Devtaa in Ved;
Devtaa in Rig Ved
Here are given some of the Devtaa addressed in Saam Ved including
other Ved too. They are taken from
Saam Ved Annex.
Aaditya gan are the sons of Dev Maataa Aditi. Rig Ved, 2.27.1 mentions 6
Aaditya; 9.114.3 mentions 7 Aaditya; and 10.72.8 mentions 8 Aaditya. But
in Puraan 12 Aaditya are mentioned. Their names are - Dhaataa, Mitra,
Aryamaa, Pooshaa, Shakra, Varun, Bhag, Twashtaa, Vivaswaan, Savitaa,
Anshumaan, and Vishnu.
Aditi's mention is made due to her sons Aaditya. She is known as the
mother of Varun, Mitra, Aryamaa etc. Her dwelling place is limitless
Antariksh where 12 Aaditya wander around.
Agni or Pavamaan
Agni means which goes upward. Agni is the root basis of Vaidik Yagya process
and is local Dev. Among all Vaidik Dev, Agni's place is next to Indra. Rig Ved,
1.1.1 Agni is called Purohit (Agnimeele Purohitam...). Approximately 200 Sookt
pray Agni. Agni has three dwelling places and three chief forma - (1) Sun in sky,
(2) lightening in Antariksh, and (3) fire on Prithvi. At some places Pavamaan
word is used for Agni.
When Sangyaa, Soorya's wife, took the form of the horse, they were born
at that time as a twins. they are the Vaidya (traditional doctors) of
Devtaa. they are Vaidik Aakaasheeya Devtaa. They are related to Ushaa.
They are helpful in emergencies, do wonders, truth speakers, and heal
Indra is the most popular Devtaa. Almost 300 Sookt mention Indra's name.
Indra has been said a twin brother of Agni. he is the Devtaa of Antariksh
(horizon). His adjectives are - Vritrahantaa (killer of Vritra), Vajree
(who owns Vajra), Vishwa Charshani etc.
Marud gan have been mentioned several times in Rig Ved in the context of
the Devtaa of Vaayu and storm. Marut's mother is Prashni. Theiy have been
mentioned in 33 Richaa in Rig Ved. Marud Gan are the Devtaa of storm. Their
nature is storm, lightning, etc. When Indra killed Vritraasur, only they
helped him to kill him. At that time Indra searched for his help beyond his
own Mandal (world) in Rudra Mandal, because of being the Gan of Rudra they
are called as Rudriya. Marut Devtaa are born from the laughter of lightening.
They are the sons of Aakaash (sky), brother of Aakaash. They create darkness
also along with clouds.
Parjanya is the name of a Vaidik Devtaa. Rig Ved Devtaa are classified
in three types of Devtaa - Paarthiv, Vaayaveeya, Aakaasheeya. Parjanya
is a Vaayaveeya Devtaa. Parjanya is also the giver of rains like Dyau
and Varun. Rig Ved says that Prithvi is mother and Parjanya is father.
He produces and nourishes herbs and trees and help them to grow and
flower. If he takes care properly, trees give lots of flowers and
This term is used for Som in Rig Ved. Som becomes pure and clean after
strained through a sieve. In other Sanhitaa its meaning is Vaayu (which
blows). Its word meaning is Pravahamaan - purifier or being purified.
Who sings Saam special verses at the time of Jyotishtom Yagya, those
special verses are also called Pavamaan. According to Savan, they are of
three types - Bahishpavamaan, Madhyadin Pavamaan, Aarbhav Pavamaan.
At some places Pavamaan word has been used for Vaayu also.
Pooshaa is a chief Devtaa of Rig Ved. He is related to nourishment (Poshan).
He looks after everybody. Aj draw his chariot. He is closely related to
Soorya. Pooshan word has been used in Rig Ved approximately 120 times.
According to Saankhya his status is a bit higher then Vishnu.
In Ved Saraswatee is regarded as a Devee. She gives piety, purity, prosperity
and power. She is related to other Devtaa - Pooshaa, Indra, Marud Gan. A few
Sookt relates her with Yagya Devtaa Idaa and Bhaaratee. She is the Devee of
learning and arts. According to Puraan she is the daughter of Brahmaa Jee.
Savitaa is an inspirational power. He comes under Dyu Lok and Antariksh
Devtaa. According to Saayan, just before sunrise there is Savitaa; and
after the sunrise it is Soorya. Rig Ved's 11 Sookt pray to Savitaa Devtaa
alone. He is one of the Aaditya Devtaa. Gayatri or Savitri Mantra (Rig Ved,
3.62.10) is addressed to him only.
It is very incomplete to do personification of Som in the form of Devtaa.
Only his those characteristics are mentioned which are general in all
Devtaa. Indra does all the jobs of bravery by the power of Som. Som is
rthe Lord of directions and producer of Dyaavaa and Prithvi.
In Rig Ved, 1.115.1, Soorya is a chief Devtaa among all Devtaa. His
Devatwa (effect) is most at the time of noon. Ved describes Soorya in
a very lively way. Soorya in reality is the Aakaasheeya form of Fire
element. He destroys the Raakshas who live in darkness. He counts the
days. Soorya himself is the guardian of the constitution of the Universe.
His cycle follows regularly unchangeably according to the universal law.
He is the center of the Universe and he is the soul of all movable and
Twashtaa comes in class of dimly lit Devtaa. Rig Ved mentions his name
approximately 65 times. No description of his any body part is available
other than his arm and hand. He is very skilled and create many things
with his skills.
Ushaa has been described as a Devee of beauty. Her main characteristic
is her woman-like attraction. Ved's 21 Richaa mention her name.
Vaidik Devtaa are divided in three categories - Paarthiv, Vaayaveeya,
Aakaasheeya. Vaayu has a synonym Vaat. Vaat also has three forms -
blowing leaves and dust, rain producing, blowing with rains. Indra and
Vaayu Dev are a pair of Devtaa. Rishi knew that Vaayu is the life giver.
It is essential for health and life force.
Varun is a chief Devtaa. He is the king of all Lok (worlds) - Rig Ved,
5.85.3. he is the king of all mortals and immortals. He is the chief
Aaditya. he is normally mentioned along with Mitra. Mitra is supposed
the Devtaa of day and Varun is supposed to the Devtaa of night. Varun
induce diseases also to warn about sins and to punish. Whatever Varun
says that is Dharm. There are many Stuti (prayers) in Ved to please
Vishnu means which is spread all around, He is the owner of the whole
Universe. He is Vishnu because He is the master of all powers.
Shankaraachaarya has written a commentary on Vishnu Sahastra Naam.
Vishnu's one name is Hari which means remover of sins and sorrows. Brahm
Yogee has explained in Kali Santaaran Upanishad (2.1.215) in his commentary
that Hari is He who removes A-Gyaan and its consequences. His other name
is Shesh-shaayee. When Vishnu sleeps, the whole universe falls in a sleeping
state. The remaining waking element is "Shesh" (Remains) which
flows on the water by coiling itself. Vishnu is called Naaraayan - means who
lives in water; and its another meaning is the dwelling place (Ayan) of all
human beings (Nar).
Wherever the need arose to gather all Devtaa together they were named as
Vishwe Devaa. They have a special place in Yagya.They are invoked as the
representatives of all Devtaa, lest any Devtaa remains to get his share
of the Yagya. Sometimes they are invoked along with Aaditya a or Vasu.
Their number is 13.