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Siddhaant Books on Astrology

It is difficult to tell the beginning date of astrology in India. The scholars who introduced astrology are clearly mentioned. According to Kashayp Sanhitaa there are 18 key Jyotish scholars who have written their Siddhaant - (1) Soorya, (2) Brahmaa (Pitaamaha), (3) Vyaas Jee, (4) Vashishth, (5) Atri, (6) Paraashar, (7) Kashyap, (8) Naarad, (9) Garg, (10) Mareechi, (11) Manu, (12) Angiraa, (13) Lomash, (14) Paulish (by Pulish Maharshi), (15) Chayan, (16) Yavan, (17) Bhrigu, (18) Shaunak or Som.

Siddhaant is a Sanskrit term, which roughly translates as the Doctrine or the Tradition, or rather a school of thought. Out of these 18 Aachaarya, and the Siddhaantik texts their unique astrological traditions provide, it seems that there were only 5 names to have merited the admiration of Varaah Mihir or it is also possible that all other Sidhaant might have got lost by the time of Varaah Mihir,that is why he wrote only about five Siddhaant.

Commenting on Panch Siddhaantikaa (by Varaah Mihir), Sudhaakar Dwivedi writes on his Panch Siddhaantikaa Prakaashikaa, p 2, referring to Soorya and Arun dialog that whatever knowledge of Garg etc Muni (1) Pulish Muni gave in Romak city that was called Paulish Siddhaant, (2) Soorya Dev gave to Yavan race of Romak, that was known as Romak Siddhaant; (3) Vashishth Jee gave to his son Paraashar that was called Vashishth Siddhaant; (4) Soorya gave to Mayaasur that was called Soorya Siddhaant; and (5) what Brahmaa Jee gave to his son Vashishth Jee that was called Paitaamaha Siddhaant. It is not stated that from where this Soorya Arun dialog has been taken, but it clearly shows that both Romak Siddhaant and Soorya Siddhaant have been give by Soorya Dev - first was given to Yavan race whom Indians consider as the Assyrians or Babylonians, in Romak city and the second one was given to Mayaasur whose place is unknown But Brahmgupt consider only Roamak Siddhaant as a foreign, but not the Soorya Siddhaant.

All the books written by these scholars are not available in their complete form. The evidence are also in fragmented part. Although some consider the Soorya Siddhaant the oldest but some regard the Brahm Sidhaant to be the oldest. This is stated in Shambhoo Horaa Prakaash. Among these 18 Siddhaant only 4 - Soorya, Brahm, Som and Vashishth are only procurable, others are rare.

Aarya Siddhaant
Aaryabhat's one work, Aarya Siddhaant, is known through the contemporaries, Varaah Mihir and later ones - Brahmgupt and Bhaaskar I. This work is based on Soorya Siddhaant (see below), and uses the midnight-day reckoning, as opposed to sunrise in Aaryabhateeya.  It also contains a description of several astronomical instruments: the gnomon (Shanku Yantra), a shadow instrument (Chhaayaa Yantra), possibly angle-measuring devices, semicircular and circular (Dhanur Yantra / Chakra Yantra), a cylindrical stick Yasti Yantra, an umbrella-shaped device called the Chhatra Yantra, and water clocks of at least two types, bow-shaped and cylindrical.

Drik Siddhaant
Drik siddhanta" is based on seeing planets in the sky and refining the calculations based on practical observation. Maharshi Paraashar supported this Siddhaant. This Siddhaant has been incorporated in Kundalee Software for astrology. Works with Swiss Ephemeris.

Laghu Paraasharee Siddhaant
One can read it here Laghu Parashari Sidhant

Lomash Siddhaant

Panch Siddhaantikaa
Panch Siddhaantikaa has been written by Varaah Mihir. He has described in this book 5 Siddhaant - "Paulish, Romak, Vashishth, Saur, Paitaamahastru Panch Siddhaantah". From among these 5 Siddhaant, the first two Siddhaant (Paulish and Romak) have been commented upon by Laatdev. According to Varaahmihir, all calculations in Paulish Siddhaant are true. Romak is also like that. But Soorya Siddhaant is clearer than these two Siddhaant. Remaining two - Paitaamaha and Vashishth Siddhaant are not true - may be out of date by the time of Varaah Mihir. Its two books are in publication - one by G Thibaut and another by Sudhakar Dwivedi (Panch Siddhaantikaa Prakaashikaa, in 1988). One book has been published by Mahaaveer Prasaad Shrivaastav (1940), but for the last 20 years this book is unavailable.

Romak Siddhaant
This is a book on principles of mathematical theory of ancient times. It is based on the principles of Yaman astrologer. Yaman astrology was particularly prevalent in Greece, Egypt etc countries. Romak Siddhaant gives the data on Sun and Moon and also describes in detail about Months, Exhausted Month, Dates and Exhausted Dates. The citizens of Babylon worship 5 planetary gods. These five planets are Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Romak Siddhaant mentions the worshipping of these five planets. Romak Siddhaant is a form of Lomash Siddhaant only. Romak word was introduced in ancient scriptures for the citizens of Rog country. The science associated with astrological calculations is one of the major principles in the scriptures. As these principle books were composed in Roman, so they were named Romanak after its name.

Siddhaant Shiromani
Translated by Sastri in 1861. One is written in English. If you go to Soorya Siddhaant in English, from Page 107 onwards you may read Siddhaant Shiromani. It contains 13 Chapters.

Som Siddhaant

Soorya Siddhaant
Read Soorya Siddhaant in English
A celebrated astronomical and cosmogenical work of ancient India of enormous antiquity. This work shows marvelous mathematical skill and comes very close to the modern time periods of astronomy that the most skilled mathematicians and astronomers have determined. It also deals with Yug in their various lengths, divisions of time itself into infinitesimal quantities, and general astronomical subjects, including not only the time periods of the Sun, Moon, and planets, but also eclipses, seasons of the year, etc.

The Soorya Siddhaant states that it was dictated more than two million years ago, towards the end of the Krit Yug (golden age) by the Sun himself, through a projected solar representative, to the great Mayaasur who wrote down this revelation. From the commencement of our Kali Yug to the end of the Satya Yug is 2,164,965 years ago. Some others regard it written by Varaah Mihir.

Vashishth Siddhaant
Vashishth Siddhaant describes about the motion of the Sun and the Moon in the solar system. The motion of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn , and Mercury has been mentioned. These books are capable to tell that what was the motion of planets in previous years, and how did these planets revolved in past ages. Vashishth Siddhaant has been mentioned briefly in Panch Saiddhantikaa. In this Siddhaant other than motion of the planets, planetary signs have also been mentioned. It is similar to Pitaamaha Siddhaant , but has more pure principles in many levels. Just like Pitaamaha Siddhaant, Vashishth Siddhaant has also believed that when the Sun rises, it is increased equally each day.

Other than this, Vashishth Siddhaant also describes about Ascendants which show which part of the Sun has emerged in the eastern horizon. But the scholars of those times were not aware of the difference between the Sun and the Moon and their apparent motions. Presently used Vashishth Siddhaant is not related in any way with the Vashishth Siddhaant of Varaah Mihira’s time. It is believed that Vashishth Siddhaant was more developed than Pitaamaha Siddhaant, but was low in level as compared to Soorya Siddhaant.



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Created on 05/18/2008 and Updated on 06/15/2013