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30-Science in Ved-1

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30-Science in Ved-1
See also   Jyotish in Ved;    Numbers in Ved;     Science in Ved-2

For more details on Vaidik science the seekers of Vaidik knowledge can see "Glimpses of Vedic Metaphysics" for on line reading and even taking print at no cost on Website http://www, /OR through search engine of, or,

Science in General
The Ved contain many revolutionary contents which have practically built the base of modern science.

"Through astronomy, geography, and geology, go thou to all the different countries of the world under the Sun. May thou attain through good preaching to statesmanship and artisanship, through medical science obtain knowledge of all medicinal plants, through hydrostatics learn the different uses of water, through electricity understand the working of ever lustrous lightening. Carry out my instructions willingly."
(Yajur Ved 6.21)

"O royal skilled engineer, construct sea-boats, propelled on water by our experts, and airplanes, moving and flying upward, after the clouds that reside in the mid-region, that fly as the boats move on the sea, that fly high over and below the watery clouds. Be thou, thereby, prosperous in this world created by the Omnipresent God, and flier in both air and lightning."
(Yajur  Ved 10.19)

Pre-Rig Ved astronomers had explained such advanced concepts as the spherical quality of the Earth (when most of the Western world believed that the Earth was flat), heliocentricity (meanwhile and for quite some time afterwards, Western scientists would still talk about the Earth being the center - geo-center) ; the Pre-Rig Ved astronomers had provided an astronomical explanation for the seasons. The earliest reference to the zodiacal signs can be found in the Rig Ved.

"The Sun does never set nor rise, when people think the Sun is setting it is not so). For after having arrived at the end of the day it makes itself produce two opposite effects, making night to what is below and day to what is on the other side. Having reached the end of the night, it makes itself produce two opposite effects, making day to what is below and night to what is on the other side. In fact, the Sun never sets."
(Aitareya Braahman 3.44)

Long before Isaac Newton, the Rig Ved stated that gravitation held the universe together. The Aaryans believed in a spherical earth while the Greeks believed in a flat one. As a matter of fact, the Maarkandeya Puraan (54.12) describes the Earth as being flat at the poles, and bulging at the equator - not spherical but closer to it's actual shape. Indians in 500 AD calculated Earth's age as 4.3 billion years. The Maarkandeya Puraan states the phases of the Moon, the cause of twilight, and the reason why the sky is blue (scattered sunlight).
(Maarkandeya Puraan, 78.8 and 103.9)

Not only did the Ved recognize the Sun as the source of light, life and warmth, the center of creation and of the spheres, they also contemplated the idea of multiple Suns (stars): "There are Suns in all directions, the night sky being full of them." Two thousand years before Pythagoras, Indian philosophers believed that gravitation was the force which held the solar system together, and the most massive object (the Sun), must be at its center. "How is it that though the Sun is not bound and is directed downwards, it does not fall?"
(a question repeatedly asked in the Rig Veda)

"Objects fall on the Earth due to one force. The Earth, planets, constellations, Moon and Sun are held in orbit because of that one force." All things fall to the Earth by the law of nature; for it is the nature of the Earth to attract and keep things."

"Just as the beams of sunlight entering a room reveal the presence of innumerable motes, so infinite space is filled with countless Brahmaand (solar systems)."

And on the atomic structure: "There are vast worlds, all placed way within the hollows of each atom, multifarious as the motes in a sunbeam."

According to Kanaad of the Vaisheshikaa system the entire matter of this world consists of atoms as many in kind as the various elements.
We find in the ancient literature descriptions of weapons that had a similar amount of energy as the atomic bombs we use today.

"The atomic energy fissions the ninety-nine elements, covering its path by the bombardments of neutrons without let or hindrance. Desirous of stalking the head, ie. the chief part of the swift power, hidden in the mass of molecular adjustments of the elements, this atomic energy approaches it in the very act of fissioning it by the above-noted bombardment. Herein, verily the scientists know the similar hidden striking force of the rays of the sun working in the orbit of the Moon."
(Atharv Ved 20.41.1-3)

The Brahmaastra, described in the Vaalmeeki Raamaayan and Mahaabhaarat, is a weapon which is said to be a single projectile charded with all the power of the universe. "An incandescent column of smoke and flame as bright as ten thousand Suns rose in all its splendor: it was an unknown weapon, an iron thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death, which reduced to ashes. The entire race of the Vrishni and the Andhak, the corpses were so burned as to be unrecognizable. Their hair and nails fell out; pottery broke without apparent cause, and the birds turned white. After a few hours all foodstuffs were infected. To escape from this fire the soldiers threw themselves in streams to wash themselves and their equipment."

Rig Ved,  1.72.2 and 8 mention that the greatest service to God is to spread the spirit of Ved with honesty, straight-forwardness, without deceit of any kind, for all to enjoy true and spiritual happiness. By understanding the philosophy, metaphysics, knowledge and various social, ethical and divine models contained in the Ved, we can perhaps find viable solutions to our present social, economic, political and religious problems.

Subject: Vaidik Physical Sciences and Scientific Temper

The following observations of eminent/great scientists would appear as if Ved are being retold.
JC Bose found with the help of gross instruments in the laboratory some kind of "fatigue" in metal just like human beings. Gross atoms even in an inanimate thing are born, develop and lose vitality and die. They have mind of their own.

Einstein confirmed in the laboratory the Flux observed earlier by Vaidik Rishi of yore Kanad and later by Buddha. According to Einstein most of the particles in the sub-atomic world live for short period of a small fraction of a nano of a second and change to other particles, while some of those behaving like waves and wavicles. This Flux in atoms is a continuous process. Einstein also made certain metaphysical observations like God does not play dice and in all probabilities God has kept some "hidden variable" responsible for this activity.

Isaac Newton in spite of his so many discoveries relating to light, gravitation, laws of motion, certain mathematical laws etc, was still having a feeling that some thing was missing in his discoveries. He wrote in the "Optick " does it not appear that there is a supreme Being, incorporeal, living, intelligent, omnipresent who in infinite space sees the things themselves intimately and thoroughly, perceives them and comprehends them wholly by their immediate presence to Himself."

Even now many scientists have a feeling that there is some thing beyond sub-atomic particles in the atoms that make these tiny invisible balls to move at a great speed.

The Ved combine science with metaphysics and clearly mention that it is God who is the giver of knowledge of all sciences as "Sahastra sam" (Rig Ved, 1.10.11).
The scientists are advised to study cause and effect of all material elements and also how the objects are produced and there after utilize these properly (Rig Ved. 5.47.3).
By following these guidelines they can alleviate much suffering of the people (Rig Ved, 5,77.4).
Without the knowledge and practical application of physical sciences, it is not possible to eradicate poverty and attain prosperity (Rig Ved, 1,34.1-5).
In the Rig Ved the focal point is the human being and the knowledge about physical sciences contained there in is for the welfare of the entire mankind. This knowledge also helps the human beings to develop Scientific Outlook.

To get a feel of Vedic physical sciences, reference to a few hymns are given in the very beginning.
The Sun never sets or rises and it is the earth, which rotates (Saam Ved,  121).
The gravitational effect of solar system makes the earth stable (Rig Ved,  1.103.2,  1.115.4  and  5.81.2).
The subtle axle of the earth does not get rusted and the Earth continues to revolve on its axle (Rig Ved,  1.164.29).
The science of Time and its subtle nature is described in (Rig Ved,  1.92.12  and  1.95.8).

The need to study the properties of water, air and fire for discovering and manufacturing aircrafts, ships and other vehicles capable of moving in the firmament, land and water are mentioned in Rig Ved,  1.3.1-2,  1.34.1,  1.140.1  and many other hymns.

Physical sciences relating to agriculture, medicine, astronomy mathematics particularly algebra, toxicology etc. are described in Rig Ved,  1.71.9, 4.57.5,  Saam Ved 121 and in many other hymns/Riks.
For a better appreciation of Vaidik sciences few terms used in the original Vaidik Bhaashaa (language) as contained in the Mantra or Rik are mentioned. "Vimaan diye neshu" for vehicles like aircrafts (Rig Ved, 1.34.1 and 9 and 1.85.7).
"Vaaj gatau" - very high-speed vehicles in the air (Rig Ved, 6.60.12).
"Rekha di Ganit Vidyaa Vigyaya" - the science of Algebra (Rig Ved, 1.19.1).
"Soorya Vidyau tau" - knowledge of the Sun and electricity.
"Indraaagni" - power, energy and electricity (Rig Ved,  6.60.12-13),
"Krishn Garbh" - knower of Algebra (Rig Ved, 6.75.2).
"Vidyamadibha vidyut vidyante yashate" - in which electric telegraph wires have been arranged (Rig Ved,  1.88.1).

Many other terms and words relating to physical sciences can be found in these hymns like Kanu, Anu, Bhoot, Mahaa Bhoot, Tattwa, Mahaa Tattwa etc., The other terms have been used like Rath for vehicles moving in the firmament and middle region, on the surface of the Earth and over the water, Ashvinau for scientists, Anu and Kanu for gross and subtle atoms, Tanmaatraa for sub-atomic particles sponda for sound etc. Few other words are "Amritasya nidhi" - ambrosia (Rig Ved, 1.186.3), Brahmaand Pind ie macrocosm and microcosm.

In Yajur Ved  18.24-25, many terms relating to addition, subtraction, division, square, cube, square root, and cube root have been used.
Yajur Ved, 18.22 and Rig Ved, 6.22.2 also refer to certain other terms of the physical sciences.
In Rig Ved, 1.3.4, scientists are described as men and women of absolute self-control, truthful with scientific outlook and destroyers of miseries.
With the help of these scientists one could travel far on the earth and also in the sky through conveyances, which run and touch the middle region (Rig Ved, 1.3.1, 6.22.2 and 1.22.2).

Such scientists from both the sexes go across to distance places quickly like the mind and electricity (Rig Ved, 1.71.9).
In this hymn aircrafts and even space ships are hinted. These Ashwinee twins should be well versed in Physics, agricultural sciences
(Rig Ved,  4.57.5),  medical sciences (Rig Ved,  5.74.3),  astronomy (Saam Ved, 121) and other sciences.

There is a mention of infrared rays, study of Algebra (Rekhaadi Ganit Vidyaa), sound as a medium of knowledge for various sciences, diseases like bile, cough, jaundice and others and their treatment etc. The relevant hymns in this regard are in Rig Ved, 1.185.2, 1.12.1-2, 1.22.1-4,  1.2.3,  1.95.1,  1.101.1 and many other.


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Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/06
Updated on 04/02/13