore) in 1186 and Dehlee (Delhi) in 1193, Muhammad returned
to Gazanee leaving his lieutenant to consolidate India from Dehlee.
The Raajpoot (literally
means "king's son") waged war against them. Although claiming direct descent
from either the Aaryan Soorya or Chandra, all four of of the major Raajpoot dynasties
(Pratihaar, Paramaar, Chauhaan, and Chaalukya) probably originated in Central Asia
themselves. They always stood as the vanguard of India, and even when defeated in battle
or driven from one desert after another, they never completely surrendered.
Buddhism Sent in Exile -
Eastern region (Udeesaa, Bihaar, Bangaal, Aasaam) had prospered under a series of
independent dynasties - first Paal, then the Varman and finally the Sen whose capital
Nadiyaa was conquered by Turko-Afgaan power in 1202. Beginning in
1202 a military commander from the Delhi Sultanat, Bakhtiyaar Khilajee
(he might have been the Commander of Muhammad Gauree), overran Bihaar
and Bangaal as far east as Rangpur, Bogra and the Brahmaputra River.
Although he failed to bring Bangaal under his control, the expedition
managed to defeat Lakshman Sen and his two sons had to move from there.
India's major centers of Buddhism,
including the great university at Naalandaa where more than 10,000 monks lived and
studied, were sacked at this time. Many fled to Nepaal and Tibbat and many were killed
who were not fast enough to flee. Thus Buddhism was sent to exile from the land of its
birth, never to return again in any significant numbers until 1954, when B R Ambedkar,
India's learned leader of Hindu untouchables, publicly converted to Buddhism with some
50,000 of his followers as a political protest. Although it flourished on the soils of
Nepaal, Tibbat, Chinaa and Jaapaan and most of Southeast Asia but the Sangh found no
sanctuary on Indian soil for some 7 and 1/2 centuries
Qutubuddeen Aibaq in India - (1206-1210
AD) - 4 years
He was the first Muslim ruler of
India. Although he had been ruling in various capacities in India since 1175
when he came along with his master Muhammad Gauree, but when, in 1206, Muhammad
Gauree was assassinated in Laahaur, Qutubuddeen Aibaq proclaimed himself as
Sultaan of Delhi initiating the dawn of Islaamik dynasties in South Asia. He
was the most trusted man of Gauree. Initially he was a slave whom Gauree bought.
This Sultanat lasted for 320 years, including 5 successive Turko-Afgaan Dynasties.
Qutubuddeen Aibaq died falling down from a polo pony in 1210. He built Qutub Meenaar
in Delhi as a victory tower inspired by the Minaret of Jam in Afgaanistaan. He
started it in 1193, but completed its basement only.
Shamsuddeen Iltumish (1211-1236
AD) - 25 years
After his death his able son-in-law
Shamsuddeen Iltumish reigned from Delhi for 25 years. He wisely ruled by leaving
local kings under their own control as long as they paid the revenue to his treasury
which was never empty. By diplomacy he kept the armies of
Changez Khaan from invading
Delhi. He was hailed by his chroniclers and contemporary poets. By his death in 1236
Delhi was the most powerful state in North India.
Raziyaa Sultaan (1237-1240
AD) - 3 years
After Iltumish's death, his vigorous
daughter Raziyaa succeeded her father to the throne, which she managed to hold
for 3 years. Raziyaa was only Muslim woman to rule on Indian soil. She was murdered
in 1240 and her father's palace guards, some 40 in number, ruled jointly for the
next 6 years (1240-1246).
AD) - 40 years
Among the palace guards, Balaban was the most
shrewdest guard. He was Raziyaa's chief hunts man. He seized effective power in 1246, but still
under the puppet king Baharaam. He thus ruled until 1266 when he assumed the title of Sultaan,
which he retained for 20 more years. He also kept Mongols at bay by a combination of firmness
and diplomatic wooing. Always surrounded by elite corps of palace guards, Balaban spoke to none
but his leading officials and was impartially ruthless in disposing of his own relatives as he
was in dismissing strangers. Prostrating and foot kissing were both insisted upon by this slave
who became Sultaan. He gave poison to all of his 40 comrades, thus left no friends to remind
him of his former status. He was using old Indian, Arth Shaastra, techniques to retain power. He
died in 1887, but his power continued for 3 years more through his competing grandsons.
Slave Dynasty was ruling here -----
Dynasty (1290-1320 AD) - 30 years
Khilajee rulers first
settled in Qalat, Afgaanistaan and then proceeded to Delhi, India. Khilajee
refers to a Afgaan village as Qalaate Khilajee (Fort of Khilajee). Three Sultaan
(kings) have been noted for their ferocity and faithlessness. Ikhtiyaaruddeen
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyaar Khilajee was a servant of Kutubuddeen Aibaq (see above
in Slave Dynasty). It is also said that when he proceeded towards Bihaar in 1203
AD and then Bangaal (Nabh Dweep), he proceeded so rapidly that only 18 horse
riders could keep up with him. He started his conquests from Badaayoon and then
Avadh in Eastern UP.
Jalaaluddeen Firoz Khilajee (1290-1296
AD) - 6 years
After the death of Balban in
1287, his grandsons managed to continue for 3 years more, but then Jalaaludden
Firoz Khilajee, Balban's General, came to throne in 1290 by coup that inaugurated
the second Delhi dynasty - Khilajee Vansh. Originally Turkish, the Khilajee
had moved to Afgaanistaan, and then settled in India after Gaznavee and Khurd
invasions. Jalaaluddeen Khilajee was in his 70s when he ascended the throne and could
only retain it for 6 years. He did little more than suppress Balaban's supporters.
The short-lived yet significant dynasty that he began left its mark on Indian
history. After his death his nephew and his son-in-law Alaauddeen Khilajee sat on the throne. In
fact it was Alaauddeen Khilajee who murdered him in 1296.
Alauddeen Khilajee (1296-1316) 20 years
As he sat on the throne, after killing his uncle
Jalaaluddeen Khilajee in 1296, he ventured into the Daccan to loot Yaadav's (descendents of
Yadu) capital Devgiri and distributed the looted gold to bring the loyalty among the people
who had killed his uncle in 1296. Thus Daccan and Tamilnaad also came under the impact of
Islaam. Many Jaageer which were under Muslim nobles, Alaauddeen bought them to bring under his
control. His network of spies was efficient enough to make him more feared than hated, and his
homosexual relationship with Malik Kaafoor, the second most powerful figure in the
accounts for singular intrigue at his court. He was a cruel but remarkable capable monarch.
Yaadav's capital Devgiri was taken in 1307. He died in 1316 and his line collapsed. Malik Kaafoor
unsuccessfully tried to retain control of both court and army, but was killed by his own soldiers.
One of Alaauddeen's four sons, Qutubuddeen Mubaarak, survived his father's death by 4 years.
Then for most of the remaining 14th century, Tugalaq ruled the country.
Tugalaq Dynasty (1320-1396)
Gayaasuddeen Tagalaq (1320-1324) - 5 years
After Alaauddeen's death, one of his four sons
survived by 4 years. Then for most of the remaining 14th century, Tugalaq ruled the country.
The founder of this third Muslim Dynasty in India was Gayaasuddeen Tagalaq, the son of a
court Turkish slave and a Hindu Jaat woman, who ruled only for 5 years. He made his capital
Tugalaqaabaad, near Dehlee. He built a massive fort around his capital. The fort is roughly
octagonal in plan with a circumference of 6.5 kms with 10-15 m high rubble wall. It has 13
gates and 3 inner gates to citadel. it is a magnificent fort comparable to Red Fort in Delhi.
He was killed by his son Muhammad Bin Tugalaq. When he was returning from a victorious campaign
to his capital Tugalaqaabaad, his son had erected a splendid pavilion to welcome him, secretly
designed by his engineer to collapse upon him at the first tread of his elephant. In 1325,
Gayaasuddeen and his favorite son were both killed when a victory pavilion erected by his other
son and successor Muhammad Bin Tugalaq (reign, 1325-1351) suddenly collapsed.
Muhammad Bin Tugalaq (1324-1351) - 27 years
Rising to power over the corpses of his
father and brother, he searched for religious peace. The Muslim world traveler Ibn
Batootaa, who traveled through Africa and Asia during 1225-1254, served as chief
judge in Muhammad's court. He has recorded that how much strict Muhammad was for
the observance of religious rites. He established a second capital in Daccan to
rule Daccan. He forced many nobles and officials to abandon heir homes in Dehlee
in 1327 and journeyed over 500 miles, across the Vindhya-Satpudaa to Devgiri which
he named as Daulataabaad. Many died in that journey and for many this new capital
proved to be inhospitable.
In 1329-1330, he attempted
another surprising innovation - the issue of new currency. Possibly to emulate Chinese
whose use of paper currency was quite successful, the Sultaan issued brass or copper
tokens equivalent to the increasingly rare silver "Taankaa" (140 grains). It
could have successful if the foreign merchants had accepted it. Indians were permitted
to turn in their coppers at the royal mint for silver or gold. But within 3-4 years he
was obliged to withdraw his special coins because of the heavy loss to treasury. From
1335 to 1342 (7 years), India suffered one of its most severe and prolonged periods of
drought and famine.
1335, an independent Saltanat of Maduraa was established by Tugalaq
Governor Ehsaan Shaah, when Muhammad moved there to suppress it, others
raged in Laahaur and Dehlee, forcing the Sultaan to return to Dehlee.
When Hindu chiefs saw Muslims rising in Tamilnaad, rebellions raised
similar banners there also and a new Hindou kingdom arose south of
Tungbhadraa River - Vijaya Nagar founded by Harihar. rebellions broke
out Muhammad's rule in southern areas in 1345 and this discontentment
led to establish Bahmaanee rule in Daccan, by Hasan Gangoo in 1347.
Taking as his title-name Alaauddeen Bahmaan Shaah, Hasan founded
Bahmaanee Dynasty, the mightiest and longest-lived Muslim Dynasty of the
Daccan which remained until for some 200 years and survived in fragments
for another century more.
in India in 13th century - In 1338, Bangaal declared independence
from Dehlee. Soofeeism, Islaam's mystic thread which evolved primarily
as a Persian influence upon Islaam, struck a responsive chord in
Bangaal's population especially among Buddhists who were left without
priesthood to turn to spiritual guidance after 1202. Three types of
Soofeeism appeared by the 13th century - Chishtee, Suharaavardee, and
Firdausee. These wandering Peer were like Hindoo Bhakti saints. Bangaal
retained its sovereign status till the peak of Mugal power and Akbar's
conquest in 1576.
Muhammad Tugalaq was killed fighting rebellion in Sindh in 1351, his
cousin Firoz ascended the throne.
Feeroz Shaah Tugalaq (1351-1388) 37 years
When Muhammad Tugalaq was
killed fighting rebellion in Sindh in 1351, his cousin Feeroz ascended the throne. He is
famous for abolition of torture, passion for building, and lifelong adherence to the tenets of
Islaam. The new Dehlee constructed in his name, Feerozaabaad, was full of gardens, mosques and
colleges. He is credited for constructing no fewer than 40 mosques, 30 colleges, 100 hospitals,
and 200 new towns including 50 dams and reservoirs. He seems to have been one of the most
intelligent monarch of the Saltanat. He was the last of the strong Sultaan of Dehlee. Within a
decade of his death the kingdom declined fast.
Taimoor Lang (1398-1399 AD)
Within a decade of Feeroz Tugalaq's death the
kingdom declined fast. When Taimoor Lane (Taimoor Lang) came to India from Mongol in 1398,
the last king of Tugalaq Dynasty Nasiruddeen Mehmood was ruling here. Taimoor was lame that
is why he was called "Lang". This self-styled \ scourage of God" was illiterate,
a devout Muslim, an outstanding chess player and a patron of arts. Five years before also,
in 1393, he came towrds India. At that time he had taken Bagadaad, and in 1396 he had ravaged
Russia devastating their land and pillaging their villages.
When he came again, in 1398,
he came to Delhi shedding lots of blood. He entered from Panjaab through passes he and
his troops were beaten by a group of Indian troops. 50,000 prisoners in his camp
were butchered within an hour. He did not stay long in India, only less than six months,
but left a carnage unprecedented in India's long history. He is believed to be responsible
for 5 million deaths. For months together Dehlee lay quiet as not a bird moving. Immense
quantities of spoils were taken from India. According to Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo, 90 captured
elephants were employed merely to carry precious stones looted from his conquest, so as to
erect a mosque at Samarkand (by stonemasons of Dehlee) – what historians today believe is
the enormous Bibi-Khanym Mosque. Famine followed the destruction caused by him and plague
resulted from the corpses left behind.
Taimoor died on Feb 17, 1405.
After a century later his great grandson Baabar
would return to found the Mugal dynasty on the same site. Taimoor had four sons. His two
eldest sons Jahaangeer and Umar Shekh died before Taimoor; his third son Meeran Shaah died
soon after Taimoor died; only his youngest son Shaah Rukh succeeded him.
Dynasty (Lodee Kings) - (1414-1526) 112 years
After Taimoor's invasion, many states became
independent. Two kings ruled Delhi after it - a Saiyyad king Khijra Khaan during 1414-1450,
and a Lodee, of an Afagaan clan. Three Lodee kings ruled from 1451 to 1526.
(1) Bahalool Lodee during 1451-1489. Then came Bahalool's son
(2) Sikandar Lodee who ruled during 1489-1517. He himself used to write poetry
and encouraged books on medicine and music. His mother was a Hindu and he himself
fell in love with a Hindu princess. He tried to conquer Gwaalior Fort five times,
but failed. Mahaaraajaa Maansinh and his wife Mrignayanee were ruling there at that
time. He moved his capital to Aagaraa. He died in 1517 and has an elaborate burial
tomb in Lodee Gardens in Delhi. The last king of Lodee Dynasty was
(3) Ibraaheem Lodee (1517-1526) was unable to command people his father was ruling upon.
Portuguese (Vaasco Da Gaamaa)
who had already landed at Maalaabaar Coast in 1498, went unnoticed; but the immediate threat
for him didn't come from a 1,000 miles away, but from nearby Laahaur, whose city gates were
flung wide open to welcome the king of Kaabul, Baabar (1483-1530)
was the great grandson of Taimoor Lang, and a descendent of Mangol
Changez Khaan from his mother's side. In fact Daulat Khaan had invited
him to save him from Ibraaheem Lodee. He came and founded the Muslim
Dynasty - the greatest one in Indian history, as the first Baadshaah
(emperor) of the Mugal Dynasty, on April 21, 1526.
Bhakti Saints - Kabeer, Naanak, Chaitanya Mahaaprabhu - During 15th and 16th centuries
Before the end of 14th century, the
wave of Bhakti Hinduism, born in South India had reached the Gangaa River at Banaaras
along whose banks Raamaanuj's greatest disciple Raamaanand was settled. Among the many
disciples of Raamaanand was an illiterate Muslim weaver Kabeer (1440-1518) whose
poems tried to diminish the religious differences between Hindu and Muslim. In Panjaab,
Naanak (1469-1538) was born as a Hindu whose doctrine was "One God, the Creator".
His doctrine was reared on the doctrines of Islaam, rejected caste and became the first Guru
of the Sikh faith, though later it became a martial one, with subsequent Guru to take up the
sword against Mugal. In Bangaal, Chaitanya Mahaaprabhu (1485-1533) was born with such
intoxicated devotional frenzy that his disciple believed him to be a reincarnation of Krishn
and Raadhaa in one body.
by the dawn of 16th century, India was not only fragmented politically,
but was also divided spiritually.