Mahaabhaarat | Geetaa


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A, in Hindi language, means "without", so 
A-Dharm means that is not Dharm, Dharm means actions to be done
A-Gyaan means where there is no Gyaan (knowledge)
A-Karm   see below  A-Karm
A-Kshar means that is not Kshar (perishable) (Geetaa, 15/16)
A-Paraa means that is not Paraa (Jeev or consciousness) (Geetaa, 7/4-5)
A-Sat means that is not Sat (truth)
A-Vidyaa means that is not Vidyaa (knowledge or light)

Non-work or inaction.
niyatam kuru karm twam karm jyaayo hi akarmanah |
Shareer yatra-api cha te na prasidhya-et akarmanah || (3-8)

The earliest. The first.

Soorya, or Sun.

Abhyaas Yog
Hearing, singing, thinking about, Jaap, reading of Bhagavaan's name and qualities repeatedly is called Abhyaas Yog.

Adhyaatm Gyaan (Vidyaa)
By whichever Gyaan one can know what is Aatmaa (soul) and what is Paramaatmaa like issues, is called Adhyaatm Gyaan. 


Ashwinee Kumaar
Twin sons of Soorya - Traditional doctor of Devtaa.

Brahm Vidyaa   see   Adhyaatm Gyaan

Buddhi has no single word in English language, it may be expressed as the combination of intellect, knowledge and wisdom etc qualities. It is mainly the ability to discriminate, decide and judge between good and bad, what to do and what not to do etc like issues.

The lowest caste in India. There are four Varn well known - Braahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shoodra. But there is one more category which is even lower than Shoodra, that is Chaandaal. People do not sit with them, do not touch them. Burning the ead body, and execution of life sentence are usually done by Chaandaal.

Holding. Retention. Maintaining.

Steadiness. Firmness. Firmness of mind. Satisfaction.

Form of This World - Geetaa, 15/3
Form of This World - Whatever form of this world has been described in Shaastra, it is not found after obtaining the Tattwa Gyaan (see Tattwa below). There is great difference between the two. It is similar to that as the environment of dream is not seen after one has awakened from the sleep.
No Beginning - "Neither it has a beginning" means "nobody knows since when it got started".
No End - "Nor it has an end", means nobody knows when it will end.
Nor it Exists Properly - Means that it is short-lived, and mortal.
Vairaagya Weapon - All pleasures till Brahm Lok are short-lived and mortal, that is why to leave these pleasures is called Vairaagya (detachment).
Cutting the Roots - Thinking like this about the world, abandoning pride, attachment and lustful desires roots is cutting the world tree roots.

Four Types of Food
There are four types of food - (1) Bhakshya - which is chewed, like Chapaatee; (2) Bhojya - which is swallowed, like milk; (3) Lehya - which is licked, such as chutney; (4) Choshya - which is sucked, such as sugar cane, mango.

Krishn's another name.

Gun Vibhaag and Karm Vibhaag - Geetaa, 3/28
Vibhaag means sections. The three Gunee Maayaa's sections are:-
(1) five Mahaa Bhoot (fire, air, earth, water, sky), 
(2) mind, 
(3) Buddhi (intellect), 
(4) Ahankaar, 
(5) five Gyaan Indriyaan (eyes, ears, tongue, nose, skin)
(6) five Karm Indriyaan (hands, feet, tongue, anus, reproduction organs)
(7) five subjects [of five Gyaan Indriyaan] are - sound (Shabd), sight, taste, smell, touch

All combined are called Gun Vibhaag. Their actions are called Karm Vibhaag.

Gun Vidhi
In MBH Gun Vidhi means chromosomes.

Gunaateet - Geetaa, 14/21-27
A compound word. Gun (attributes) and Ateet (beyond), means who is beyond Gun, or who is not affected by Gun. There are three Gun - Sat, Raj, and Tam. Sat Gun produces Gyaan, Raj Gun inspires for actions and Tam Gun makes a man ignorant. When these three Gun do not affect a person, he is called Gunaateet.

Gyaan Vigyaan - Geetaa, 6/8,   Geetaa, 7/2
Geetaa differentiates between Gyaan and Vigyaan, the former being proper knowledge attained through education, and the latter being direct (practical) encounter with Truth about oneself and about the world or worlds. Reality thus encountered is beyond words and arguments, but mortals have no other tools to describe their experiences. To realize this as indescribable is religion, and to communicate it is an art. Institutionalization of religion and art kills both, yet we need institutions to preserve ourselves among an unruly multitude.

Gyaan Yog
All the three Gun (Sat, Raj, and Tam), created by Maayaa are found in everything. Knowing thus, when one is becomes one with Paramaatmaa without any ego of doer of all actions performed by mind, Indriyaan and body, that is called Sanyaas, or Gyaan Yog, or Saankhya Yog.

Gyaan Yogee
Gyaan Yogee is he who attains Brahm (God) through Gyaan (knowledge). But no path - Karm Yog or Saankhya Yog, requires to abandon Karm in any way.

Learned. Knowledgeable. Who has attained Brahm knowledge.

Krishn's another name.

Another name of Bhagavaan. Jagan+Nivaas means in whom the Universe resides.

Jeevan-Mukt     see also      Sthitpragya Purush
Yog Vashishth describes a Jeeven-Mukt like this --
A Jeevan-Mukt or a liberated sage
is absolutely free from desires, fear, selfishness, egoism, mineness, attachment, greed and hatred.
He is full of pure love, compassion and mercy.
He has mastery over the mind and senses.
He does not identify himself with the body.
He always dwells in his own Inner Self.
He is ever contented and happy.
He does not offend anybody in thought, word and deed.
He is not hurt even a bit by taunts, censures, insults and persecutions.
He keeps equanimity of mind in censure and praise, honor and dishonor, pleasure and pain.
He lives in the world but he is not of the world.
He has no idea of enjoyment or enjoyer. This state is indescribable.
He is Brahman himself.
He is a power-house of spiritual energy. Sit before him. Your doubts will be cleared by themselves. You will feel a peculiar thrill of joy and peace in his presence. He may not speak and yet may teach the aspirants through the language of silence.
He sleeps wherever he likes and eats anything from anybody's hands.
He is above injunctions and prohibitions but he will not violate the rules of the scriptures.
He is above good and evil, virtue and vice.
He finds no faults with others.
He never becomes angry even under extreme provocations.
He is ever gentle and mild.
He always speaks sweetly. He never utters harsh words.
He has no dislike or hatred for any creature in this world in thought, word or deed. He blesses those who persecute him.
He speaks a few words but these words produce a tremendous impression on the minds of the hearers. They give a new life and joy to all who hear his message.
The liberated sage (the prince of ascetics) has conquered the enemy of ignorance.
He has known the secret of true bliss.
He has reached the imperishable seat of Brahman. He always rests in his own Sat-Chit-Ananda-Swarup.
He has realized that he is distinct from the three bodies and five sheaths and that he is the witness of the three states. He is free from the distinctions of I, he and you.
A Jeevan-Mukt, inspired with the divine spirit, intoxicated with the immortal nectar, filled with the infinite Aatmaa, endowed with an equal vision and balanced mind, beholds only the Self or Aatmaa everywhere and embraces all with pure love.

Kaam means desire, it may be for anything - woman, son, child, wife, wealth, property, victory over enemy etc. Sa-Kaam means "with desire", and Nish-Kaam means "without any desire [of fruit]". Karm (action or effort) done to get some result or to fulfill some desire is called Sa-Kaam Karm, while a Karm done without any desire is called Nish-Kaam Karm.

It includes these 13 - Buddhi, Ahankaar, mind, five Gyaan Indriyaan, five Karm Indriyaan.

Karm, A-Karm, Vi-Karm,  Geetaa, 4/17
These three terms have appeared in 4/17, and have been explained in 4/18-23.

Karm Yog
When a person performs any action without any attachment, it is called Nish-Kaam Karm Yog. The same is called by several names - Karm Yog, Samatwa Yog, Buddhi Yog, Karm Yog, Tadarth Karm, Madarth Karm, Matkarm etc.

Karm Yogee
Who follows Karm Yog is called Karm Yogee.

Kshar and A-Kshar
Kshar means mortal and A-Kshar means who is not mortal, means Immortal - means Bhagavaan. Thus Kshar is the whole world and A-Kshar is Paramaatmaa.

Kshetra and Kshetragya - Geetaa, 13/1
Kshetra is body, and who knows it by its Tattwa (elements) is Kshetragya. 

Who wishes good for both sides.

Mahaa means great, Aatman means soul, so Mahaatman means great soul, pure, clean and pious people are called Mahaatmaa or Mahaatman.

Marut Gan
They are 49 in number and are Kashyap and Aditi's sons

Who always meditates on Paramaatmaa.

Nir means "not"; and Gun means attribute, thus Nir-Gun means without any attributes - form, shape, color etc.

Nish means "not". When added to any word it means "without" it. So when we have added it to Kaam (desire) it means without desire. Nish-Kaam Karm means any action which is done without desiring any result for it.

Nish-Kaam Karm Yog    see also  Karm Yog
Nish-Karm means where there is no Karm. Where a person's all Karm become A-Karm, means do not yield any results, that state is called Nish-Karm

When a person worships Bhagavaan and reaches at the top of its heights, it is called Nishthaa.

Note 18/17
As any Hinsaa (violence) of any living being done by fire, air and water is not called Hinsaa; in the same way if anybody doesn't have the pride of his body and his all actions are selfless and for the good of the world, if any killing is done by him then it is not considered as Hinsaa (killing). Because when there is no attachment, selfishness and egoism in a person, killing is not possible by him. And if any Karm is done without the pride of "I did it", it is A-Karm in reality, that is why that person is not bound to its Paap (sin). (go to Geetaa, Chap 18)

Note 18/30
(1) As king Janak, leading a family life, by abandoning fruit and attachment with pure Buddhi, behaved that is called Pravritti path.
(2) As Shuk Dev Jee and Sanakaadi Muni wander, detached from the world, abandoning the pride of one's body, meditating only on Paramaatmaa, that is called Nivritti path. (go to Geetaa, Chap 18)

Paraa Bhakti
Who is the limit of the "Tattwa Gyaan" (spiritual knowledge), means after knowing there is nothing to know, that is called "Paraa Bhakti", or "Paraa Nishthaa", or "Param Siddhi"

Paraa Nishthaa   see   Paraa Bhakti

Param Gati
Param means the highest, and Gati means state. To unite with Paramaatmaa is the highest state of an individual soul. (see also Geetaa, 8/20-21)

Param Siddhi   see   Paraa Bhakti

Pleasures and Enjoyments - Geetaa, 15/2
Pleasures and Enjoyments - Sound, touch, form, taste and smell - these five are said "new leaves" because they are subtler than the physical body and the five Gyaan Indriyaan.
Yoni (species) Branches - The main branch is Brahmaa and all Devtaa, human beings and Tiryak Yoni beings have appeared from him only, that is why all those Yoni are called branches only.
Roots - The reason to call Ahankaar (pride), attachment, and lustful desires as roots to bind this Jeev only in Manushya Yoni (human species) according to his Karm, is that the Jeev only suffers or enjoys only the fruits of his Karm in other Yoni; while in Manushya Yoni, he can do new Karm also.


Nature. Three Gunee Maayaa (illusion) which is His power and by which He creates this world.

Paramaatmaa. God.


Sa-Kaam Karm
Sa means with, and Kaam means desire, thus Sa-Kaam means an action done with the desire of something.

Saankhya Yog   see   Gyaan Yog

Saankhya Yogee
Who follows Saankhya Yog or Gyaan Yog.

Saatwik Daan
In whichever country, at whichever time, whatever thing is in scarce, giving the same to the needy people is called Saatwik Daan.

To see everybody like oneself is seeing Sam. Who sees and behaves like this he is called Samadarshee.

Samatwa Buddhi
In which the mind treats everything as same - pleasure-sorrow, day and night, heat and cold, poverty and prosperity, dust and gold, friend and enemy etc.

Always present. Eternal.

Sankalp -   Geetaa, 6/2,    Geetaa, 10/6
(1) Intention. To vow to do something or give something. Thus Sankalp is related to some kind of Karm to be done now or in future. This in turn shows that the person who has taken any Sankalp is still interested in world.
(2) To intend to do something. When Bhagavaan intended to create people, He just thought about them, and they appeared.

Sanyaas   see also   Gyaan Yog
Sanyaas is the third Aashram (stage) of life in a human being's life after Brahmcharya and Grihasth. In this stage one detaches himself from worldly things and responsibilities, and devotes most of his time in worshipping and meditating on Paramaatmaa.

Sanyaasee   see also   Gyaan Yogee
Who follows Sanyaas behavior, he is called Sanyaasee. Whoever follows such life, even without being in that Aashram, he is also called Sanyaasee.

Cleanliness of inside and outside. A material is cleaned by pure and truthful behavior. Food earned by such behavior is called clean food. Appropriate conduct with everybody cleans one's own conduct. Water, soil etc clean outside body. These are called the purifier or cleaners of inside body. When one's internal impurities - love, jealousy, cheating etc are destroyed and his heart becomes clean, it is called internal cleanliness.

Shraddhaa is a mixture of several things - devotion, trust, faithfulness, love.

Sthirbuddhi      see also     Stitpragya Purush
Whose mind is stable in all duals - happiness and sorrows, profit and loss, birth and death etc, such man is called Sthirbuddhi.

Sthit-pragya Purush - Geetaa, 2/55-61      see also    Jeevan-Mukt
There is an immense importance given to this Sthit-pragya Purush (man) in Geetaa, because this is the first step to be free from Karm bondage. This is the same as Samatwa Buddhi (alikeness minded) person. Because the "stable mind" can be achieved only by feeling alike in all dualities - sorrows and happiness, profit and loss, birth and death etc. A Sthit-pragya or Jeevan-Mukt is free from desires, longings, fears, mineness, I-ness and attachment. He is satisfied in his own self. He is indifferent amidst sensual pleasures. He is not elated by getting desirable objects. He has a poised mind at all times and under all conditions. He is centered in his own self.

He is called Sthir-buddhi too. Sthir-buddhi means whose mind is stable in all conditions, it is not affected by the dualities of the world - such as pleasure and sorrow, profit and loss, benefit and harm, birth and death, etc. This is because, as soon as one is indulged in any of these situations, he is bound to Karm, and as soon as he is bound to Karm, he is sure to take birth to enjoy the fruits of his Karm, whether good or bad; but when he is Sthir-buddhi, he is not attached to any worldly thing - this means he is free from the world.

Suhrid - Geetaa, 6/9
Who does good to everybody with selfless mind.

Penance. To be clean by following one's Dharm and conduct, and controlling Indriyaan is called Tap or Tapasyaa.

Who does Tap.

Tapasyaa   see   Tap

Tattwa (Elements) Gyaan
To know that the soul is separate from Gun Vibhaag and Karm Vibhaag, is to know about Tattwa; and the knowledge about this is called Tattwa Gyaan.

Udaaseen -  Geetaa, 6/9,    Geetaa, 9/9
(1) Indifferent, who does not favor anybody.
(2) Who does the Karm with the feeling of existence only (since he is existing that is why he does it, such as when we eat without any taste, attachment and liking, we can say that we are eating with Udaaseen feelings), not with the feeling of doer, he is called Udaaseen. When we eat with liking, attachment and taste etc we eat as a doer.

Mistakes. Lack.

There are eight Vasu. They are the sons of Daksh's daughter Vasu. Bheeshm was on of those eight Vasu and lived on Prithvi because of Vashishth's curse.

Vigyaan     see      Gyaan Vigyaan


Dhaan.   Rice.

World Tree
"Oordhwa-Moolam" - Oordhwa means upward, Moolam means root. The first Purush Vaasudev is said to be Oordhwa-Moolam because of being endless, being Aashraya of everything, and living in the uppermost Lok. Only He is the cause of this world tree, that is why this world tree is called Oordhwa-Moolam. Because a tree starts from its roots and normally roots are at the bottom, but in this case the roots of world tree are at the top that is why it is called "Oordhwa-Moolam".

"Adhah-Shaakham" - Adhah means downward, and Shaakham means branches. Normally branches grow upward, but here, this world tree branches are growing downward as its first branch Brahmaa springs up downward and he lives just below Vaasudev's Lok. For the same reason Hiranyagarbh Brahmaa is not called Parameshwar but Adhah. Only he is the main branch of this world tree because of expanding this world. Since this world expands downward, that is why it is called "Adhah-Shaakham".

A-Vinaashee - The root cause of this tree is Paramaatmaa who is immortal and has been continuing since, that is why He is called A-Vinaashee.

Ved - Because of having appeared from the main branch of this world tree (Brahmaa), to protect and grow this world tree through Yagya etc Karm, and to grace this world tree, Ved are called its leaves.

Knower of the Meaning of the Ved - Appeared from the Yog Maayaa of Bhagavaan, this world is short-lived, mortal and sorrowful; that is why not thinking about it one should think about Parameshwar only and knowing and understanding thus is to know Ved.

Yagya or Havan
(1) Fire sacrifice.  With reference to Geetaa, 4/24-28, normally Yagya means doing Havan in which a fire is made and some specified material is put into that fire. Thus there is a doer, there is a fire in which things are burned or sacrificed, and there are things which are to be burned or sacrificed.
(2) But there is another meaning of Yagya or Havan. When one sacrifices something, or leaves something or does something with great efforts that is also called Yagya because in this way some kind of comfort is sacrificed. It is more especially related to a favorite thing, for example if somebody loves to watch TV, and if he quits watching TV, that means that he has done the Yagya of TV - symbolically he has put TV in the fire of his one Indriya (eyes). In the same way if somebody controls his all Indriyaan, it means that he has done Yagya (burned or sacrificed) of all subjects of his all Indriyaan.

Yog Bhrasht
Yog Bhrasht word appears in Geetaa, 6:41. According to Geetaa, 6 : 37-, when Krishn suggests Arjun to control his mind, and Arjun tells Him that it is very difficult to control it, he further says - "O Krishn, what happens to that man who is trying for Yog Siddhi, but in the meantime he cannot control his mind fully, so what happens to that man?" Krish replies - "O Arjun, Such  Yog Bhrasht man does not get destroyed neither in this Lok nor in the other Lok. Because nobody who does good Karm (Punya) never falls. First he goes to good Lok and stays there for many years. Then he takes birth in nobel people's houses. Or he takes birth in learned Yogee's families. Although this type of birth is very rare. But if this happens then he starts from there only and gets Siddhi soon. In spite of being enjoying the pleasures he is attracted to God and crosses the limits of the fruits of Sa-Kaam Karm. Thus who falls from observing his Yog during the process, he is called Yog Bhrasht.

Yogee is he who attains Brahm through Karm. But no path - Karm Yog or Saankhya Yog, requires to abandon Karm in any way.


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Created by Sushma Gupta On 3/9/02
Modified on 05/07/12