Mahaabhaarat | Kathaa-G | 7-Post-War

14-Ashwamedh Parv, 46-51
Kathaa-G - 7-Post-War - page 18

Home | Mahaabhaarat | Kathaa | 7-Post-War

14-Ashwamedh Parv-page 15

Previous | Next

Krishn Discourses Arjun-12: Anugeetaa-12

Brahmaa Jee further said - "Studying properly, following Brahmcharya, controlling Indriyaan, practicing all duties should eat only Havishya made from what he has got in alms. He should do Hom twice a day, he should always carry a staff made of Palaash or Vilva wood. He should wear either linen, cotton or deer skin, or a cloth that is plain brawn-red. He should wear matted locks and sacred thread, study scriptures, and be strict in observance of vows. If guests come, then he should eat after offering them food, he may live on fruits and roots or even on water. Such a Brahmchaaree is worthy to be praised. Among the four Aashram, whoever wishes to attain Moksh, he should follow the rules prescribed for him. For alms, one should go to such a place where all the cooking vessels have been cleaned and washed. He should live in an empty house, a forest, near a river, in a cave. In summer, he may pass only one night in an inhabited place. He should always practice a sinless mode of life. He should eat minimum in a regulated way. He should never accept anything else except food and clothing. He should not enjoy anything to such an extent that he should desire it once more."

Brahmaa Jee further said - "The ancients say that renunciation is penance. Braahman say that knowledge of Ved is to know Brahm. Thus attaining Brahm depends on the knowledge of Ved. Brahm is eternal, Brahm is supreme. It is by knowledge and penance that one sees the highest. Penance is said to be light. Conduct leads to piety. Knowledge is said to be the highest and renunciation is the best penance. Abandoning all actions, good or bad, becomes emancipated.  Which has grown from Unmanifest seed, Understanding as its trunk, Egoism as its branches, with leaves ever present, with the flowers which always adorn it, with fruits agreeable or disagreeable ever produced, is the eternal tree of Brahm.  By cutting this tree, by the sword of knowledge of Truth one becomes emancipated. These are the two birds which are immutable, which are friends, and which are unintelligent. That other, who is different from these two, is called intelligent. When the Inner Self, which has no knowledge of nature and is not intelligent, becomes conversant with that Unmanifest; then by understanding Kshetra and apprehending everything becomes released from all sins."

Brahmaa Jee further said - "Some regard Brahm as a tree, and some regard Him as a forest. While some regard Him as Unmanifest, the others regard Him as freed from every distress. They think that all is produced from Him and all is absorbed into Him. Controlling the life-breath again and again by Praanaayaam, by the 10 or 12, he attains which is beyond the 24 (see Note below). Thus first acquiring the tranquility of soul one attains the fulfillment of all desires.

Note :
Commentators are not of the same opinion on this. Some think that 10 means eight characteristics of Yog (see also Ashtaang Yog) - Yam, Niyam, Aasan, Praanaayaam, Pratyaahaar, Dharanaa, Dhyaan, Samaadhi, plus Tark (logic), and Vairaagya. These 12 would imply the first eight and these four - Maitree, Karunaa, Muditaa, and Upekshaa. If these 10 + 12, or 2 + 20 be taken (means 22), then this number can be taken as 5 modes of Yam, 5 modes of Niyam, 6 modes of Yog (beginning with Aasan to Samaadhi), the 4 beginning with Maitree, and the 2 Tark and Vairaagya.

It is impossible to attain Purush by any other means. Forgiveness, courage, abstention from harm, equability, truth, sincerity, knowledge, gift and renunciation are the characteristics of the course which arises from Goodness. It is by this belief that the wise inference that Purush and Goodness are the same. However Kshetragya and Nature are not the same. Their association and distinction should be known - they are laid down. Their relationship is like fish and water.

Note :
It is tried to teach here - that Unmanifest or Prakriti is that condition in which all the three qualities - Goodness, Passion and Darkness, exist in a state of combination. The Unmanifest is the condition before the creation. When one of these particular quality prevails over the others, such as Goodness, then Purush arises from whom everything flows. The relation of Purush and Nature is both unity and diversity. Purush is in Nature but still He is different as the fish is different from water in spite of living in it.

Then Rishi asked - "Which duties are considered as the worthiest? because it is all contradictory. Some say that the actions stay after the body is destroyed, while others say that they do not; while others stay that it is still doubtful. Some say that eternal (principal) is eternal, while some say that it is. Some say it is of one form, some others say that it is of two-fold, while others say it is mixed. Some say that both time and space exist, others say that it is not so. Some bear matted locks and wear deer skins, while others shave their heads and go naked. Some never take bath, while other take bath three times. Some are for taking food while others are for fasts. Some are for action and some are for perfect tranquility. In the same way, some are for pleasure, some are for pain, some are for meditation, some say it is sacrifice. Some are for emancipation, some are for penance, some are for study of scriptures. O Brahmaa, Thus the duties confuse us and we are unable to reach on any conclusion, please tell us what is good for us. And after this please tell us about what is the cause of connection of Kshetragya and Nature."

Hearing this Brahmaa Jee said - "I tell you what a preceptor told his disciple, then you decide what it should be. Abstention from harming any creature is the foremost of all duties. This is the highest, and free from anxiety. The ancients who had seen some highest Truth, have said that the knowledge is the highest happiness; hence one can be released from highest sins by pure knowledge. They that destroyed many things thy had to go to Hell because of their bad actions. They who act without procrastinating them, reborn repeatedly sport in joy. Among them who are learned and wise, they perform actions with faith and no expectations, and are said to perceive clearly.

Now I will tell you how the association and disassociation take place between Kshetragya and Nature. Their relationship is like subject and its object (who is thinking or enjoying is subject and what is being thought and enjoyed is object - subject and object being two well known words of Sir W Hamilton's philosophy). Purush is always the subject and Nature is always the object. As an object of enjoyment, Nature is unintelligent and knows nothing; while Purush enjoys so He is intelligent and knows everything - so Kshetragya being enjoyer and Nature being enjoyed. Wise say that Nature is made up of opposites (duals) and consists of qualities (attributes). On the other hand Kshetragya has no opposites, no parts, no attributes, and He is eternal. Since He is knowledgeable, he is never affected of anything even if He comes to contact of anything. He is completely unattached of everything like the unsteady drop of water on a lotus leaf. Nature is the property of Purush. Thus Purush is Unmanifest and Nature is His manifest.

Understanding this, I wish to tell you something more; that whoever has bad Understanding, he cannot acquire knowledge even if he is given thousands of explanations; while whose understanding is good he can obtain knowledge even by telling bone fourth of it. Thus a duty (imparting knowledge) depend on the means (nature of understanding of the disciple). If the man of intelligence has the knowledge of means can succeed in attaining the Supreme. It is like a man traveling somewhere without provisions - this situation may take his life also; while a traveler traveling with provisions will reach his destination comfortably (in the same way, in the journey of life, one should have the knowledge as the means - action does not constitute the proper means, so it may or may not produce fruits.).

To find out what is agreeable and what is disagreeable in you, try to know if you are productive of benefit (one should not care for others). The progress in life of a man, if he has not perceived the Truth, is like a rash journey on an unknown road. After one has attained Brahm, he need not to do anything else what scriptures say. Thus conversant with qualities, one can know what is next, and then next. (Such as first action with desire, then action without desire, then knowledge. Or first action, then Yog, and then the state of Hans or Paramhans.) One who is deluded as a result of attachment, he sticks to it as a fisherman sticks to his boat and wanders within a narrow range only. As after being in a boat, it is not possible to move on land, and after embarking on a car it is not possible to move on water, because they are different objects for different actions (car for moving on land and boat to move on water), in the same way the action is performed in this world, its result is related to those only who perform them.

That Unmanifest one is called Pradhaan. Adevelopment of Unmanifest is Mahat. This Mahat is Egoism. Next development from this Mahat or Egoism is the origin of five great elements, and from great elements have originate the objects of senses. The Unmanifest is of the nature of seed. It is productive. Egoism is of the nature of seed and is a product again and again. And the five great elements are the nature of seed and products. The objects of the five great elements are endued with the nature of seed and yield products. These have Chitta for their property.

Among them space has one quality; wind is said have two; light (fire) three; water four; and earth, along with mobile and immobile, has all the five. She is the goddess, source of all entities, agreeable and disagreeable. Sound, color, touch, taste and smell - these are the five qualities of earth. Smell always belongs to earth, and can be of many types - agreeable, disagreeable, sweet, sour, pungent, diffusive, compact, oily, dry, clear. Thus smell is of 10 types. Sound, touch, color and taste are the qualities of water. Taste which is specially belongs to water, is of six kinds - sweet, sour, pungent, bitter, astringent and saline. Sound. touch and color - these three qualities belong to light (fire). Color is specific to light and it is of 12 varieties - white, dark, red, blue, yellow, grey, and short, long, minute, gross, square and circular. Sound and touch are the qualities of wind. Touch, especially belonging to wind, is of 12 kinds - rough, cold, hot, tender, clear, hard, oily, smooth, slippery, painful, and soft. Space has only one quality, that is sound. Sound is of 10 kinds - Shadaj, Rishabh, Gaandhaar, Madhyam, Pancham, Dhaivat, Nishaad (seven notes used in music). Besides these, there are agreeable, disagreeable, compact and of mixed types of sound. Space is the highest of the elements.

But Egoism is above the space. Above Egoism is Understanding, and above understanding is soul. And above the soul is Unmanifest. Above the Unmanifest is Purush. One who knows who is superior and who is inferior among the existing creatures attains the Unfading soul.

Brahmaa Jee further said - "Since the mind is the ruler of these five elements, it is the soul of the elements. It always presides over them. The understanding proclaims power and so is called Kshetragya (The Understanding operates on what is placed before it by the mind. the Understanding is the Lord exercising power being served by the mind.). The mind yokes the senses to this body, as the charioteer yokes the horses to the chariot. The senses, mind and Understanding are always joined to Kshetragya. The individual soul rides in that chariot all around holding his Understanding as reins.  Thus this great Brahm chariot (body) exists with all the senses attached as horses, mind as a charioteer, Understanding as reins. Whoever intelligent person understands his body like this he is never deluded in this world.

This forest of Brahm begins with the Unmanifest and ends with the gross objects. It is the means of subsistence for all creatures. Kshetragya always wanders in this forest. Whatever entities (living and non-living things) exist in this forest, they have to be dissolved first, then are dissolved those qualities (attributes) which compose these entities, and after the qualities are dissolved, the five elements are dissolved. Devtaa, Asur, men, Gandharv, Raakshas - all have sprung up from nature, not from actions, not from a cause. Braahman, the creators of the Universe, born here again and again. When the Time comes, all that appears from them is dissolved in five great elements. These great elements are beyond those elements which compose this Universe. He who is freed from those elements goes to the highest.

Prajaapati created all this by his mind only. Rishi attained the status of Devtaa by doing penance. In the same way others who practice Yog and subsist on fruits and roots, can see Tri-Lok. All the sciences are acquired by penance only. Whatever is difficult in this world can be got through penance, because penance is irresistible. Any kind of sin can be washed away through penance. All can get success through penance only. Even Devtaa who have the power of great illusion have got to Heaven only buy penance. First born from the Unmanifest, and then attaining the same again, freed from the qualities of Darkness and Passion and sticking to the qualities of Goodness, one becomes freed from all kinds of sins and can create all things [by attaining to the condition of the Universal cause - Unmanifest]. He who knows Him knows the Ved (One cannot know Ved only by reading them, who knows Kshetragya, he only knows Ved).

Of two syllables is Mrityu (death), of three syllables is the eternal Brahm. (In other words, Mam is death and Na-Mam - reverse of Mam, is eternal). Some men whose understanding is not good applaud for Karm. But the high-souled people never applaud Karm. Who can see beyond this world, they never care for Karm. By doing Karm this Jeev is born again and again taking up a body which is made up of 16 (5 elements and 11 Indriyaan).  However, this Purush (Jeev) is full of knowledge, of full of action. he is immortal who understands restrained Soul. The indication of tranquility is like a dream (when the state of tranquility is attained its environment becomes unreal as it is in dream). This is the goal of Gyaanee people who are unattached to this world, who see all creatures alike, who are without expectations. Now I leave to you, if you act in this way you will get success."

The preceptor continued - "After hearing this those Rishi obeyed Brahmaa Jee and attained many high regions." Vaasudev said - "Thus instructed by Brahmaa, the disciples did whatever he instructed them to do and attained emancipation." Arjun asked _ "Who was that Braahman and who was that pupil? If I am worthy to know this please tell me." Vaasudev said - "Know that I am the preceptor and mind is the pupil. I have told you all this because of my love towards you. If you have any love towards me, then do accordingly. And when this all will be practiced properly, you will become free from all sins and will attain to absolute emancipation.  I related this to you before also at the time of battle. And with your permission, now I wish to see my father, it is long time when I saw him."

Vaishampaayan Jee said - "Arjun said - "Today we will go to Hastinaapur. After meeting king Yudhishthir and informing him about this, you may go to your own city."

End of Anu-Geetaa


Home | Mahaabhaarat | Kathaa | 7-Post-War


Previous | Next

Created by Sushma Gupta On 05/27/04
Modified on 12/09/10