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Raam Charit Maanas | Introduction-1

Introduction-1

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Many Raamaayan

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Introduction-1: Many Raamaayan

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Popularly known as Raamaayan, Raamaaayan has been written by several authors and in several languages in several countries according to their own convenience.

(1) Adhyaatm Raamaayan - The first Raamaayan was Adhyaatm Raamaayan. It was told by Shiv Ji to Paarvatee Ji in a cave. At that time a crow heard it. The same crow was reincarnated as Kaagbhushundi Ji and told the same story to Garud Ji. It is a part of Brahmaand Puraan. I mention it here because the mention of shadow Seetaa episode in Tulasee's Maanas has been taken from Adhyaatm Raamaayan only.

(2) Vaalmeeki Raamaayan - The next Raamaayan was written by Aadi Kavi (the first poet) Rishi Vaalmeeki Jee which is known as "Vaalmeeki Raamaayan". Since this Raamaayan is in Sanskrit language, it is not very common among public, but its Hindi translation is also available. It is said that since Vaalmeeki Ji had seen Raam closely that is why his Raamaayan is closest to the truth. It is also said that his Raamaayan contained only 6 Kaand, the Uttar Kaand had been added to it in Bauddh Period. Uttar Kaand has nothing to do with Vaalmeeki Raamaayan.

(3) Aanand Raamaayan - Aanand Raamaayan presents Bharat and Shatrughn as Kaikeyee's sons - maybe because of Kalp Bhed.

(4) Adbhut Raamaayan - It is interesting to note that in the Adbhut Raamaayan, a late work highly favored by the Kashmeerian Shaakt, Seetaa is stated to have killed Raavan [by] assuming the form of Kaalee. The said work identifies Seetaa with the Supreme Being of the Shaakt. The [practice] of associating Shaaktism with Raam-Seetaa legends may be traced even to the Sanskrit Raamacharit of Abhinanda, which is a work of the 10th century. ... [And] in Sarala Dasa's Oriya Ramamyana, the tradition of the Adbhut Raamaayan is followed, in which Seetaa herself killed Raavan in the form of Bhadrakaalee.

The story of the slaying of Raavan by Seetaa is also found in the Jaimini Bhaarat and other later Bangaalee Raamaayan. According to the popular Raam legends of the Mathuraa region, it was Seetaa who killed Raavan and, having accomplished the task, went straight to Calcuttaa instead of Ayodhyaa and settled there permanently as Kaalee Maaee." It is written in Sanskrit and contains 27 Sarg.

(5) Tulasee's Raam Charit Maanas - It is written by Goswaamee Tulasee Das Jee. He is reputed to live for 125 years, from 1511 AD to 1637 AD. This is the most popular Raamaayan in UP area. It is written in Avadhee dialect of Hindi language in such a way that it can be sung. Its Hindi translation is also available. It is more popular in educated people. It contains 7 Kaand and is written in Doha Chaupaayee style of poetry.

(6) Ghanshyaam Daas Kee Raamaayan - This version of Raamaayan, written by Ghanshyaam Daas Jee, is known as "Ghanshyaam Daas Jee Kee Raamaayan". It is also written in the way that it can be sung, but it is more popular among village population, because its language is daily use spoken language and people can memorize it.

(6) Bhaavaarth Raamaayan - This Raamaayan has been written by Sant Eknaath.

(7) Uttar Raamaayan -

(8) Jaanakee Haran - This Raamaayan was written by Kumaar Daas in Sanskrit

(9) Sanskrit Raamcharit by Abhinanda - a work of 10th century.

 

Raamaayan in Other Indian Languages

There are other Raamaayan also in other provincial languages of India, such as Tamil, Gujaraatee etc.

(1) In Urdu, it is the "Pothee Ramayana" written in 17th century.

(2) In Jammu and Kashmir, it is Kashmeeree "Ramavatara Charita" written in 19th century.

(3) In Punjaab, it is the "Ramavatara" written in 17th century by Guru Gobind Singh.

(4) In Gujaraat, it is the Tulsi-krita Ramayana a Gujarati adaptation of Tulasee Daas Raamaayan in 17th century by poet Premanand.

(5) In Mahaaraashtra, it is the Maraathee "Bhavartha Ramayana" written by Eknath Jee in the 16th century. There is also reference of Ramayana being translated into old Marathi during the 12th or 13th century.

(6) In Aassaam, it is the Assaamee "Katha Ramayana" or "Kotha Ramayana" in 15th century by Madhava Kandali.

(7) In Bangaal, it is the Bangaalee "Krittivas Ramayan" written by poet Krittivas in 15th century.

(8) In Udeessaa, it is the Udiyaa "Balaramadasa Ramayana" was adapted by Balarama Das in the 16th century. There is one more Raamaayan in Udiyaa, that is "Rooipaadakaatenpadee".

(9) In Udeesaa, Sarala Daas has written Oriyaa Raamaayan.

(10) In Aandhra Pradesh, the Telugu Raamaayan is known as "Sri Ranganatha Ramayana" and was adapted by Buddha Reddy. There is another Raamaayan in Telugu "Moldaa Raamaayan" written by a poetess Molda.

(11) In Karnaatak, it is the Kannada versions of the Raamaayan the "Kumudendu Ramayana" (Jain version) in 13th century and the "Kumara-Valmiki Torave Ramayana" in 16th century. There is another one titled "Ramachandra Charit Puran" written by Nagachandra during the 13th century.

(12) In Tamil Naadu, it is the most popular Raamaayan written in Tamil language - "Kamba Ramayana" written by poet Kamban in the 12th century - "Iramaavataaram"

(13) In Kerala, it is written in Malayaalam language - "Adhyatma Ramayanam Kilipattu" written by Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century.

 

Raamaayan in Other Countries

(1) In Combodia, it is "Raamker"

(2) In Sri Lanka, it is "Malevataaram" or "Malevaraaj" in Sinhalee

(3) In Tibet, it is "Kaavya Darsh"  written by Kinras-Puns-Paa

(4) In Indonesia, it is "Raamaayan Kaakaaveen"

(5) In Malayesia, it is "Hikaayat Sereeraam"

(6) In Burma, it is "Raamvatthu"

(7) In Kampuchea, it is "Raamkerti Riaamker" in Khmer language

(8) In Japan, it is "Hobutsushoo" written by Tairaano Yasuyori

(9) In Laos, it is "Fralak-Fralaam-Raamjaatak"

(10) In Nepal, it is "Raamaayan" written by Bhanubhakt

(11) In Thailand, it is "Raamkiyen"

(12) In Turkey, it is "Khotanee Raamaayan"

(13) In Mangolia, it is "Jeevak Jaatak"

(14) In Persia, it is "Maseehee Raamaayan"

(15) ---------, it is "Daastaane Raam Va Seetaa" written by Sheikh Saad Maseeh

(16) In Philippines, it is "Mahaalaadiyaa Laaban" in Maarnav language

(17) In China, it is "Dasharath Kathaanam"

 

Parts of Raam's Life Narrations

(1) Padm Puraan - There is a part of Raamaayan (Raam's story) in Padm Puraan also, in its 4th Khand - Paataal Khand. This description gives the description of Raam's Ashwamedh Yagya.

How To Read This Raamaayan | Prayers | Benefits of Sundar Kaand

 

 

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Created by Sushma Gupta on May 27, 2002
Contact:  sushmajee@yahoo.com
Modified on 11/03/19