Puraan | 8-Agni Puraan
Gyaan; Dialog between Keshidhwaj and Khaandikya; Jadbharat and Sauveer King's dialog;
Agni Dev said - "Munivar, Now I will tell you about Brahm Gyaan. "This Aatmaa is Brahm and and I am that Brahm" whoever thinks thus he attains Moksh. This body is not Aatmaa because it can be seen. This becomes clear when one has slept or died, that Aatmaa is different from this body. If this body had been Aatmaa, then it should have behaved as before, but it does not. Indriyaan are also not Aatmaa - they are just only means. The same is true for mind and intellect too. Praan is also not Aatmaa, because when one is in sleep state, it is unconscious too. While a person is awake, it is conscious. In the beginning of the Samaadhi, one should imagine in this way - from Brahm it is Sky, from Sky it is Air, from Air it is Fire, from Fire it is Water, from Water it is Earth, and from Earth has appeared the Subtle body. Then he should imagine the physical body absorbed in Brahm. Soul's physical body is imagined by A-Gyaan (ignorance).Brahm is one and He is attained only by Gyaan, he cannot be attained by Karm. I am the Aumkaar and undivided Parameshwar, when one understands himself like this, then he becomes free from this useless world."
Agni Dev said - "I am Par Brahm without Prithvi, Water and Fire. I am Par Brahm beyond Air and Sky. I am Par Brahm different from this world. I am Par Brahm beyond these Indriyaan. I am Par Brahm without mind and intellect. I am Par Brahm separate from three Gun. I am eternal, pure, free, truth, joy, and A-Dwait (only one) Brahm."
Agni Dev said - "A religious man attains Devtaa by Yagya, Viraat's status by Tapasyaa, Brahm Pad by Karm Sanyaas, to be absorbed in Prakriti by Vairaagya and Moksh by Gyaan. Thus these 5 types of Gati are said. Not feeling any happiness, sorrow or pain is Vairaagya. Whatever Karm have been done, and whatever Karm have not yet been done, if there is no attachment to them, nor the desire for their fruit, and nor there is any wish to do any more Karm, that is called "Sanyaas". If it is so, then there is nothing good or bad in his heart towards anything. When one knows the difference between Chetan (conscious) and Jad (unconscious), that is called "Paramaarth Gyaan". [This sentence is the translation of the original - but I do not understand this, that is why I have written it here as it is written there.]
Muni, There are two ways to attain Him - Gyaan and Karm. Gyaan is of two types - from Aagam and from Vivek. Gyaan of Shabd Brahm (books) is Gyaan through Aagam, and Gyaan of Par Brahm is Gyaan through Vivek. Brahm can be known in two ways - "Shabd Brahm" and "Par Brahm". Ved etc books are called "Shabd Brahm" or A-Par Brahm"; and Akshar, the form of Truth, is called "Par Brahm". This Par Brahm is the synonym of "Bhagavat". "Bha" in Bhagavat has two meanings - one who nourishes and the supporter of all. Then "Ga" means leader (who assigns fruits to Karm), inspirer, and Creator. Prosperity, Dharm, fame, wealth, Gyaan and Vairaagya - all these 6 are "Bhag". All live in Vishnu. The same Vishnu has three forms - Brahmaa, Vishnu and Shiv, therefore "Bhag" is present only in Hari. For others it is used only secondarily. Who knows about the birth and death and coming and going of all Bhoot and Vidyaa and A-Vidyaa, the same is worthy to be called as Bhagavaan. Leaving all bad qualities, total Gyaan, Power, the ultimate prosperity, etc are synonyms of "Bhagavat".
Keshidhwaj and Khaandikya
In earlier times, Khaandikya Janak preached King Keshidhwaj like this - When we think that our body is "Me", this ignorance causes the bondage to this world. This A-Gyaan (ignorance) exists in two forms - pride and attachment. People think that "I am the body". In the same way they think that the "sons and grandsons are mine because they are born from my body". But the learned man considers all alike, he does not feel attachment to them. Human being does all Karm for his own welfare, but when Purush is different from this body, all his Karm turn into only the cause of binding to this world. In reality, Aatmaa is peaceful, full of Gyaan and clear. The sorrow is the Dharm (nature) of Prakriti, not of Aatmaa, such as water is separate from fire but when a pot full of water is kept on fire, water becomes hot or even b boiled. In the same way, Hey Muni, when Aatmaa lives with Prakriti, he also takes up its qualities; otherwise he is altogether different and eternal.
Till this mind is attached to pleasures, it is the cause of binding; but when it is fully satisfied with them, it helps in obtaining Gyaan. [Although it is almost impossible to satisfy it fully, because it is never satisfied] still one should try to ignore those pleasures and get busy in remembering Hari. When he joins Brahm, that is called Yog. Brahm is of two types - Sa-Aakaar (who has a form) and Nir-Aakaar (who has no form). Sanak, Sanandan etc are with Brahm, while from Devtaa to all creatures are with Karm. Brahmaa etc have both Brahm and Karm. Thus there are three types of nature. "The whole Universe is Brahm" - thinking thus Brahmaa is worshipped. Where all differences disappear, who exists but cannot be described by speech, one can experience Him himself only - that is Brahm Gyaan. First meditating on Nir-Aakaar is difficult, that is one should meditate on Sa-Aakar form only. Difference is known only through A-Gyaan (ignorance)."
Jadbharat and Sauveer's King - A-Dwait Brahm Gyaan
Now I will tell you A-Dwait Brahm Gyaan (non-Dualism theory) which Bharat told Sauveer's King. It is long time ago, that King Bharat was doing Tapasyaa in Shaalgraam region. He got attached to a deer, so he died thinking about him only. For the same reason he was born as deer in his next life, but still he remembered everything of his past life. Therefore he left that deer body through his Yog and took birth as a Braahman. He knew A-Dwait Brahm very well. He was like Brahm, still he behaved like a Jad (ignorant of everything). He was stout, so Sauveer's King's people thought that he should be employed without pay [and appointed him to carry the King's palanquin]. Although he was a Gyaanee (a learned man) still because of his fate he used to carry King's palanquin; but his speed was very slow.
[Once when he was carrying the King's palanquin] he was at the back and all other servants were going fast. The King noticed that the newcomer was going very slow in comparison to other servants, so he said to him - "O, Are you tired? You have carried the palanquin only for a short while, can't you tolerate this much labor? Are you not stout? In looking you look like a stout." Braahman said - "Raajan, Neither I am stout, nor I have carried your palanquin. Neither I am tired, nor I have worked hard, nor I am lifting your weight. On Prithvi are my both feet, on my feet are my both thighs, on my both thighs is my stomach, on my stomach is my chest, arms and shoulders; and on my shoulders is kept this palanquin. Then tell me which weight is on me? On this palanquin is your so called body.
In reality, you are there [in palanquin] and I am here [on Prithvi]. [Whoever thinks that I am carrying you] that is all deception. Hey Raajan, You, all other Jeev and I, all are carried by these Panch Bhoot only. Even these Panch Bhoot are moving with the flow of Gun (Sat, Raj and Tam) and Gun are under the control of Karm. Karm are stored because of A-Vidyaa which is the nature of all Jeev. Aatmaa is pure, Akshar (eternal), peaceful, Nir-Gun (attributeless) and beyond Prakriti; and all beings have the same one Aatmaa. Neither it increases, nor it decreases. Raajan, When it neither increases, nor decreases, then what logic did you question this that "Are you not stout?" If this palanquin kept on Prithvi, my feet, thighs, and shoulders can be heavy, then it it is true for you also. And by this logic all other animals have not only lifted palanquin but also mountain, trees, houses etc. Raajan, Just think, when Purush is different from Prakriti-produced things, then what weight I am carrying? With whatever material this palanquin is made, the same material has been used for making yours, others and my bodies also."
Hearing this the King climbed down from the palanquin and said to the Braahman holding his feet and asking for his forgiveness - "Bhagavan, Now you leave this palanquin and be pleased with me. I want to listen something from you, please, preach me. Besides, tell me , who are you and why have you come here?" Braahman said - "Listen, It cannot be told that "I am this", [and you have asked me the reason my coming here, so I have to tell you this only that] the action of coming and going anywhere is only to utilize the fruits of Karm. Sorrows and pleasures [the fruits of the Karm] are the cause of going and coming to various places. This Jeev goes to various places just to enjoy or suffer for his various Karm." The King said - "Brahman, "Whatever is there" [means whatever we see] why it cannot be told as "I am"? Use of the word "I" does not seem inappropriate for Aatmaa."
Braahman said - "Use of the word "I" does not seem inappropriate for Aatmaa - you are right; but the use of "I" for what is not Aatmaa is certainly wrong. And wherever a word points towards a vague meaning, its use is certainly faulty there. When there is only one Aatmaa in all bodies, then "Who are you, and who am I" are just meaningless. Raajan, "You are a King, this is a palanquin, and we are the labors to carry this palanquin, these guides are your soldiers and all these are under your control." This is not true. Wood comes from a tree, and from wood is made this palanquin on which you are sitting, tell me where the names "tree and wood" have gone? No sensible man will say that "the King is riding on tree or wood". All will say that "the King is riding on a palanquin". But then what is this palanquin? - a group of wooden pieces arranged in a specific design. If you consider it different then separate these wooden pieces and show me the palanquin.
"This is a man, this is a woman, this is a horse, this is tree" - all these names have been assigned to different types of bodies only. These nouns are only for this Lok only. Our tongue speaks "I", teeth, throat etc also speaks the same but they are not the synonyms to "I". They are only the means for speech. This body is all together different from the Purush (Aatmaa), then for which body part shall I use "I"? For anything which is different from Aatmaa, this may be said "this is I", "this is you", but in fact this difference is also not true, because whatever difference we see because of the body, that is only because of Karm. Whoever is called with King or King's servant or any other noun, none is true. You are king for your people, husband for your wife, son for your mother, father for your children - when you have so many names, tell me with what should I call you? Are you this head? are you these arms? are you this stomach? Then what are you? First you decide that who are you indeed?"
The King said - "Brahman, I was going to Kapil Muni to ask something for my welfare. You are also a part of him for me, therefore please impart me some Gyaan. Tell me the way for my welfare." Braahman said - "Raajan, You are again asking the path of welfare? But what is "Paramaarth", you are not asking that. Only Paramaarth is the form of all types of welfare. A man worships Devtaa for wealth, or children, or kingdom; but O Sauvee's king, you tell me, is this his aim? Will it do good to him? In the eyes of learned people, only aim is to attain Paramaatmaa. He does not even consider Yagya or obtaining wealth his aim. Paramaarth is the unification of Aatmaa with Paramaatmaa. Paramaatmaa is one, and unique.
Now I tell you the dialog of Nidaagh and Ribhu, listen to it attentively. Ribhu was Brahmaa Jee's son and was very learned. Nidaagh was Pulastya's son. He became his disciple. After his education he started living on the shores of Devikaa River. After 1,000 Divine years passed, one day Ribhu went to see his disciple. At that time Nidaagh was saying to his disciple after Bali Vaishwadev - "Now I feel very satisfied after eating my food, because only food gives eternal satisfaction." [Then he started asking about other people's satisfaction from food.]
Ribhu said - "Brahman, whoever is hungry, only he will be satisfied with food. I have never been hungry, then why do you ask me about my satisfaction? Hunger and thirst are the Dharm of this body. They don't even touch my Aatmaa. Since you have asked, that is why I tell you that I am always satisfied. Purush (Aatmaa) is omnipresent and I am that Aatmaa, therefore the question you have asked me "where have you come from?" is useless, because I neither come from anywhere, nor go anywhere, nor I stay at any one place. Neither you are different from me, nor I am different from you. As a clay house is made strengthened by smearing additional clay on it, in the same way this mortal body is also strengthened by mortal food. I am your Aachaarya Ribhu and I have come here to impart you knowledge, now I leave. Consider this whole world as the form of Vaasudev. There is no distinction here."
After this, after 1,000 Divine years passed, Ribhu again came to the same city. There he saw Nidaagh standing in a lonely corner. He asked him - "Why are you standing here in this lonely place?" Nidaagh said - "Brahman, There is a large crowd in the way, because this city's king is coming, that is why I am standing here." Ribhu said - "It seems you know everything about here, tell me who is the king here and who are other people." Nidaagh said - "See, Who is sitting on that high elephant, he is the King, and who are standing around him they are other people. This lower thing is elephant, and who is sitting over it, he is the King.
Ribhu said - "Tell me clearly, who is elephant and who is the King." Hearing this Nidaagh climbed up Ribhu and said - "See now, You are like elephant and I am like Raajaa." Ribhu said - "Who am I, and what can I tell you." Immediately Nidaagh came down and fell on his feet and said - "Certainly you are my Guru, because nobody else's heart is like that which is always filled with A-Dwait ideas." Ribhu said - "I came here to tell you about Brahm."
Jadbharat said - "Hey Raajan, After that Nidaagh became the follower of A-Dwait. He attained Moksh by Gyaan, in the same way you will also attain it. You, this world and I, all are the form of Vishnu." Agni Dev said - Hey Muni, Hearing this Sauveer's King got free from the bondage of this world."
Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/05
Updated on 06/09/11