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82-Soccer-3 - Rules of the Game

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82-Soccer Or Football-3 : Rules of the Game

1815 - First Rules of Football
In 1815, the famous English school Eaton College established a set of rules which other schools, colleges, universities began to follow. Later they were standardized as Cambridge Rules and were adopted in 1848.

1863 - Official Football Association Founded
There had been rules in the past - too many and often conflicting. From the early 19th century the games were played on the pitches, playgrounds and cloisters of England's public schools, but all schools differed in their rules. Cambridge undergraduates were very frustrated, so they unified the rules between mid 1840 to late 1840, but they were not acceptable until 1863. Twelve clubs and schools met to finalize everything - 11 agreed but one differed. So 11 clubs and schools formed the Football Association. Fourteen laws were penned down and it became the most played, watched and talked game on the planet of Earth.

In 1869, the Football Association made a rule which forbade any handling of the ball.

1872 - Football Goes International
First International game was played between England and Scotland (0-0) with the attendance of 4,000 audience in 1872. But in those days the game looked more like Rugby than modern day football. Although the game was more developed in England but Scotland's revolutionary passing tactics proved more effective.

1886 - First Meeting of International Football Association Board (IFAB)
Despite of the unification of rules and creation of the Football Association in 1863, disputes still continued. Finally then International Football Association Board put them to end. It was meant to protect and preserve the rules. This constituted of two representatives of the four from each of the four associations of the UK. Its first meeting was held in June 1886.

In 1888, 12 clubs were persuaded to agree to a regular home and away fixture list - so creating the English Football League.

1891 - Referees, Penalties, and Nets
There was no such thing as penalties till 1891, because it was assumed that a public schools student of England can never deliberately commit a foul. Introduction of penalty, as it was originally called "the kick of death", was a result of increased competition and a commitment of fairness. The referee was allowed to play in the field.

By the time the first FA Cup and International fixture took place, two umpires, one per team, were employed to whom each side would complain. Referee's duties changed in 1891. Then a single person was invested with the powers to send players off, give penalties, and free kicks without listening to appeals became a permanent feature of this game, while the two umpires were made linesmen, or "assistant referees" as they are called now. A goal net was also accepted in that meeting after the introduction of crossbar to replace tape introduced 16 years before.

The Present IFAB
The Present IFAB - The IFAB is composed of the Football associations of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, who each have a vote together with FIFA who represents the other 201 member associations with four votes. For a proposal to succeed, it must receive the support of at least 3/4th votes of those present and entitled to vote.

With the condition that principles of the Laws are maintained, rules may be modified for the players under 16 years of age, for women players, for veteran players (over 35 years of age), and for players of disabilities. The following modifications are allowed -

(1) Size of he field, 
(2) Size, weight and material of the ball, 
(3) Width between the Goal Posts and height of the crossbar from the ground, 
(4) Duration of the periods of the game, and 
(5) Substitutions.

FIFA has published all this in its handbook which can be downloaded free from the Internet.

Any kind of ball may be used, but the right size plays the game right.
Circumference - minimum 27" (68 cms); and maximum 28" (70 cms).
Weight - minimum 14 oz (410 gms); and maximum 16 oz (450 gms) at the start of the match.
Pressure - equal to 0.6 1.1 atmosphere (600 1100 g/cm2).

Still the game can be played by any ball. Diego Maradona, the famous player of Brazil, learned his game by using a knotted bundle of cloth rags.



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Created by Sushma Gupta On May 27, 2001
Modified on 01/27/14