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See also   Tithi  for  its detailed description and Devtaa of Tithi etc etc

Tithi is also a part of Panchaang. This word is used in Indian Lunar month days. In whatever period of time the Moon revolves around the Earth, is known as one Tithi. Thus when the Moon has revolved around the Earth 30 times, one month is passed. Since the Moon takes a little less that 24 hours to revolve around the Earth, a Lunar Tithi is shorter than a Solar day (24 hours) and thus a Lunar month is also shorter than the Solar Day (30 days).

They are 16 in number and repeat once through the month in a specific sequence. One month contains two Paksh according to Moon's waning and waxing situation. In North India the month starts on the first day after the Full Moon; while in Southern India and Gujaraat etc states it starts with the first day after the New Moon day. The names of these Tithi are as follows  -

(1) Padavaa, or Padyaami, or Pratipadaa, or Prathamaa
(2) Dauj, or Doyaj, or Dwiteeyaa
(3) Teej, or Triteeyaa
(4) Chauth, or Chaturthee
(5) Paanch, or Panchamee
(6) Chhat, or Shashthee
(7) Saat, or Saptamee
(8) Aath, or Ashtamee
(9) Naumee, or Navamee
(10) Dasamee, Dashamee
(11) Gyaarah, or Gyaaras, Agyaaras, or Ekaadashee
(12) Baaras, Dwaadashee
(13) Teras, Trayodashee
(14) Chaudas, Chaturdashee
(15) Maavas, or Amaavas, or Amaavasyaa in the Krishn Paksh (waning cycle of the Moon or New Moon Day),   and
(16) Poono, Poornimaa, or Poornmaasee in the Shukla Paksh (waxing cycle of the Moon or Full Moon Day)

How to Calculate a Tithi
The Lunar month starts on Padavaa or Pratipadaa Tithi, when the Sun and the Moon are at the same longitude. As time progresses, Moon will go ahead of Sun. When Moon's longitude is exactly 12 greater than Sun's longitude, then the first Tithi ends and the second Tithi starts. In general, Tithi may be calculated using the formula:
Take the difference: (Moon's Longitude - Sun's Longitude)
If the value is negative, add 360.
Divide the result by 12, ignore the reminder and take the quotient.
Add 1 to the Quotient which gives the Tithi number as indicated in the table and find out the corresponding Tithi name.

Thus one Lunar month is of about 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes (29.53 days).
To sync it with solar year every 32.5 months (32 months, 16 days and 8 Ghadee to be precise) there is an Adhik Maas. It is known as Mal Maas, or Purushottam Maas also.

This is the month when the Moon is not near any Nakshatra (stellar constellation) and the Sun has not entered any Raashi or Sign of Zodiac. Complicated as this is, it is easy to remember at the Adhik Maas balances the Lunar and Solar calendars. Also because the Earth's rotation around the Sun is slightly slower during the months of July-October, normally the Adhik Maas comes in this period only. Shraavan, Bhaadrapad, Aashwin are the common Adhik Maas months. In the year 2004, the Adhik Maas (month) started on July 18 and ended on August, 15.



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Created and Maintained by Sushma Gupta
Created on 05/18/2008 and Updated on 11/08/2012