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42-Physical Features

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42-Physical Features
See also   Places for description of some prominent places of the world

Here are some important physical features of this Earth.

6 Continents
There are 6 continents - (1) Africa,  (2) Asia,  (3) Australia ,  (4) Europe,  (5) North America,  (6) South America, 

(1) Africa
(1) The largest country of Africa is
The largest Desert - Sahara Desert

(2) The Second Longest River of the World in Egypt - Nile

The longest river in the world is River Nile. It crosses Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan and Egypt. It is 4,258 miles long. Its water is shared by 11 countries -  Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt. It has two tributaries - Blue Nile and White Nile. Blue Nile flows out of Lake Tana in Ethiopia and flows towards West and While Nile flows out of Lake Victoria towards North. Both rivers meet near Sudan's capital Khartoum and then it is known simply as Nile and falls in Mediterranean Sea making a delta in 7 tributaries.

(3) One of the 7 Wonders of the World in Egypt - Pyramids
The oldest civilization's remains here in Egypt - Pyramids which are said to be 5,000 years old.

(4) The Black Desert
Located 100 km Northeast of the White desert, the Black Desert is a region of volcano-shaped mountains with large quantities of small black stones. The stones lie out across the orange-brown ground, so that it is not quite as black as many people may hope for. Especially after visiting the White Desert, which has formations that are really white, many will imagine a desert as dramatic as this. Climbing one of the many soft peeks, the view from the top is really nice, with similar peeks continuing on into the haze. The Black Desert is uninhabited.

(5) The Only Script in Africa is in Ethiopia - Amharic

The only African country which has its own script for its language is Ethiopia and the language is Amharic. All other languages use English alphabets for their languages.

(6) The Lowest Point on the Earth in Ethiopia
The lowest point on the Earth is

(7) Rock-hewn Church - Lalibela Church
This rock-hewn church is very famous church of Ethiopia.

There are many .... there. They are also very famous of Ethiopia

(9) Tana Lake and Source of Blue Nile
In its Northern part there is Tana lake which is the source of Blue Nile. From here it turns towards Sudan and joins River Nile

(10) The Highest Mountain of Africa in Kenya - Kilimanjaro

The highest mountain of Africa is Kilimanjaro in Kenya.

South Africa
(11) Diamond Mines
South Africa is famous for diamond mines.

(12) South Africa's four Nobel Peace Prize winners ...
Albert Lithuli (1960),
Desmond Tutu (1984),
FW de Klerk (1993)
Nelson Mandela (1993).

(2) Asia

1st largest country in the world by population and
2nd largest country in the world by area after Russia
4th largest country in the world by total area - after Russia, Canada, and USA

It has the longest combined land border in the world, measuring 13,743 miles from the mouth of the Yalu River to the Gulf of Tonkin. China borders 14 nations, more than any other country except Russia, which also borders 14.

(1) The Main River of China - Hwang-Ho or Yellow River
font face="Comic Sans MS" color="#000099"> It is 3,395 miles long. The 4th longest River of the world. the 2nd largest river of Asia. It rises from Bayan Har Mountains and falls in Bohai Sea.

(2) Another River of China - Yangtze Kyang
3,915 miles long. The 3rd longest river in the world and the longest river in Asia. Geladaindong Peak and falls in East China Sea.

(3) One of the 7 Wonders of the World - The Great China Wall
It was built by several dynasties over 2,000 years

(4) The Highest Mountain in India - Himaalaya

The highest mountain of the world is in Asia - in India - the Himaalaya.

(5) The Main River of India - Ganges
1,569 miles long. The main, the longest and the holiest river of India is Ganges.

(6) One of the 7 Wonders of the World - Taaj Mahal
One of the 7 wonders of the world Taaj Mahal is in India - in Aagaraa, UP.

(7) The Largest Country of the World - Russia

The largest country of the world is Russia.

(8) The Longest Railway Line of the World in Russia - Trans Siberian Railway
The longest railway line is in Russia. It crosses the whole Russia from west to east - Trans-Siberian Railway

(9) The largest and main River of Russia is Volga
The largest and main river of Russia is River Volga which falls in North Sea.

(10) Conical Forests
Its conical forest are famous in the world.

(11) River Volga
2,294 miles long. in Russia, in Asia. Rises from Valdai Hills and falls in Caspian Sea. It is the longest river of Europe but the national river of Russia. Its delta is about 100 miles and includes as many 500 channels.

(12) Another River of Russia - Ural River,
1,511 miles long. It is also an important river in Russia. It comes out from the Southern Ural Mountains in the North and falls in the Caspian Sea.

(13) Kamchatka Peninsula
On Eastern side of Russia in North.


(3) Australia

(1) Four Deserts
Australia is the home of four large deserts popularized by Mad Max: Sturt's Stoney Desert, Tanami Desert, the Great Victoria Desert and the Simpson Desert, which is also known as 'The Big Red' due to the presence of dunes of red sand. The Simpson Desert is an erg which contains the world's longest parallel sand dunes. These north-south oriented dunes are static, held in position by vegetation. They vary in height from 3 meters in the west to around 30 meters on the eastern side. The most famous dune, Nappanerica, or, more popularly, Big Red (named by Simpson Desert traveler Dennis Bartell), is 40 meters in height.

(4) Europe

(1) United Kingdom
In London, there is
--River Thames
--London Bridge over its River Thames
--Tower of London in which all the Loot is kept which was looted during British colonial times.
--Westminster Abbey - their church
--Big Ben
--Buckingham Palace, where the Queen lives.
--Victoria Albert Museum - it is one of biggest museum in the world

(2) In France
--River Seine
--Eiffel Tower
This Tower was built for communication, now it has become a milestone of the whole France
--Louvre Museum and in that museum is the painting of Mona Lisa

(3) In Italy
--The city in canals - Venice
Venice is sited on a group of 118 small islands separated by canals and linked by bridges. Venice is renowned for the beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks. The city in its entirety is listed as a World Heritage Site, along with its lagoon
--One of the 7 old wonders in Pisa - Pisa's Leaning Tower
It has been leaning towards one side without any reason, the architects are unable to understand.
--Colosseum in Rome - a huge amphitheater - the famous elliptical amphitheater in the center of the city of Rome, Italy. Built with concrete and stone it was the largest amphitheater of he Roman Empire and is considered the greatest work of Roman architecture and engineering. It is still the largest amphitheater in the world. Although it is partially ruined but still is the most visited place in Rome. Built in 70-80 AD. It can hold anywhere between 50,000 to 80,000 spectators.

(4) Switzerland
--Famous for its watches

(5) Sweden, Norway, Holland etc Northern Countries
-- Have 6 months day and 6 months night

(6) Famous Mountain Range in Europe

(5) North America

(1) Longest River - Missouri
River Missouri -  Longest river of North America. Rising from the Rocky Mountains of western Montana,  three streams rise to form the headwaters of the Missouri River. The longest one begins near Brower's Spring, 9,100 feet above sea level. It flows first West and then North. Later all three streams flow first East and then South for 2,341 miles before joining the Mississippi River, North of St. Louis, Missouri. It empties Its path was discovered by Lewis and Clark.

(2) Mississippi River
Mississippi River is the 4th longest river of the world and the chief river of N America. It rises in Northern Minnesota and empties in the Gulf of Mexico.  With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 31 US states and 2 Canadian provinces

(2) Fresh Water Lakes
The only continent where there are 5 Great fresh water lakes - (1) Lake Michigan,  (2) Lake Superior,  (3) Lake Eerie,  (4) Lake Ontario,  (5) Lake Huron.

(2) One of the 7 natural Wonders - Grand Canyons
The only continent where there is Great Canyon in Arizona State, carved by Colorado River. It is considered 1 of the 7 natural wonders of the world. It is 277 miles long and 18 miles wide with a depth of 6,000 feet (almost 3.5 miles).

(3) One of the 7 natural Wonders - Niagara Falls
Situated on the border of the US and Canada on North-East side in New York State.

(4) Disney World
Disney World is the most famous theme park created for children by Walt Disney in Florida, USA. Its main character is Mickey Mouse. After that a similar theme park was also opened with the name of Disney Land in California, USA.

(5) Hollywood
Hollywood is the most known film making place, film studio, of the USA located in California.

(6) South America

(1) Longest River - Amazon
4,345 miles long. The longest River of the world is River Amazon in South America. It runs through 3 countries - Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. Its source is Andes Mountains and it falls in Atlantic Ocean. Its width varies from 1 mile to 6.2 miles. During the rainy season it width extends up to 30 miles. Its mouth is about 150 miles wide. Its main stream itself is 50 miles wide at this point. Because of its vast dimensions sometimes it is called The River Sea. The Amazon originates from the Apacheta cliff in Arequipa at the Nevado Mismi, marked only by a wooden cross.

(2) The Longest Mountain Range
Andes Mountain range

(3) Magellan Strait
The Magellan Strait is a navigable sea route immediately South of mainland South America and the North of Tierra del Fuego. The strait is the most important natural passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It is otherwise important because Ferdinand Magellan organized the first circumnavigation of the Earth through this passage and hence this name. Magellan's expedition of 1519–1522 became the first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean.

Some Other Features of the World

Ethiopia is called "Land of Thirteen Months of Sunshine".
Japan is known as "The Land of Rising Sun"
Lesotho is called "The Country in the Sky"
Tibet is called "The Roof of the World"
Venice (Italy) is called the "Floating City" or "City in Canals" because it is a group of 118 islands separated by canals and linked by bridges.

Main Bays
Bay of Bengal, on East side of Indian Peninsula
Bay of Cambay (or Bay of Khambaat) in Gujarat, in Western India

Main Canals
Suez Canal (above Red Sea to Mediterranean Sea))
Panama Canal (between N America and S America)

Main Capes
Cape Komorin, India
Cape Guardafui, at North-East coast of Somalia, Africa. At the entrance to Gulf of Aden.
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa
Cape Horn, South America
Cape Lopatka, Kamchatka, Russia

Main Deserts
Sahara Desert in Northern Africa (The largest desert)
Whole Arab is  desert
Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa - It includes Namibia Desert. It is the only desert with elephants.
A large part of Australia is desert
Gobi Desert in China (5th largest Desert) - Marco Polo writes that it took a month to cross it at its narrowest point.
Thar Desert in Rajasthaan, in India
Arizona, USA, is desert

Main Geysers
--Frying Pan Lake - The largest Geyser of the World. In New Zealand

--Geysers Boiling Lake - The 2nd largest Geyser in Dominica. Dominica's Boiling Lake is the second largest hot spring in the world and rests at the bottom of a large sinkhole-like basin. More accurately, it is a flooded fumaroles, an opening, crack or hole, in the Earth's crust, generally located within the vicinity of a volcano, which emits steam and gases escaping from molten lava below.

--Grand Prismatic Spring - The 3rd Geyser in the World. The largest in America. In Yellowstone Park, CA, USA
--The Great Geyser - In Iceland.  Eruptions at Geyser can hurl boiling water up to 70 meters in the air. However, eruptions may be infrequent, and have in the past stopped altogether for years at a time.
--Strokkur Geyser - In Iceland. Strokkur (Icelandic for "churn") is a fountain geyser in the geothermal area beside the Hvítá River. It is one of Iceland's most famous geysers, erupting about every 4–8 minutes 15–20 meters high, sometimes up to 40 meter high.
--Mammoth Hot Springs - California, USA. It is a large complex of hot springs on a hill of travertine in Yellowstone National Park, in CA in USA
--Geysers del Tatio / San Pedro de Atacama - In Northern Chile. El Tatio is a geyser field located within the Andes Mountains of Northern Chile at 4,320 meters above sea level. Its name means the grandfather. It is among the highest-elevation geyser fields in the world. El Tatio has over 80 active geysers.

Main Gulfs
Gulf of Aden - between Somalia in Africa and Yemen in Arabia
Gulf of Alaska
Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Mexico - below Mexico
Gulf of Suez
Persian Gulf - above Dubai and Qatar

Main Lakes
--5 Great Lakes in North America Continent - Superior, Michigan, Erie, Ontario, - all freshwater lakes
--Baikal Lake - the world's oldest and deepest freshwater lake, curves for nearly 400 miles through South-Eastern Siberia, North of the Mongolian border. It lies in a cleft where Asia is literally splitting apart, the beginnings of a future ocean. It is more than 5,000 feet (5,370 feet) deep at its most profound. It is also called "Blue Eye of Siberia". It holds the volume of watr larger than all the Great Lakes combined.
--Lake Nasser - in Southern Egypt Egypt (and in Sudan) - the second largest man-made lake - 340 miles long and 22 miles wide at its widest point.

Main Oceans
Pacific Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
Indian Ocean

Main Peninsula
Alaska peninsula
Indian Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula

Main Plateaus
Pamir Plateau in Tibet

Main Rivers
(1) Amazon  = 4,345 miles long. Runs through 3 countries - Brazil, Colombia and Peru in S America
(2) Nile  = 4,258 miles (or 4,184 miles, or 4,132 miles) long. Runs through 11 countries - Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan, and Egypt in Africa
(3) Yangtze Kyang  = 3,915 miles long,  in China, Asia - Longest River in Asia, 3rd longest in the world
(4) Hwang Ho = 3,395 miles - 2nd largest river of Asia in China, Asia, after Yangtze Kyang River
(5) Missouri = 2,341 miles - covers 7 US states - joins Mississippi south to St Louis, MS in N America
(6) Mississippi - 2,320 miles - covers 10 US states (21 with its tributaries) and 2 Canadian provinces in N America
(7) Volga - 2,294 miles. in Russia, in Asia. Rises from Valdai Hills and falls in Caspian Sea
(8) Ganges - 1,569 miles. in Northern India, Asia.

Main Seas
North Sea

Aral Sea
Black Sea
Caspian Sea
Dead Sea

Arabian Sea
Red Sea
Mediterranean Sea

Bering Sea - It is the marginal Sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is separated from the Gulf of Alaska by the Alaska Peninsula.

Caribbean Sea

Main Straits
Cook Strait in New Zealand
Strait of Gibraltar - between Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean

Some Names with "Land"
Ice Land
New Zealand
Swaziland, Southern Africa
Zululand, South Africa

Main Travelers

Marco Polo, 1271-1295
An Italian traveler who went up to China, Singapore, Ceylon, Southern India

Christopher Columbus, 1492-1504
An Italian sea traveler who started from Spain and discovered North America by chance as he thought that he had come to India. That is why he named the native Americans Indians. Later they were differentiated from Indians by calling Red Indians.

Vasco da Gama, 1498-1524
A Portugal sea traveler who was the Admiral of the Seas of Arabia, Persia India, found the sea route to India. He landed in India on May 20, 1498 in Calicut.

Ferdinand Magellan, 1519-1522
A Portuguese sea traveler who is known for his first voyage, during 1519-1522, to go round the world through the Strait of Magellan (south of mainland of South America).

Hwaan Saang -
A Chinese land traveler who came to India during

Jeronimo Lobo, 1622-1657
A Portuguese Roman Catholic Missionary traveler to Ethiopia and India.

David Livingstone
He discovered the source of River Nile of Africa.

Main Authors, Poets, Play Writers

Jean-Paul Sartre

Great Britain
Charles Dickens (novelist)
Coleridge (poet)
Milton (poet)
PB Shelley (poet)
William Shakespeare - many plays, stories
William Wordsworth (poet)
YB Keats (poet)

Homer (a Greek author - wrote two epics Iliad and Odyssey)

Valmeeki - Raamaayan
Tulsi Das - Ram Charit Manas
Kali Das - many dramas - Abhigyan Shaakuntalam, Meghdoot
Ved Vyas - Mahaabhaarat

M Gorky (novelist from Russia - Maa)

Main Philosophers

All from Greece
Diogenes - He was in Socrates' times



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Created by Sushma Gupta on January 15, 2002
Modified on 03/21/14