43-Management in Ancient India
Vidur's Neeti - told to Dhritraashtra.
There is one article about the management on the following site
Hundreds of books are available on ancient
Indian management, even today in the printed form. Most important among
them are Bhagavad Geetaa, Yoga Vashishth, Shukra Neeti Saar, Bhartrihari's
Upadesh Shatak, Chaanakya's Neeti Saar, Bheeshmopadesh, Bharatopadesh,
Lakshamnopadesh, hundreds of Subhaashit, dialogues/advise given by the
gurus /Rishi in Raamaayan and Mahaabhaarat and so on. These books and many
other books of the same quality explain the management messages adoptable
and adaptable for the 21st century. Here, we present few messages from
Viduropadesh in the same order as it is given in his book. These messages
are given by Vidur, to Dhritaraashtra, when the latter was terribly confused
whether to support his son Duryodhan who was practicing all A-Dharm or support
Dharm Putra who was the embodiment of Dharm. At the junction of this confusion
and self analysis Dhritraashtra invited his brother Vidur for consolation and
for a solution to over come the problems. The messages given by Vidur to
Dhritraashtra is known as Viduropadesh, which is the part of Mahaabhaarat...
1. A scholar/ manager should have spiritual
knowledge, devotion towards work, patience, endurance, moral strength.
2. He should use the moral strength for protecting Dhaarmik values; devotion towards
work should be used for earning money and controlling luxurious expectations and the
spiritual knowledge should be used for detachment.
3. The scholar should follow Dharm and never practice A-Dharm.
4. He should have faith in god and concentration towards his work.
5. He should not get angry nor get excited / nor show the ego /nor be childish. He should
not be a spendthrift and should not think that "I am great and respectable".
6. Should take other's advise/ opinion before undertaking /doing a work.
7. He should not disclose everything about a work before it is completed.
8. Heat, cold, fear, happiness, unhappiness, luxury, poverty, etc, should not affect him
positively or negatively.
9. He should not focus too much on the negatives or positives.
10. He should focus mainly on the work (Karm) / mission only.
11. A scholar/manager should use his wisdom for Dhaarmik mission and also for prosperity in
a Dhaarmik way.
12. He should get away/ relieved from a luxurious / extravaganza in his life.
13. Expect what he deserves and whole heartedly work to achieve the goal (expectations).
14. Never ignore anything nor consider as silly; take seriously the work.
15. Try to listen as much as possible from all sources
16. Try to learn quickly and systematically
17. Never start any work without a deep understanding about the work.
18. Never interfere with others work without his consent.
19. Never talk in between without the consent of the speaker.
20. Never expect which you will not get; never feel sad on what you lost
for ever and keep stability during crisis.
21. A manager should use powerful and attractive words during discussions
22. He should be in a position to convince others easily.
23. His words should reflect his wisdom and should be capable for nterpreting the rules positively.
24. He should become a model for others in words and deeds.
25. His knowledge + experience + wisdom + action should work complementary to each other
26. His qualification, method of action and attitudes should also compliment each other.
27. He should never become crazy for money but should earn that through hard work.
28. Never give up any mission undertaken without completing it, however difficult may that be.
29. Never interfere with other's work if it does not come under your purview. Treat the friends
with the same dignity they show to you and never be over polite to those who do not respect /
love you and never give up any good friends
30. Do not show affection / love to those who do not reciprocate and never try to fight with
strong and powerful people.
32. Never try to impress by showing that an enemy is your friend
33. Never ill treat your good friends and never do bad against them / others.
34. Never try to project yourself, never doubt others (for everything).
35. Do the work undertaken within specific time limit
36. Respect the parents and forefathers, keep faith in the divine power and also try to
make good friends.
37. Never enter into a house without invitation, never try to answer to a question without
asking and never try to put trust on those who are not trustworthy.
38. Criticizing others for doing something and doing the same thing by self is foolishness.
39. Knowing well that self is incapable of doing something and then getting angry on others
40. Without knowing our own limitations and without doing any work / strain, trying to grab
wealth of others is foolish.
41. Never advise those who do not deserve/ seek your guidance.
41. Expect nothing from a miser and from a useless fellow.
42. Try to follow the footsteps of highly educated, hardworking man who makes money in a Dhaarmik way.
43. Share the food and money with others for making friendship.
44. Remember that many people do heinous work and others suffer.
45. Many a times those who create problems escape from the punishment.
46. The arrow shot from a bow may or may not kill but the intellectual power shot from an
intelligent man can even uproot a nation.
47. A poison and an arrow may kill only to whom it was given/shot, the advise of a manager
can destroy the whole system, including the manager himself.
48. Never eat tasty food alone, never analyze a serious matter alone, never go for a long
tour alone, never walk away from a group of people sleeping together.
49. As a ship is needed for crossing the ocean similarly truth is needed for solving the problems.
50. Only one criticism / blame may have to be faced by a manager having good patience. That is
"the manager is a coward" he will not have to face any other blame because patience
is a great quality which attracts many.
51. Nothing can affect a person with patience.
52. Like the fire automatically puts off in a bare land, the cruel actions will not
affect a man with patience.
53. Dharm leads to glory; Patience leads to peace; Non violence leads to happiness.
54. Like a self hiding frog in a hole is eaten by a snake, a manager getting himself isolated
(who does not protect his colleagues) get destroyed by the enemy.
55. Two great qualities of a manager are never using harsh words and never serving the bad people.
56. Never follow the words of bad people
57. Two sharp thorns which can create pain are, desiring for a luxuries life even when
remaining poor without doing work and getting angry even when incapable of doing anything.
58. A family member should never keep without engaging himself in work and a Sanyaasee should
never lead a luxurious life.
59. Two types of people are above the Heaven they are those who have patience even when they
are very powerful and the other spending money for charity even if they are poor.
60. Two types of mis-utilizations of the wealth are donating to the non-deserving and not
donating to the deserving.
61. There are three pathways for human beings Saatwik, Raajasic and Taamasik.
62. There are three types of people Uttam, Madhyam and Adham, depute them to the work according
to their nature.
63. Never try to grab others property, wife and never give up the close friends.
64. Kaam (over expectations and desires), Krodh (anger) and Lobh (miserly) are the three gates
for the hell.
65. Getting a boon + coming back to own country + getting a son together will be equal to winning
the enemy (when the achievements are compared).
66. Never give up our devotees, servants and those who approached for help.
67. Never disclose the secrets with idiots, people having farsightedness, those who are doing
the things very fast and those who flatter during discussion.
68. A family member (Grihasth) should protect four types of people, old aged, scholar living
in poverty, friend living in poverty and the sister who does not have children.
69. The blessings of god, prediction of scholars, humility of great men and destruction
of sinners are the four which may take place at any time.
70. Always protect father, mother, Jeevaatmaa, teacher and the noble flame in the prayer hall.
71. Friends, enemies, lazy men, and those who take help and give help always follow you.
72. If anyone of the sensory organs is lost, then the wisdom of that person will get lost through
73. Those who expect great success should control sleep, laziness, fear, anger, crookedness and
easy going nature.
74. One should give up these six persons: the teacher who does not guide properly, the
person who does not chant mantras properly, the king who cannot protect the citizens,
the wife always behaving negatively, the merchant who is not interested in walking for
sales and a barber who always wishes to live in forest.
75. Six qualities should never be given up - telling the truth, donating to poor, active
nature, carefulness, free from ego, patience and courage.
76. Six happiness for men are health, prosperity, loving wife/husband, obedient son,
earning through hard work and knowledge.
78. One should get rid of these six: Kaam, Krodh, Lobh, Mad, Moh and Matsarya.
79. Thieves live through careless people, doctors live through patients, beggars through the
masters and scholars through idiots.
80. Cattle, servant, agro products, knowledge, relation with people may easily be lost by
carelessness. Remember these.
81. A student rarely remembers the teacher after education,
82. The son rarely remembers the mother after his marriage,
83. A rarely remembers the supported after achieving the goal,
84. The person rarely remembers the boatman after crossing the river
85. And a patient rarely remembers the doctor after recovery.
86. Free from illness, living with own earnings, living in own home, relation with good people,
livelihood from the hard work, fearlessness are the six great blessings that one can get.
87. Those who are always angry, arrogant, unhappy, doubting nature, living on other's luck,
are the people who live in misery.
88. Give up these six habits: playing the dice, taking drinks, hunting, using sharp words, giving
harsh punishments, wasting money.
89. Those who always keep revengeful thoughts, feel unhappiness, always show anger, suspect
others always, and those who are living on others luck always live in misery.
90. (all these advises are given by Vidura to his brother, Dhritraashtra when the latter asked
the guidance in life when he felt dejected in his life)
91. Give up these seven bad habits: serving immoral women, playing dice, consuming drinks,
hunting, using sharp words, punishing others, spending lavishly
92. Those who are going to ruin will show these eight symptoms : criticizing scholars, becoming
culprits, grabbing others property, hurting others, harassing great men, becoming intolerant,
practicing A-Dhaarmik life, and blaming others.
93. Eight are the happiness always cherished : getting together of relatives, getting money,
hugging one's son, the climax in sex, appreciating words, position in society, getting
rewards in presence of great men.
94. Eight qualifications which brings name and fame are : wisdom, nobility, control of mind,
knowledge, capacity to undertake challenges, controlled talking, charitable activities
within the capacity, contentment/ gratitude.
95. Everyone can become great when they know the reality about the life.
96. Knowledge about self fetches actual contentment and happiness.
97. Don't expect Dhaarmik behavior from those who are - liquor addict, egoist, crazy, weak,
terribly angry, hungry to the core, running behind something, miser, frightened, craving