Shishu Sansaar | Science


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Make look your skin red
There is one chemical in Heena which affects our skin to become red - that is Lason. It makes the protein threads network in hands red and keeps them red up to a month.

Chemistry is a wonderful subject. Some time it makes colorless things colorful and some time colorful things colorless.  If you spray the sulfur dioxide or chlorine on green, blue, and yellow flower petals, then the color of these flowers will disappear. This process is called bleaching.
colored thing + CI2 / SO2   bleaching making colored things colorless.

Chlorine is the niece of Sheelay. It was born in 1774. Its parent's names are Manganese Dioxide and Hydrochloric Alkali. It is of attractive green yellow color and it is named as CI2. At the age of 15 it was married to Dry silicate lime. Then they gave birth to bleaching powder. Bleaching powder does so many jobs in the house.

Chlorine is used to clean our drinking water. It shines in the sun light, it smells sweet, but more quantity of its smell can cause death too. It changes the color of blue litmus paper into red, and burns the paper wet in turpentine oil. It is poisonous by nature and is twice heavier than air. If angry, it can take the color off from some flowers. It is used to clean water, is anti-germ and cleans even gold. It is used to clean the wounds as well that is why it is used in war too.

Why one spoilt fruit spoils others if they are kept together?
A whole basket of fruit gets spoiled if one of its fruits there is spoiled. In fact ripen fruits release Ithilene gas (C2H2) which makes the ripening process faster. As the amount of this increases, nearby fruits also get ripen fast and get spoiled faster.

Wrinkles on our face
Wrinkles are natural in old age. But why? Because the upper layer of our face is made up of Collagen and Elastine protein fiber. They keep our skin tight. As the time goes on they decrease and get disorganized and thus create wrinkles.

Do you know where the saccharin comes from? From Coal Tar.  Falberg was experimenting on "Taluin" - an extract from Coal Tar. He used several chemicals in his experiment. In the meantime he had to take food, so in hurry he could not wash his hands. When he ate his food it tasted very sweet while there was nothing like sweet in the food. He left the food and ran towards his laboratory. He tasted his chemicals and thus accidentally saccharin was invented.

Why does egg solidify on boiling?
Why does egg solidify on boiling? egg is mostly protein (white part) and fat (the yellow part). All proteins solidify on high temperature, thus when eggs are boiled its protein solidifies.

How are we here on earth
Why our Earth can sustain life? because of carbon dioxide. it is only three parts in 10,000 parts but it is responsible to keep the temperature controlled. The Sun creates heat, heat is sent on the earth, some heat is absorbed by the earth but rest is sent back to the atmosphere. Most rays go back through atmosphere, but heat creating ..... rays cannot go through carbon dioxide, they keep the earth atmosphere warm. This effect is called green house effect. It sets the earth temperature at 15 degree C.

Show this to your friends
Take a glass full of water, mix a teaspoonful baking soda in it. Then drop 3-4 Napthelene balls in it. What happens? First the balls sat at the bottom, then they slowly come on the surface? In fact, in this process Carbon Dioxide gas is formed which lift the balls through bubbles. When the ball comes near the surface some bubbles burst and the gas which brought them up decreases, so again they start going down. When they reach at the bottom, again some gas is formed and lifts them up. This process continues until the bubbles of the gas do not stop to form.

Aluminum pots are very common for cooking and storing food items in the world. But the modern research has proved that these pots are not good for both activities. Because aluminum oxidizes very soon with the oxygen in the air and stays in the form of a fine film on the pots. It is invisible, so when we cook food, or we store food in these pots this material goes in our body with the food. These pots should not be used especially for making tea, keeping yogurt, chutneys, sauces, vinegar, lemon, fruit juices, tomato, tamarind etc. If the water has fluoride, then quite a good amount of aluminum can dissolve in that water on boiling.

Food and medicines from hair
If you see any hair in your food, you will throw either the hair, or the food. And if somebody tells you that your food is made of hair, you might not eat it at all. Before some time hair was used only to make wigs and other cosmetic accessories. But now it is used to make food and medicine too. You know that hair is made up of protein, but you might not be aware that hair has all the 24 amino acids which are present in our body. Some Japanese and Korean companies have already started using it in making bread, cough syrup and energy capsules. Some countries use its l-systine, l-tyrocine, and glutomic in spices.

Who invented glass?
Glass was invented by sailors. At one time an impure soda pieces loaded ship stayed in Phoenicia near Belus river. Sailors of that ship wanted to cook their food but they could not get any thing on which they could keep their cooking pot, so they picked three soda pieces and started cooking their food. After some time a transparent liquid started flowing from those pieces - it was the glass. To make it colored different metallic oxides are mixed in this, for example Ferrous Iron for green color, Pheric Iron for yellow color, Cueprus Salt for red color, Cuepric salt for indigo blue, Manganese Dioxide for violet color, sulphur for brown color, and tin oxide for milky color.

Remove stains by different chemicals
Chemicals help in removing stains also: for botanical stains (fruit, vegetables, tea, coffee) use warm water, soap, soda and Suhaagaa. For animal stains (blood, fat, egg, mucus etc.) use ammonia, salt, lemon, and Carbon Tetrachloride. For chemical stains (ink, rust, paint, iodine etc.) use Oxselic alkali. Stains on white clothes are removed using Hydrogen Peroxide. For other stains like Vaseline, oil, etc use amil asitet.

Shortage of iodine is the main cause of Goiter disease but gives rise to other diseases also.

Make a man laugh or weep
There are gases which can make man laugh and weep. Nitrus gas (laughing gas) makes you laugh. It was invented in 1772 by Joseph Priesley. In 1844, Harris Walls used it to extract his tooth while laughing. There is a tear gas also which police uses to disperse the mob.

Why leaves are green? 
Chlorophyll makes a plant's part green, Whatever part of a plant will have as much chlorophyll, it will look as much green. In Fall season trees make very less chlorophyll that is why their leaves do not look all green. Its chemical name is Magnesium Dihydro Porpherine. Its chemical structure looks like number one written in Devanaagaree (Hindi language). All green plants produce their food themselves with the process of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is of five types, among which Chlorophyll a is found in every plant.

Why earthen pots or bricks get red on heating?
Why earthen pots or earthen bricks are red in color? Because iron is also there with other materials in the earth when pots are made. so when they are cooked in the oven, the iron compound is changed in to iron oxide, and this is of light brown color. and along with silica and other compounds it becomes red on being cooked.

You put out the fire with water, but which one? Not all.
All people say "put out fire with water", but which one? Water can put out the fire caused by alcohol, but not by gasoline. Why? Although both gasoline and alcohol are the hydrocarbon, but they vary considerably in their density. Density of gasoline is much less than the water, so when you pour water on the burning gasoline, then gasoline spreads in a fine film over the water and burns continuously. At that time both surfaces can be seen clearly and separately, while alcohol dissolves in the water. When water is poured on the alcohol caused fire, its burning power is reduced and with lots of water it can be put out.

Even composed of hydrogen and oxygen water can put out the fire. Why? Because water does not burn itself and it has tremendous power of absorbing heat. When a layer of water comes in between the air and fire, the fire does not have any contact with the oxygen in the air, that is why by pouring water you can put out the fire. Combined hydrogen and oxygen have different properties than when they are separate, as the salt which is composed of sodium and chlorine, does not have their properties.

Why birthday balloons fly up?
Why your birthday balloon goes up? You might have seen flying balloons in birthday parties. How do they fly? because they are filled with lighter gas than the air, and that gas is helium - it is lighter even from hydrogen gas. There is no risk of blast from this gas.

Why some medicine bottles are made of colored glass?
There are some medicines which should be kept away from light and heat which sometimes can make them even harmful. Such medicines are kept in dark colored glass bottles so that it cannot absorb sun light.

Why do men get beard and heavy voice? 
Because of hormones. Male and females have different kind of hormones which affect their many systems. The hormonal imbalance  can create so many strange things in both sexes.

Set fire in water
Sodium metal can produce fire in water when mixed with water. Normally sodium is kept in kerosene oil or benzene so that it cannot dissolve much.

Know your minerals from your plants
There are some plants which point out to minerals found nearby. Carnation and mint family plants tell about copper; Pricklepier, a type of cactus, tells about manganese etc.

Why use neon gas light for road signs?
Neon gas is for artificial light. This sodium steam produced light does not hurt eyes and can be seen from very far points.

How the life came into being? 
It is said that in the beginning, in the atmosphere of the earth there were hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen gases in great quantity. They produced water, ammonia and methane like matters. These matters reached in sea through rains, and got responsible for primary life.

Create a chemical garden
Take a jar of white clear glass. Fill it with sand up to one inch. Fill the rest of the jar with the mixture of equal parts of water-glass (sodium syllicate) and water. Now spread the granules of Cobalt, chloride, copper sulfate, ferrous sulfate, manganese chloride, nickel sulfate. After some time these granules will grow upward and in about two hours your chemical garden will be ready to enjoy.

Why hair is not red, blue or green?
Melanin color is found in the lower end of the hair follicle which keeps hair black. sunlight keeps it maintained. Where hair does not get enough sun light hair starts getting gray. With climate and heredity hair can be golden, or brown; but they cannot be blue, green, yellow, because these colors are not in the human body.

Cooking gas is not a gas
Do you know that your cooking gas comes not in gas form but in liquid form?

Why flower fragrance is so much in the air?
All flowers are fragrant because of steamed carbon matters found in them. and this fragrance is not only found in flowers but also is found in other parts of the plant, such as leaves (mint leaves), wood (sandal wood) etc. Although their structure is oil like but still they are not oils, that is why with the contact of air they just fly.

Stop crying while cutting onion
Alikyle Dye and tri Sulphide and carbon are the main cause of onion smell. Thiopropenel - sulphur dioxide brings the tears in your eyes. So cut the onion in the water.

Soap is colored, but its foam is white, why?
Because the hydrocarbon creates the foam in soap, not the pigments mixed in soap, so whatever color is of soap, foam will always be white.

Make volacano from baking soda
A fun and instructive project for adults and kids alike is a baking soda volcano. Take a tall glass or empty soda bottle and build a large construction paper cone around it, centering the opening of the cone over the opening of the bottle. Place one cup of baking soda in the glass (or bottle) along with a quarter cup of dishwashing detergent and a few drops of red food coloring (to resemble lava). Pour two cups of vinegar into the bottle, and watch the chemical “eruption.”



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Created by Sushma Gupta on January 15, 2002
Modified on 10/21/13