Puraan | 8-Agni Puraan
8-Agni Puraan, Ch 154-157, p 320-326
Marriage; Conduct; Cleaning of Materials; Paatak
Pushkar said - "Parashuraam Jee, A Braahman can marry to all the four Varn girl according to his choice; Kshatriya can marry to three, Vaishya to two; and Shoodra can marry to only one Varn - his own Varn. Who is not one's own Varn, one should not do any religious alliance with her or him. The girl should be given (Kanyaa Daan) only once. Who abducts any girl, he is criminal like a thief. Who gets the habit of selling his children, he never comes out of sins. Kanyaa Daan, worshipping Shachee, marriage, and Chaturthee Karm - these four are called Vivaah. If somebody's husband is missing, or is dead, or has become Sanyaasee, or is impotent, or is fallen (Patit) - the woman can remarry. If one's husband is dead, she should be married to her husband's younger brother. If there is no younger brother, then she should be given to somebody else whoever wishes to marry her. To marry, Poorv-Bhadraa, Uttar-Bhadraa, Poorv-Aashaadhaa, Uttar-Aashaadhaa, Poorv-Phaalgunee, Uttar-Phaalgunee, Krittikaa, Swaati and Rohinee Nakshatra are auspicious.
Types of Vivaah - One should not marry in one's own Gotra. She should be 7 generations before from father's side and 5 generations before from mother's side. (1) To give one's daughter to a noble boy after inviting him to his house is called Braahm Vivaah. (2) When the girl is given after taking one bull and one cow from the groom, it is called Aarsh Vivaah. (3) When the girl is given on asking, that Vivaah is called Praajaapatya Vivaah - this Vivaah increases Dharm. (4) Giving girl after taking her price is called Aasuree Vivaah. This is a low grade action. (5) When the girl and the boy accept each other with their own will, it is called Gaandharv Vivaah. (6) Winning the girl battle is called Raakshas Vivaah. (7) Abducting a girl by deceiving is called Paishaach Vivaah.
Vivaah should not be performed from Aashaadh to Kaartik, when Vishnu sleeps. It should not be performed in Paush and Chaitra months. It should not be performed on Tuesday and Riktaa and Bhadraa Tithis. When Brihaspati and Shukra have set; there is Lunar eclipse; Soorya, Shani amnd Mangal are in Ascendant, and Vyateepaat is there, then also Vvaah should not be done. It should be done in Mrigshiraa, Maghaa, Swaati, Hast, Rohinee, three Uttaraa, Mool, Anuraadhaa and Revatee Nakshatra.
Pushkar said - "One should get up early in the morning, finish his daily chores, take bath, and do some kind of Jap - Purush Sookt, or Gaayatree Jap. After the Jap give some donation. One should never use the following things owned by others - bed, conveyance, wife, children, and Kamandal. If somebody is coming with a load, give him the way; in the same way one should give the way to a pregnant woman, and elderly people. One should not look at sunrise and sunset, not even in the water. One should not see a naked woman, in the well, places of murders, and sinners. One should not go over cotton, bones, ash, and hateful things. One should not enter in anybody's inner apartments and treasury. One should not work as a messenger for others. One should not embark on a broken boat, tree or mountain. One should always show curiosity about wealth, home and Shaastra.
One should not go in the dark without carrying a lamp. "Be good, be good" always say this. Where there are two elders are standing, one should not pass through them. One should not throw dirt in a river, nor take bath in it naked. Never make a mockery of evil people when they are in trouble, nor should stay with them at an unworthy place. One should not laugh loudly, yawn or sneeze without covering his mouth.
One should not disclose one's own and one's master's insult incident on others. One should not ignore even a small disease and enemy. Never show anger to a respectable person. One should not say bad words about anybody, Ved, Shaastra, king, Rishi, Devtaa etc. One should worship Braahman on one's birth Nakshatra.
Cleaning of Materials
Pushkar said - "Parashuraam Jee, A clay pot is cleaned after cooking it again, but if it is unclean by urine or feces, it is not cleaned ever after cooking it again. A golden pot, if it is touched with some unclean thing, it gets cleaned by washing it with water. Iron and Kaansaa pots become clean by rubbing ash. Pearl gets clean just by washing it under water. Pots made of conches and all kinds of stones, leaves, vegetables and fruits and roots, ropes, things made of bamboo are cleaned by washing them with water. If a pot is dirty by oil or Ghee, it can be cleaned by hot water. Wooden pots are cleaned by shaving them. If a thing is made of horn or tooth or bone, it becomes clean by rubbing ground yellow mustard seeds. A pot made of coconut or gourd, it becomes clean by rubbing cow's tail's hair.
Gond, jaggery, salt, wool and raw cotton (Kapaas) is cleaned by drying them in sunshine. Water of a river is always clean, and things brought for sale and spread outside are also considered clean
House is cleaned by sweeping and mopping. Clothes are clean by washing them with Reh soil and water. If a pile of clothes become dirty by touching some untouchable thing, then just sprinkle some water on them to make them clean. If a bed has got dirty with feces, it can be cleaned by washing it. If a bedding, or Aasan, or conveyance, or wood has become dirty, it becomes clean by washing only. Tassar (a kind of silk) is cleaned by the pulp of Bel fruit. Mash the pulp, mix it with water, dip the cloth in it and then wash it with water. Things made of deer skin or deer hair are cleaned by sprinkling water over them.
One must clean his mouth by Aachaman after taking food, spitting, sleeping, drinking water, taking bath, coming from outside and putting on clothes. A menstruated woman becomes clean the 4th day, but can worship Devtaa only on 5th day.
In Yagya Karm, Yagya pots are cleaned only by touching with Kush grass with right hand. Cow's all parts are clean except her mouth. Mouths of horse, goat, and woman are always clean. Mouth of calf at the time of milking a cow; mouth of birds while dropping fruits; and mouth of dogs while hunting are always clean.
Cleansing After Death or Paatak
Pushkar said - "When a man dies, A-Shauch (uncleanliness) is for 10 days up to 7 generations, down the dead man. This is for Braahman only. It stays for 12 days for Kshatriya, 15 days for Vaishya and 30 days for Shoodra. This Shoodra is he who is born from higher Varn or same Varn father. For whatever days A-Shauch is for master, for the same number of days it is for the servant. At the time of birth of a child, A-Shauch is of 10 days for all Varn.
If the child dies before his teeth come out, then his A-Shauch is of one day only; if he dies after his teeth have come out and before Choodaakaran, then it is one night A-Shauch. If he dies before Yagyopaveet, then the A-Shauch is of 3 days, and if he dies after Yagyopaveet then his A-Shauch is of 10 days. If a Shoodra child dies before the age of 3 years, his A-Shauch is of 5 days; if he dies after it, his A-Shauch is of 12 days; and of he dies after the age of 6 years, his A-Shauch is of 30 days.
Among girls, if a girl dies before her Mundan (shaving the head ceremony), her A-Shauch is of one night only; and if she has died after the Mundan, her A-Shauch is of 3 days. The girls who are married [and they are in their husband's house], their A-Shauch does not apply to their father's family. The girl who gives birth to a child in her father's house, that father's Sootak (birth A-Shauch) is of one day only; but the girl herself becomes clean in 10 days time. If a married girl dies in her father's house, then her father's house people are cleaned in 3 nights. Samaan A-Shauch should be finished before; and A-Samaan A-Shauch later; this is Dharm Raaj's guidelines.
If somebody is living out of the place, and if he hears the news of any of his Kul person's birth or death, then he is A-Shauch only for the remainder of 10 days. If he hears the news after 10 days of somebody's birth or death then he is A-Shauch only for 3 days. And if he knows it after 1 year, then he becomes clean just after taking bath. There is 3 nights A-Shauch at the death of Naanaa (maternal grandfather) or Aachaarya.
If a miscarriage occurs to a woman then the woman is A-Shauch for the same number of nights as the number of months of pregnancy.
Who die by jumping from mountain, burning in fire, by putting snooze in their neck, or by drowning in the water, by lightning, or by weapons in war - there is no A-Shauch for such people. Yati, Vratee, Brahmchaaree, King, workers who obey the King (government) they are unaffected by A-Shauch. Even if they go with the dead body, they just have to take bath to become clean. A dead Braahman should not be touched by a Shoodra, and viceversa, because by doing this both become sinner.
To take an orphan Braahman's dead body to cremation ground is a great Punya. Who gives wood for the last rites of an orphan, he wins war. The day somebody dies, people of that house should eat food either bought from outside or given by somebody without asking. If a child dies before his teeth have come out, or there is any miscarriage, one should neither perform any last rites for him nor he should offer any Jalaanjali. One should collect bones the 3rd day from burning the body.
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Created by Sushma Gupta on 3/15/05
Updated on 05/21/13