Puraan | 8-Agni Puraan
8-Agni Puraan, Ch 209-213 , p 394-406
Various types of Daan (donations)
Agni Dev said - "Vashishth Jee, Now you listen to Daan Dharm. Daan is of two types - Isht and Poort. Who donates habitually, he attains everything. Digging wells, building temples, planting gardens etc are called "Poort Dharm" which gives Mukti. Donations given in eclipse time, on Soorya Sankraanti days, and Dwaadshee etc Tithi - that is called Poort Dharm. Agnihotra, speaking truth, studying Ved, felicitating A-Tithi are called "Isht Dharm" - this gives Swarg. Donation given in an appropriate country, at an appropriate time, and to an appropriate candidate multiplies the fruit million times. Donations cane be made at the time of Uttaraayan and Dakshinaayan Sankraanti, in Vishuv times, Vyateepaat, beginning of Yug, 12 Sankraanti (Two Ayan (January and July), and two Vishuv (April and September) ; four Shadasheetimukhaa Sankraanti - Dhanu, Mithun, Meen and Kanyaa; and four Vishnupadee Sankraanti - Vrish, Vrishchik, Kumbh, and Sinh) (see also Sankraanti), Ashtamee, Dwaadashee, Chaturdashee, Poornimaa, Amaavasyaa, Yagya, any occasion, marriage, seeing bad dream, seeing Braahman. Otherwise whenever one wants to donate anything can donate.
Sat Yug started on Kaartik Shukla Navamee, Tretaa Yug started on Vaishaakh Shukla Triteeyaa; Dwaapar Yug started on Maagh Poornimaa; and Kali Yug started on Bhaadrapad Krishn Trayodashee. Starting dates of Manvantar should be known as :--
(1) Aashwin Shukla 9, (2) Kaartik 12, (3) Maagh 3, (4) Bhaadrapad 3, (5) Phaalgun Amaavasyaa, (6) Paush 11, (7) Aashaadh 10, (8) Maagh 7, (9) Shraavan Krishn 8, (10) Aashaadh Poornimaa, (11) Kaartik Poornimaa, (12) Phaalgun Poornimaa, (13) Jyeshth Poornimaa, and (14) Bhaum Manvantar will start on
The three Ashtamee occurring after Maargsheersh Poornimaa (2 Paush Ashtamee and 1 Maagh Ashtamee) - are called three "Ashtakaa". Donation made on these Tithi is eternal. Unsolicited donations made in Teerth - Gayaa, Gangaa, Prayaag etc are good. But this rule does not apply for Kanyaa Daan. Donor should face Eastward and the taker should stand facing North. Whoever donates, his life increases, but the life of taker does not lessen. Donation should be made taking the names and Gotra of both the parties. While in Kanyaa Daan, it is pronounced three times. One should donate after taking bath, worship and taking water in hand with Sankalp. (see last paragraph on previous page)
Gold, horse, sesame seeds, elephant, maid, chariot, land, house, Kanyaa, and Kapilaa cow - these are 10 Mahaa Daan. Money received from education, bravery, Tapasyaa, Kanyaa, Yajamaan, disciple and architecture is not Daan but is fee. (1) Money earned from interest, trade, by doing good to others, (2) by gambling, theft, playing drama, by doing any courageous work, and (3) cheating - these three types of earned monies are called Saatwik, Raajas and Taamasik respectively. Money received at the time of marriage, at the time of coming from in-law's house, given by husband, brother, mother and father - these 6 types of wealth are called "Stree Dhan" (woman's money). Money obtained by the kindness of Braahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya is "Shoodra's money".
Cow, house, bed, and woman should not be given to many people [only to a single person], it is sin. Once vowed to give, and then not given destroys 100 generations of the person who has taken vow. One should make all possible efforts to offer Punya earned at any place to Devtaa, Guru and parents. Donated money with the expectation to be returned does not give fruits. Dharm is completed by Shraddhaa only. If offered only water with Shraddhaa, it is eternal. Because of protecting and helping an ignorant person is called Paatra (candidate [for Daan]). Donation made to mother is 100-fold, and made to father is 1000-fold; while donation made to a brother or daughter is eternal; donation made to other human beings is equal and donation made to sinners is useless.
Donation made to Varnsankar gives double the fruit, donations to Shoodra gives four times the fruit, donations made to Vaishya or Kshatriya gives eight times fruit, donations made to a Braahman who is Braahman only for namesake gives 16 times fruit and donations made to a Braahman who reads Ved gives 100 times fruit. Donation made to whoever Guru makes Ved clear to you, Purohit, poor Braahman, and Yagya doer Braahman gives eternal fruit.
While making donation, first take the name of the thing, then say "give", then give Sankalp water in the taker's hand. Who accepts donation should say "Vishnu is giver, Vishnu is the thing, and I take this donation. May the giver get his desired wish fulfilled." This the correct way of donating things. If somebody asks donation for any religious work, he should not use it for himself. One should not use Shoodra's money in Yagya, because its fruit goes to Shoodra. A Braahman who has no means of living can accept jaggery, juice etc from a Shoodra, because Braahman is holy like Agni (fire) and Soorya (Sun) by nature, therefore there is no sin attached to teach, to do Yagya and to take donation from a lower grade person. In Sat Yug, one donates to a Braahman by going to his house; in Tretaa Yug, it is given by inviting him; in Dwaapar Yug, it is given when he asks for it; and in Kali Yug, it is given on insisting. One can find the limit of the sea, but not of donation."
Types of Daan
Agni Dev said - "Now I will tell you all types of Daan. There are 16 Mahaa Daan - (1) Tulaa Purush Daan, (2) Hiranyagarbh Daan, (3) Brahmaand Daan, (4) Kalp Vriksh Daan, (5) Sahastra Go-Daan, (6) golden Kaamdhenu Daan, (7) golden horse Daan, (8) Daan of chariot with golden horses, (9) Daan of golden chariot with elephants, (10) Daan of five ploughs, (11) donation of land, (12) Vishwa Chakra Daan, (13) Kalp Latee Daan, (14) seven seas Daan, (15) gem cow Daan, (16) water filled pitcher Daan. These things should be donated to Braahman on an auspicious day in a Mandal after worshipping Devtaa.
Meru (mountain) Daan is also auspicious. They are of 10 types - (1) grains Meru - 1,000 Drone is the best, 500 Drone is medium, and 250 Drone is the lowest. (2) Lavanaachal should be made of 16 Drone. (3) Gud (Jaggeey) Parvat is best when of 10 Bhaar, medium when is of 5 Bhaar and lowest when is of 2 and 1/2 Bhaar. (4) Gold Meru is the best when is of 1,000 Pal, is medium when is of 500 Pal, and is the lowest when is of 250 Pal. (5) Sesame seed Parvat is the best at 10, 5 and 3 Drone respectively. (6) Cotton Parvat is the best at 20, 10, and 5 Bhaar respectively. (7) Ghritaachal (Ghee Parvat) is the best at 20 Kumbh (pitchers). (8) Silver Parat is the best at 10,000 Pal. (9) Sharkaraachal is the best at 8, 4, 2 Bhaar respectively. (Here only 9 types of Parvat are given)
9 Dhenu (cow) Daan. (1) Gud (jaggery) cow, (2) Ghrit cow, (3) sesame seeds, (4) Jal (water) cow, (5) Ksheer (milk) cow, (6) Madhu (honey) cow, (7) Sharkaraa (sugar) cow, (8) Dadhi (yogurt) cow, (9) Ras (juice) cow, and (10) imaginary Krishnaajin cow. All liquids should be filled in pitchers and then should be donated, and others should be donated by weight.
5 Gunjaa = 1 Maashaa
said - "Who has 10 cows, he should donate 1 cow; who has 100 cows, he
should donate 10 cows, both get the same fruit. Cow donation gives long life,
health, good luck and Swarg. 30 Sticks (10 Haath long stick) land is called
"Nivartan". 10 Nivartan land is called "Go-Charm". Who
donates this much land his all sins are destroyed.
--Who donates iron equal to one's own weight, he does nor fall in Narak.
When gold is donated, one should give silver in Dakshinaa, in other donations, gold may be given as Dakshinaa. Besides gold, silver, copper, rice and grains are also good for Dakshinaa. Daily Shraaddh and Devtaa worship do not need any Dakshinaa. In Pitar Karm, one should give silver Dakshinaa. Who donates land, he gets the fruit of donating all - gold, silver, copper, gems, pearls, etc.
All donations give fruits up to one life only. Gold, land, and Kanyaa Daan gives fruits up to 7 lives. Who donates Kanyaa, he uplifts his 21 generations and attains Swarg.
Various Kaamya Daan and Meru Daan
Agni Dev said - "Now I tell you about Kaamya Daan which fulfill desires. I each month, worshipping everyday, a special worship is done on one day - this is called Kaamya Poojan (the worship done with some desire). At the end of the year its Visarjan is done through Mahaa Poojaa.
--Who donates flour horse and lotus flower in Maargsheersh Maas, he lives in
Soorya Lok for long time.
Meru Daan, land donation, and cow donation are not discussed here.
Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/05
Updated on 05/22/13