About one third of the
land surface of the world is arid, semi-arid or located in the polar regions,
which also have little precipitation and are sometimes called "cold deserts".
There are a number of ways of classifying deserts including by the amount of
precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of
desertification or by their geographical locations.
When people have to go
in desert, they go on camels as camel is the only animal which can hold water
for several days. It has a pouch in its throat where it stores water. Besides it
has cushion in his paws to tolerate the heat of the sand throughout the day.
That is why it is called the "ship of the desert".
See some of the pictures of
Desert Vegetation and Animals here
A flood is an overflow of any amount of water that reaches land. Floods occur
usually when the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or
lake, exceeds the total capacity of the formation, and as a result some of the
water flows or sits outside of the normal perimeter of the body of water.
However, floods may be caused by heavy rains, or dams are damaged by sudden
overflow of water or by earthquakes, etc
Foreshock see Aftershock
The English word geyser (a spouting hot spring) derives from Geysir. Eruptions at
Geysir can hurl boiling water up to 70 meters in the air. However, eruptions may
be infrequent, and have in the past stopped altogether for years at a time. The
Great Geyser, is a geyser in southwestern Iceland. It was the first geyser described
in a printed source and the first known to modern Europeans.
Gulf see also Bay
Gulf is a large water body going into the land area. Gulf is bigger than the bay
- Arabian Gulf. Or A large area of a sea or ocean partially enclosed by land,
especially a long landlocked portion of sea opening through a strait.
See the List of Gulfs
Hill see Mountain
see also Ice
Iceberg is a large piece of freshwater ice that is broken off a glacier
(again very large ice sheets in mountains) or an ice shelf and is floating
freely in open water. It may subsequently become frozen into pack ice (one
form of sea ice). As it drifts into shallower waters, it may come into contact
with the seabed too. The problem with an iceberg is that it is seen only as a
tip on the water. Its only 10% part is visible over the water and the rest 90%
is inside the water. Ships must be very careful of them, because one can never
guess the shape and size of iceberg under water.
An area of shallow water separated from the sea by low sandy dunes.
Lakes are the natural body of water. A lake can be of any size, small or big and
shape, round or long. It can be as small as having a few yards, 40-50-70 yards,
diameter; as big as USA's five Great Lakes, which theoretically should be counted
as seas. They are made by volcanoes also and many lakes are man-made too now a days,
such as in the US, all Ohio lakes are man-made.
Landslide is when a large piece of land, usually from a hill or a mountain falls
after breaking of the main place.
see also Earth-3
Latitude is an angular distance from the Equator. It is the imaginary lines
dividing the Earth going from West to East. The main such lines are (1) Equator
which divides the Earth in half or passes through the center of the Earth.
(2) There are two more lines which are on equal distance from Equator - at
23.5 degree - one in North another in South. The Northern line is called The
Line of Cancer and the Southern one is called Line of Capricorn. Their specialty
is that the Sun goes only up to these lines - in North up to 23.5 Degree and
in South too up to 23.5 degree. It does not go beyond these points. For the
same reason there is 6 months day and 6 months night in Northernmost and
Southernmost regions. The movement of the Sun in this way decides the seasons
and the length of day and night. Near the Equator, normally the length of day
and night are almost equal, while in northernmost and southernmost areas
have 6 months day and 6 months night, of course in opposite months of the year.
Line of Cancer and Line of Capricorn
see also Earth-3
Location is the place where a city or a mountain or anything is located in the
world. Normally the Location is indicated by Longitude and Latitude - as you
plot a dot or line on a graph. Location is of two types - Absolute and Relative.
Absolute Location is indicated by the Longitude and Latitude, such as 40 W 30 S
Relative location is indicated by the direction and distance from a certain place
or landmark to another place. For example, US office is on Galveston Island, located
in Southeastern Texas in the Gulf of Mexico, about 48 miles Southeast of Houston -
that is called relative location.
Longitude see also Earth-3
Longitudes are the imaginary lines dividing the Earth in 360 degrees. Longitude
decides the time. At each 1 degree there is a difference of 4 minutes - 1440 / 360 = 4.
As a circle the Earth is divided into 360 degrees and since the Sun revolves around
it in 24 hours, there is a time change of 4 minutes at every degree. For example
if there is 5.00 PM at 57 degree, at the same time there will be 5.12 PM at 54
degree and 4.48 PM at 60 degree. This measurement, along with the measurement of
Latitude, is used to locate a location on the map of the Earth
Meridians see Longitude
Meet me for lunch at 23 degrees, 4 minutes North and 45 degrees, 15 minutes East.
After a confused silence a voice volunteered, "I guess you'd be eating alone."
Why because at that location there was no house and no restaurant.
see also Moon
Moon is a round object that circles a planet. Almost all planets have moons. Earth
is a planet and Earth has a Moon. There are a total of 166 moons in our
solar system. A planet can have more than one moon too. For
Earth has 1 moon
Mars has 2 moons - Phobos and Deimos
Mercury - no moon
Venus - no moon
Jupiter has 67 confirmed moons - Europa and Io.
Saturn has 62 moons - 53 of which have names, 13 of which have the diameter of
50 kms, otherwise its moons are numerous
Mountain is that part of the earth which has risen quite high from its level.
This height can go up to any height. The low height mass is called hill and a
very high mass is called mountain. There is no clear cut difference between them
but just a sight. Himaalaya is the highest mountain on the Earth.
Mouth is the place where a river falls in the sea or ocean. It is after Delta.
Its plural is oases. Oasis is a place
deserts where one can find
some water and date palm trees. Normally it is very difficult to find water in
Pass is a walkable pathway between the mountains. It is different from the valley
that a valley may be narrow or wide, with villages or cities or just empty places.
Although many people live around the pass too. It is in fact a narrow route across
a relatively low notch or depression in a mountain barrier, a road, channel, or other
way providing a means of passage, as through an obstructed region or other barrier.
Sometimes a navigable channel, as at the mouth or in the delta of a river is also
Khyber Pass, one of the oldest passes in the world, is the pathway connecting
Pakistan with Afghanistan cutting through the North-eastern part of the Spin
Ghar mountains. Throughout the history it has been an important trade route
between Central Asia and South Asia and a strategic military location. The
summit of the pass is 3.1 miles inside Pakistan at Landi Kotal. It is at the
3,500 feet height.
Peninsula is that part of land which goes far into the sea conically, such as
Indian Peninsula, Kamchatka peninsula on the eastern coast of Russia in the
A planet is a large round object which goes round a star, for example our Earth
is a planet, because it goes round a star "the Sun". In the same way
our Sun has some other planets also, such as Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn,
because they also go around the Sun like our Earth.
Plateau is a very high flat place on the mountains, such as the Plateau of Pamir in
River is a natural body of water which comes out from a lake or mountain and flows
downward in the plains taking its own natural course towards a sea or ocean. River
Nile of Egypt is the longest River on the Earth.
Sand Dune see also Desert
Sand dune is a heap of sand (or a small hill of sand) which is normally found in
sandy deserts where you can see the Earth as a plate - as you see it while you
are in seas or oceans. It can be small or large, so small that it looks like a
ridge, and so large that it might be 20-30 feet high and 20-30 feet wide. They
are made by wind or water.
One meaning of source is the place from where a river starts, for example the source
of Blue Nile is Lake Tana, the source of River Ganges is supposed to be the Gangotri
Mountain in Himaalaya.
A star is an object in space that is made of burning gas and that look like points of
light in the night sky. With this definition our Sun is a star. It has its planets and
its planets have their moons.
A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, navigable waterway which connects two
navigable water bodies It most commonly refers to a channel of water that
lies between two land masses, but it may also refer to a navigable channel
through a body of water that is otherwise not navigable, for example because it
is too shallow, or because it contains an un-navigable reef or archipelago. When
it is man made it is called canal, such as Suez Canal (joins Red Sea and
Mediterranean Sea) or Panama Canal (joins Atlantic Ocean to Pacific Ocean).
Some straits are Cook Strait in New Zealand, Strait of Gibraltar (connects the
Mediterranean Sea to Atlantic Ocean - Spain is on its left and Morocco is on its
English Channel - The English Channel, often referred to simply as the Channel,
is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates Southern England from Northern
France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is about 350 Miles long
and varies in width from 150 Miles at its widest to 20.6 Miles in the Strait of Dover.
See the list of Straits Here.
At time to time water level of sea rises up and then falls down. This activity of
the sea is called tide. When the water rises up it is called High Tide and when
the water level falls down it is called Low Tide. Normally on the day of Full Moon
sea water rises with the gravitation power of the Moon, so on that day there is High
Tide. After that it starts receding.
At every 1 Degree Longitude, 4 Minutes time decreases towards the West. Some countries are
small, some are very large like USA, Canada and USSR which are spread for several Degrees.
These large countries divide their country in several Time Zones to depict near correct
time to that area, and thus maintain several Time Zones. For example, the USA maintains 6
Time Zones. Their names and their respective time are given here -
(1) Eastern Time Zone - -5 hours to Meridian - if 12.00 PM is in London,
the Eastern Time Zone will have the time 7.00 AM,
(2) Central Time Zone - -6 hours to Meridian - if 12.00 PM is in London, the central
Time Zone will have the time 6.00 AM,
(3) Mountain Time Zone - -7 hours to Meridian - if 12.00 PM is in London, the Mountain
Time Zone will have the time 5.00 AM,
(4) California Time Zone - -8 hours to Meridian - if 12.00 PM is in London, the California
Time Zone will have the time 4.00 AM,
(5) Alaska Time Zone - -9 hours to Meridian - if 12.00 PM is in London, the Alaska
Time Zone will have the time 3.00 AM,
(6) Hawaii Time Zone - -10 hours to Meridian - if 12.00 PM is in London, the Hawaii
Time Zone will have the time 2.00 AM,
All time should be calculated in this way.
Valley is a low flat or no flat place between two hills or mountains. Or valley is
the low flat place which is surrounded by hills or mountains. They are naturally
made. Most of the times, these valleys are inhabited,
A volcano is an opening or rupture in the crust of the Earth or the planetary
mass object which allows the hot lava, volcano ash and gases to escape from
below the surface. On Earth volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates
are diverging or converging. Erupting volcanoes can pose many hazards. Volcanic
ash can be a threat to aircraft, especially with jet engines where these particles
are melted by a high operating temperature. Large eruptions can affect the
temperature as the ash can cover the Sun. Historically volcanic winters have
produced catastrophic famines. The most common look of a volcano is conical
mountain throwing lava and poisonous gases from a crater at its summit. Hawaii
and Indonesia, are the biggest places for volcanoes.
Well is a man-made source of water which is dug through the land to get water.
Normally the water table under the earth decides the depth of the well. At the
same time if the water table is too deep, the well is not economical to dig.
Till the water table is there, the well will run, as the water table will recede
or be dry, the well will also be dry. The water is drawn by a rope and a bucket.
These wells are good for houses.
Sometimes Tube Well are also dug. In this type of wells water is drawn by machines
run by electricity and can be controlled by them too. These are good for farming
purposes and are found at farms. When the farmer wants he can open the tube well
and water his farms for 1 hour or 2 hours, and then stops it.