Precis of Anugrah Bhaashanam by Jagadguru Ananta Shree Vibhusita Shree Bharati Teerth Mahaswamigal of Sringeri Peetam.
Bhagvaan says in Geetaa : Of all Vidyaa the highest and best is Adhyaatm Vidyaa or the knowledge of Self - the Aatmaa. Bhaghawadpadal says : "people will discourse, debate in Sabhaa, write books on Vedaant; but all these serve no purpose for Mukti; of course they may be of use for Laukik purpose in getting name and fame in this world but cannot help in attaining Mukti. Therefore it is essential for one to do Aatm Vichaar and understand Aatm before preaching others on Aatm.
It is necessary that all human beings should do Aatm Vichaar. That said for any Aatm Vichaar one needs certain qualifications which in Vedaant parlance is Adhikaar. Adhikaar is grossly misunderstood as "Power'; one of the meanings of Adhikaar is "qualification" only in this meaning Vedaant describes Adhikaar - just like an Engineer or a Doctor or a Judge should have the requisite qualification to pursue the respective field. Qualification is a must in any action in this Vyavahaarik world for success. So too in Adhyaatm Vidyaa. Bhagawadpadal describes the quartet, called Saadhanaa Chatushtayam viz - Vivek, Vairaagya, Samadammadi and Mumukshutwam.
What is Vivek? Generally it is said that discriminating good/bad or to do/not to do or he is like this / that - these are though useful in Laukik Vivek, but for Adhyaatm Vichaar this Laukik Vivek is not useful. If we understand what is Sthir - Permanent and what is A-Sthir - Temporary then that Vivek is useful in Aatm Vichaar.
Some might lead a life about thinking money, power and possessions etc are permanent but these are not permanent when we observe the world around us. Aatmaa is the only one permanent and all others are temporary or of fleeting nature. Bhagvaan says in Geetaa : "one which is never born, never dies, never altered is permanent and that is Aatmaa all others are temporary." na jaayate, mriyate..... .......hanyamaane shareere" - this is Vivek. If we do not have this Vivek how will Aatm Tattwa enter into our head?
What is Vairaagya? Because of Vivek, the attitude of "I do not require anything since all things, except Aatmaa, are A-Sthir". This is easier said than done. If we say we don't need anything and on seeing an object in front of us, if our Manas desires that object, then Bhagvaan says in Geetaa, "he is a cheat". Even desire should not arise about anything in our mind. That said, Bhagvaan adds further in "those who are happy with what they get without making efforts for furthering what that is Uttam" - "Yadruchaya laabh santushto.. ......... nibadhyate".
What is Samadamaadi? In these four Saadhanaa
Chatushtayam, the most important ones are : Mano Nigraha, Indriya Nigraha, patience,
Those who have Samadammadi qualities thus said above will be qualified for Aatm Vichaar.
What is Mumukshatwa? "Suppose a man lying on his cot suddenly finding his house on fire along with his money chest, wife, children etc spreading fast reaching his cot, will first jump from the cot and run away for his life. Saving his wife, children, money, possessions etc will come only next in his mind - the instant reaction is to first save himself. In the same way an aspirant desiring for Moksh should be like the man running to save his life without worrying for anything except for Moksh. Bhagawadpadal says - "If someone says show me or tell me where is the Moksh, I will get it; he can never get it even in a Koti Janm (million births); if some other says that "I am interested in Moksh tell me a way by which I will get Moksh without impeding my business, property or any other thing, will also not get Moksh either. only those people can get the Moksh like the man running for his life to save himself from fire." Preaching Vedaant Tattwa to those who do not have this intense desire for Moksh will result in that person listening to the Vedaant expositions like hearing a story and will soon fall asleep" so says Neelakantha Deekshitar.
"We should all strive to earn this quartet, Saadhanaa Chatushtya, at least to an extent so that we understand the invaluable and Pavitra Vidyaa of Adhyaatm Vidyaa" so say Bhagvaan Ved Vyaas, Bhaghawadpadal and other Mahaan (great people) in the glorious Guru Paramparaa. Upon hearing this if some one says "tomorrow I have already got Vivek, Vairaagya etc" then we should call this man a "mad man", because all those things cannot be achieved in one day or two, or in one year or two. Instead of reducing ourselves to this madness we should step-up our efforts progressively to achieve excellence in Saadhanaa Chatushtaya earn merits get qualified for Aatm Vichaar. This is the need of the hour.
Created by Sushma Gupta on 5/9/09
Updated on 12/06/11